The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period. The Adena culture refers to what were a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system; the Adena lived in an area including parts of present-day Ohio, Wisconsin, West Virginia, New York and Maryland. The Adena Culture was named for the large mound on Thomas Worthington's early 19th-century estate located near Chillicothe, which he named "Adena", Adena sites are concentrated in a small area - maybe 200 sites in the central Ohio Valley, with another 200 scattered throughout Wisconsin, Kentucky, West Virginia and Maryland, although those in Ohio may once have numbered in the thousands; the importance of the Adena complex comes from its considerable influence on other contemporary and succeeding cultures. The Adena culture is seen as the precursor to the traditions of the Hopewell culture, which are sometimes thought as an elaboration, or zenith, of Adena traditions.
The Adena were notable for their agricultural practices, artistic works, extensive trading network, which supplied them with a variety of raw materials, ranging from copper from the Great Lakes to shells from the Gulf Coast. Lasting traces of Adena culture are still seen in the remains of their substantial earthworks. At one point, larger Adena mounds numbered in the hundreds, but only a small number of the remains of the larger Adena earthen monuments still survive today; these mounds ranged in size from 20 feet to 300 feet in diameter and served as burial structures, ceremonial sites, historical markers, gathering places. These earthen monuments were built using hundreds of thousands of baskets full of specially selected and graded earth. According to archaeological investigations, Adena earthworks were built as part of their burial rituals, in which the earth of the earthwork was piled atop a burned mortuary building; these mortuary buildings were intended to keep and maintain the dead until their final burial was performed.
Before the construction of the earthworks, some utilitarian and grave goods would be placed on the floor of the structure, burned with the goods and honored dead within. The earthwork would be constructed, a new mortuary structure would be placed atop the new earthwork. After a series of repetitions, mortuary/earthwork/mortuary/earthwork, a quite prominent earthwork would remain. In the Adena period, circular ridges of unknown function were sometimes constructed around the burial earthworks. Although the mounds are beautiful artistic achievements themselves, Adena artists created smaller, more personal pieces of art. Art motifs that became important to many Native Americans began with the Adena. Motifs such as the weeping eye and cross and circle design became mainstays in many succeeding cultures. Many pieces of art seemed to revolve around shamanic practices, the transformation of humans into animals—particularly birds, wolves and deer—and back to human form; this may indicate a belief that the practice imparted the animals' qualities to the wearer or holder of the objects.
Deer antlers, both real and constructed of copper, wolf and mountain lion jawbones, many other objects were fashioned into costumes and other forms of regalia by the Adena. Distinctive tubular smoking pipes, with either flattened or blocked-end mouthpieces, suggest the offering of smoke to the spirits; the objective of pipe smoking may have been altered states of consciousness, achieved through the use of the hallucinogenic plant Nicotiana rustica. All told, Adena was a manifestation of a broad regional increase in the number and kind of artifacts devoted to spiritual needs; the Adena carved small stone tablets 4 or 5 inches by 3 or 4 inches by.5 inches thick. On one or both flat sides were gracefully composed stylized zoomorphs or curvilinear geometric designs in deep relief. Paint has been found on some Adena tablets, leading archaeologists to propose that these stone tablets were used to stamp designs on cloth or animal hides, or onto their own bodies, it is possible. Unlike in other cultures, Adena pottery was not buried with the dead or the remains of the cremated, as were other artifacts.
Adena pottery was tempered with grit or crushed limestone and was thick. The vessel shapes were flat-bottomed jars, sometimes with small foot-like supports; the large and elaborate mound sites served a nearby scattering of people. The population was dispersed in small settlements of one to two structures. A typical house was built in a circle form from 15 to 45 feet in diameter; the walls were made of paired posts tilted outward, that were joined to other pieces of wood to form a cone shaped roof. The roof was covered with bark and the walls may have been bark and/or wickerwork, their sustenance was acquired through the cultivation of native plants. Hunted deer, black bear, beaver, turkey, trumpeter swan, ruffed grouse. Gathered several edible seed and nuts. Cultivated pumpkin, squash and goosefoot; the Adena ground stone axes. Somewhat rougher slab-like stones with chipped edges were used as hoes. Bone and antler were used in small tools, but more prominently in ornamental objects such as beads and worked animal-jaw gorgets or paraphernalia.
Spoons and other implements were made fro
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
A nut is a type of fastener with a threaded hole. Nuts are always used in conjunction with a mating bolt to fasten multiple parts together; the two partners are kept together by a combination of their threads' friction, a slight stretching of the bolt, compression of the parts to be held together. In applications where vibration or rotation may work a nut loose, various locking mechanisms may be employed: lock washers, jam nuts, specialist adhesive thread-locking fluid such as Loctite, safety pins or lockwire in conjunction with castellated nuts, nylon inserts, or oval-shaped threads. Square nuts, as well as bolt heads, were the first shape made and used to be the most common because they were much easier to manufacture by hand. While rare today due to the reasons stated below for the preference of hexagonal nuts, they are used in some situations when a maximum amount of torque and grip is needed for a given size: the greater length of each side allows a spanner to be applied with a larger surface area and more leverage at the nut.
The most common shape today is hexagonal, for similar reasons as the bolt head: six sides give a good granularity of angles for a tool to approach from, but more corners would be vulnerable to being rounded off. It takes only one sixth of a rotation to obtain the next side of the grip is optimal. However, polygons with more than six sides do not give the requisite grip and polygons with fewer than six sides take more time to be given a complete rotation. Other specialized shapes exist for certain needs, such as wingnuts for finger adjustment and captive nuts for inaccessible areas. A wide variety of nuts exists, from household hardware versions to specialized industry-specific designs that are engineered to meet various technical standards. Fasteners used in automotive and industrial applications need to be tightened to a specific torque setting, using a torque wrench. Nuts are graded with strength ratings compatible with their respective bolts. An SAE class 5 nut can support the proof load of an SAE class 5 bolt, so on.
Castellated nut Distorted thread locknut Centerlock nut Elliptical offset locknut Toplock nut Interfering thread nut Tapered thread nut Jam nut Jet nut Keps nut with a star-type lock washer Nyloc plate nut Polymer insert nut Security locknut Serrated face nut Serrated flange nut Speed nut Split beam nut BINX nut Note that flat sizes differ between industry standards. For example, wrench sizes of fastener used in Japanese built cars comply with JIS automotive standard. In normal use, a nut-and-bolt joint holds together because the bolt is under a constant tensile stress called the preload; the preload pulls the nut threads against the bolt threads, the nut face against the bearing surface, with a constant force, so that the nut cannot rotate without overcoming the friction between these surfaces. If the joint is subjected to vibration, the preload increases and decreases with each cycle of movement. If the minimum preload during the vibration cycle is not enough to hold the nut in contact with the bolt and the bearing surface the nut is to become loose.
Specialized locking nuts exist to prevent this problem, but sometimes it is sufficient to add a second nut. For this technique to be reliable, each nut must be tightened to the correct torque; the inner nut is tightened to about a quarter to a half of the torque of the outer nut. It is held in place by a wrench while the outer nut is tightened on top using the full torque; this arrangement causes the two nuts to push on each other, creating a tensile stress in the short section of the bolt that lies between them. When the main joint is vibrated, the stress between the two nuts remains constant, thus holding the nut threads in constant contact with the bolt threads and preventing self-loosening; when the joint is assembled the outer nut bears the full tension of the joint. The inner nut functions to add a small additional force to the outer nut and does not need to be as strong, so a thin nut can be used. Bickford, John H..
The Hopewell tradition describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 100 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland period. The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a dispersed set of related populations, they were connected by a common network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell exchange system. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from the Crystal River Indian Mounds in modern-day Florida as far north as the Canadian shores of Lake Ontario. Within this area, societies participated in a high degree of exchange with the highest amount of activity along waterways; the Hopewell exchange system received materials from all over. Most of the items traded were exotic materials and were received by people living in the major trading and manufacturing areas; these people converted the materials into products and exported them through local and regional exchange networks.
The objects created by the Hopewell exchange system spread far and wide and have been seen in many burials outside the Midwest. Although the origins of the Hopewell are still under discussion, the Hopewell culture can be considered a cultural climax. Hopewell populations originated in western New York and moved south into Ohio, where they built upon the local Adena mortuary tradition. Or, Hopewell was said to have originated in western Illinois and spread by diffusion... to southern Ohio. The Havana Hopewell tradition was thought to have spread up the Illinois River and into southwestern Michigan, spawning Goodall Hopewell; the name "Hopewell" was applied by Warren K. Moorehead after his explorations of the Hopewell Mound Group in Ross County, Ohio, in 1891 and 1892; the mound group itself was named after Mordecai Hopewell, whose family who owned the earthworks at the time. What any of the various groups now defined as Hopewellian called themselves is unknown, it is used to describe a wide scattering of people who lived near rivers in temporary settlements of 1-3 households and practiced a mixture of hunting and crop growing.
The Hopewell inherited from their Adena forebears an incipient social stratification. This increased social stability and reinforced sedentism, social stratification, specialized use of resources, population growth. Hopewell societies cremated most of their deceased and reserved burial for only the most important people. In some sites, hunters received a higher status in the community because their graves were more elaborate and contained more status goods; the Hopewellian peoples had leaders, but they were not like powerful rulers who could command armies of slaves and soldiers. These cultures accorded certain families a special place of privilege; some scholars suggest that these societies were marked by the emergence of "big-men". These leaders acquired their position because of their ability to persuade others to agree with them on important matters such as trade and religion, they perhaps were able to develop influence by the creation of reciprocal obligations with other important members of the community.
Whatever the source of their status and power, the emergence of "big-men" was another step toward the development of the structured and stratified sociopolitical organization called the chiefdom. The Hopewell settlements were linked by extensive and complex trading routes, which doubled as communication networks, bring people together for important ceremonies. Today, the best-surviving features of the Hopewell tradition era are mounds built for uncertain purposes. Great geometric earthworks are one of the most impressive Native American monuments throughout American prehistory. Eastern Woodlands mounds have various geometric shapes and rise to impressive heights; the gigantic sculpted earthworks took the shape of animals, birds, or writhing serpents. The function of the mounds is still under debate. Due to considerable evidence and surveys, plus the good survival condition of the largest mounds, more information can be obtained. Several scientists, including Dr. Bradley T. Lepper, Curator of Archaeology, Ohio Historical Society, hypothesize that the Octagon earthwork at Newark, was a lunar observatory oriented to the 18.6-year cycle of minimum and maximum lunar risings and settings on the local horizon.
The Octagon covers the size of 100 football pitches. Dr. John Eddy completed an unpublished survey in 1978, proposed a lunar major alignment for the Octagon. Ray Hively and Robert Horn of Earlham College in Richmond, were the first researchers to analyze numerous lunar sightlines at the Newark Earthworks and the High Banks Works in Chillicothe, Ohio. Christopher Turner noted that the Fairground Circle in Newark, Ohio aligns to the sunrise on May 4, i.e. that it marked the May cross-quarter sunrise. In 1983, Turner demonstrated that the Hopeton earthworks encode various sunrise and moonrise patterns, including the winter and summer solstices, the equinoxes, the cross-quarter days, the lunar maximum events, the lunar minimum events due to their precise straight and parallel lines. William F. Romain has written a book on the subject of "astronomers and magicians" at the earthworks. Many of the mounds contain various types of burials. Precious burial good have been found in the mounds; these include objects of adornment made of copper and obsidian, imported to the region hundreds of miles away.
Stone and ceramics were fashioned into intricate shapes. The Hopewell created artwork of the Americas. Most of their works had some religious significance, their graves were filled with neck
Fort Duquesne was a fort established by the French in 1754, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers. It was taken over by the English, Americans, developed as Pittsburgh in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. Fort Duquesne was destroyed by the French, prior to English conquest during the Seven Years' War, known as the French and Indian War on the North American front; the latter replaced it, building Fort Pitt in 1758. The site of both forts is now occupied by Point State Park, where the outlines of the two forts have been laid in brick. Fort Duquesne, built at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers which forms the Ohio River, was considered strategically important for controlling the Ohio Country, both for settlement and for trade; the English merchant William Trent had established a successful trading post at the forks as early as the 1740s, to do business with a number of nearby Native American villages. Both the French and the British were keen to gain advantage in the area.
As the area was within the drainage basin of the Mississippi River, the French had claimed it as theirs. They controlled New France, the Illinois Country along the Mississippi, La Louisiane. In the early 1750s, the French began construction of a line of forts, starting with Fort Presque Isle on Lake Erie near present-day Erie, followed by Fort Le Boeuf, about 15 miles inland near present-day Waterford, Fort Machault, on the Allegheny River in Venango County in present-day Franklin, Pennsylvania. Robert Dinwiddie, Lieutenant Governor of the Virginia Colony, thought these forts threatened extensive claims to the land area by Virginians of the Ohio Company. In late autumn 1753, Dinwiddie dispatched a young Virginia militia officer named George Washington to the area to deliver a letter to the French commander at Fort Le Boeuf, asking them to leave. Washington was to assess French strength and intentions. After reaching Fort Le Boeuf in December, Washington was politely rebuffed by the French. Following Washington's return to Virginia in January 1754, Dinwiddie sent Virginians to build Fort Prince George at the Forks of the Ohio.
Work began on the fort on February 17. By April 18, a much larger French force of five hundred under the command of Claude-Pierre Pécaudy de Contrecœur arrived at the forks, forcing the small British garrison to surrender; the French knocked down the tiny British fort and built Fort Duquesne, named in honor of Marquis Duquesne, the governor-general of New France. The fort was built on the same model as the French Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario. Meanwhile, newly promoted to Colonel of the newly created Virginia Regiment, set out on 2 April 1754 with a small force to build a road to, defend, Fort Prince George. Washington was at Wills Creek in south central Pennsylvania when he received news of the fort's surrender. On May 25, Washington assumed command of the expedition upon the death of Colonel Joshua Fry. Two days Washington encountered a Canadian scouting party near a place now known as Jumonville Glen. Washington attacked the French Canadians, killing 10 in the early morning hours, took 21 prisoners, of whom many were ritually killed by the Native American allies of the British.
The Battle of Jumonville Glen is considered the formal start of the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War. Washington ordered construction of Fort Necessity at a large clearing known as the Great Meadows. On 3 July 1754, the counterattacking French and Canadiennes forced Washington to surrender Fort Necessity. After disarming them, they released his men to return home. Although Fort Duquesne's location at the forks looked strong on a map—controlling the confluence of three rivers—the reality was rather different; the site was low and prone to flooding. In addition, the position was dominated by highlands across the Monongahela River, which would allow an enemy to bombard the fort with ease. Pécaudy de Contrecœur was preparing to abandon the fort in the face of Braddock's advance in 1755, he was able to retain it due to the advancing British force being annihilated. When the Forbes expedition approached in 1758, the French had initial success in the Battle of Fort Duquesne against the English vanguard, but were forced to abandon the fort in the face of the much superior size of Forbes' main force.
The French held the fort early in the war, turning back the expedition led by General Edward Braddock during the 1755 Battle of the Monongahela. George Washington served as one of General Braddock's aides. A smaller attack by James Grant in September 1758 was repulsed with heavy losses. Two months on November 25, the Forbes Expedition under General John Forbes captured the site after the French destroyed Fort Duquesne the day before. Fort Duquesne was built at the point of land of the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, where they form the Ohio River. Since the late 20th century, this area of downtown Pittsburgh has been preserved as Point State Park, or "the Point." The park includes a brick outline of the fort's walls, as well as outlines to mark the Fort Pitt. In May 2007, Thomas Kutys, an archaeologist with A. D. Marble & Company, a Cultural Resource Management firm based in Conshohocken, discovered a stone and brick drain on the Fort Duquesne site, it is thought to have drained one of the fort's many buildings.
Due to its depth in the ground, this drain may be all of the fort. The entire northern half of the former fort site was disrupted and destroyed
Vitreous enamel called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing between 750 and 850 °C. The powder melts and hardens to a smooth, durable vitreous coating; the word comes from the Latin vitreum, meaning "glassy". Enamel can be used on metal, ceramics, stone, or any material that will withstand the fusing temperature. In technical terms fired enamelware is an integrated layered composite of glass and another material; the term "enamel" is most restricted to work on metal, the subject of this article. Enamelled glass is called "painted", overglaze decoration to pottery is called enamelling. Enamelling is an old and adopted technology, for most of its history used in jewelry and decorative art. Since the 19th century, enamels have been applied to many consumer objects, such as some cooking vessels, steel sinks, enamel bathtubs, stone countertops, it has been used on some appliances, such as dishwashers, laundry machines, refrigerators, on marker boards and signage.
The term "enamel" has sometimes been applied to industrial materials other than vitreous enamel, such as "enamel" paint and the polymers coating "enamelled" wire. The word enamel comes from the Old High German word smelzan via the Old French esmail, or from a Latin word smaltum, first found in a 9th-century life of Leo IV. Used as a noun, "an enamel" is a small decorative object coated with enamel. "Enamelled" and "enamelling" are the preferred spellings in British English, while "enameled" and "enameling" are preferred in American English. The ancient Egyptians applied enamels to stone objects and sometimes jewellery, although to the last less than in contemporaneous cultures in the Near East; the ancient Greeks, Celts and Chinese used enamel on metal objects. Enamel was used to decorate glass vessels during the Roman period, there is evidence of this as early as the late Republican and early Imperial periods in the Levant, Egypt and around the Black Sea. Enamel powder could be produced in two ways, either by powdering coloured glass, or by mixing colourless glass powder with pigments such as a metallic oxide.
Designs were either painted freehand or over the top of outline incisions, the technique originated in metalworking. Once painted, enamelled glass vessels needed to be fired at a temperature high enough to melt the applied powder, but low enough that the vessel itself was not melted. Production is thought to have come to a peak in the Claudian period and persisted for some three hundred years, though archaeological evidence for this technique is limited to some forty vessels or vessel fragments. Ancient Persians used this method for colouring and ornamenting the surface of metals by fusing over it brilliant colours that are decorated in an intricate design and called it Meenakari; the French traveller, Jean Chardin, who toured Iran during the Safavid reign, made a reference to an enamel work of Isfahan, which comprised a pattern of birds and animals on a floral background in light blue, green and red. Gold has been used traditionally for Meenakari Jewellery as it holds the enamel better, lasts longer and its lustre brings out the colours of the enamels.
Silver, a introduction, is used for artifacts like boxes, bowls and art pieces while copper, used for handicraft products was introduced only after the Gold Control Act, which compelled the Meenakars to look for a material other than gold, was enforced in India. The work of Meenakari went unnoticed as this art was traditionally used as a backing for the famous kundan or stone-studded jewellery; this allowed the wearer to reverse the jewellery as promised a special joy in the secret of the hidden design. In European art history, enamel was at its most important in the Middle Ages, beginning with the Late Romans and the Byzantine, who began to use cloisonné enamel in imitation of cloisonné inlays of precious stones; the Byzantine enamel style was adopted by the "barbarian" peoples of Migration Period northern Europe. The Byzantines began to use cloisonné more to create images; the champlevé technique was easier and widely practiced in the Romanesque period. In Gothic art the finest work is in basse-taille and ronde-bosse techniques, but cheaper champlevé works continued to be produced in large numbers for a wider market.
From either Byzantium or the Islamic world, the cloisonné technique reached China in the 13–14th centuries. The first written reference to cloisonné is in a book from 1388, where it is called "Dashi ware". No Chinese pieces that are from the 14th century are known. Cloisonné remained popular in China until the 19th century and is still produced today; the most elaborate and most valued Chinese pieces are from the early Ming Dynasty the reigns of the Xuande Emperor and Jingtai Emperor, although 19th century or modern pieces are far more common. Starting from the mid-19th century, the Japanese produced large quantities of high technical quality. More the bright, jewel-like colors have made enamel a favoured choice for jewellery designers, including the Art Nouveau jewellers, for designers of bibelots such as the eggs of Peter Carl Fabergé and the enameled copper boxes of the Battersea enamellers, for artists such as George Stubbs and other painters of portrait miniatures. A resurgence in enamel-based art
A cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaves made to be smoked. They are produced in a wide variety of shapes. Since the 20th century all cigars are made up of three distinct components: the filler, the binder leaf which holds the filler together, a wrapper leaf, the best leaf used; the cigar will have a band printed with the cigar manufacturer's logo. Modern cigars come with 2 bands Cuban Cigar bands, showing Limited Edition bands displaying the year of production. Cigar tobacco is grown in significant quantities in Central America and the islands of the Caribbean, including Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Ecuador, Guatemala and Puerto Rico; the origins of cigar smoking are still unknown. A Mayan ceramic pot from Guatemala dating back to the tenth century features people smoking tobacco leaves tied together with a string. Regular cigar smoking is known to carry serious health risks including increased danger of various types of cancer and cardiovascular illnesses; the word cigar derives from the Mayan sikar.
The Spanish word, "cigarro" spans the gap between the Mayan and modern use. The English word came into general use in 1730. Explorer Christopher Columbus is credited with the introduction of tobacco to Europe. Three of Columbus's crewmen during his 1492 journey, Rodrigo de Jerez, Hector Fuentes and Luis de Torres, are said to have encountered tobacco for the first time on the island of Hispaniola, in what is present day Haiti and the Dominican Republic, when natives presented them with dry leaves that spread a peculiar fragrance. Tobacco was diffused among all of the islands of the Caribbean and was therefore encountered in Cuba where Columbus and his men had settled, his sailors reported that the Taínos on the island of Cuba smoked a primitive form of cigar, with twisted, dried tobacco leaves rolled in other leaves such as palm or plantain. In time and other European sailors adopted the practice of smoking rolls of leaves, as did the Conquistadors, smoking primitive cigars spread to Spain and Portugal and France, most through Jean Nicot, the French ambassador to Portugal, who gave his name to nicotine.
Tobacco use spread to Italy and, after Sir Walter Raleigh's voyages to the Americas, to Britain. Smoking became familiar throughout Europe—in pipes in Britain—by the mid-16th century. Spanish cultivation of tobacco began in earnest in 1531 on the island of Santo Domingo. In 1542, tobacco started to be grown commercially in North America, when the Spaniards established the first cigar factory on the island of Cuba. Tobacco was thought to have medicinal qualities, but there were some who considered it evil, it was denounced by James I of England. Around 1592, the Spanish galleon San Clemente brought 50 kilograms of tobacco seed to the Philippines over the Acapulco-Manila trade route, it was distributed among Roman Catholic missionaries, who found excellent climates and soils for growing high-quality tobacco there. The use of the cigar did not become popular until the mid-eighteenth century, although there are not many drawings from this era, there are some reports. In Seven Years' War it is believed Israel Putnam brought back a cache of Havana cigars, making cigar smoking popular in the US after the American Revolution.
He brought Cuban tobacco seeds which he planted in the Hartford area of New England. This resulted in the development of the renowned Connecticut Wrapper. Towards the end of the 18th century and in the 19th century, cigar smoking was common, while cigarettes were still comparatively rare. In the early 20th century, Rudyard Kipling wrote his famous smoking poem, "The Betrothed." The cigar business was an important industry and factories employed many people before mechanized manufacturing of cigars became practical. Cigar workers in both Cuba and the US were active in labor strikes and disputes from early in the 19th century, the rise of modern labor unions can be traced to the CMIU and other cigar worker unions. In 1869, Spanish cigar manufacturer Vicente Martinez Ybor moved his Principe de Gales operations from the important cigar manufacturing center of Havana, Cuba to Key West, Florida to escape the turmoil of the Ten Years' War. Other manufacturers followed, Key West became another important cigar manufacturing center.
In 1885, Ybor moved again, buying land near the then-small city of Tampa and building the largest cigar factory in the world at the time in the new company town of Ybor City. Friendly rival and Flor de Sánchez y Haya owner Ignacio Haya built his own factory nearby in the same year, many other cigar manufacturers soon followed after an 1886 fire that gutted much of Key West. Thousands of Cuban and Spanish tabaqueros came to the area from Key West and New York to produce hundreds of millions of cigars annually. Local output peaked in 1929, when workers in Ybor City and West Tampa rolled over 500,000,000 "clear Havana" cigars, earning the town the nickname "Cigar Capital of the World". In New York, cigars were made by rollers working in their own homes, it was reported that as of 1883, cigars were being manufactured in 127 apartment houses in New York, employing 1,962 families and 7,924 individuals. A state statute banning the practice, passed late that year at the urging of trade unions on the basis that the practice suppressed wages, was ruled unconstitutional less than four months l