Populus tremuloides is a deciduous tree native to cooler areas of North America, one of several species referred to by the common name aspen. It is called quaking aspen, trembling aspen, American aspen, mountain or golden aspen, trembling poplar, white poplar, popple, as well as others; the trees have tall trunks, up to 25 meters tall, with smooth pale bark, scarred with black. The glossy green leaves, dull beneath, become golden to yellow red, in autumn; the species propagates through its roots to form large clonal groves originating from a shared root system. These roots are not rhizomes, as new growth develops from adventitious buds on the parent root system. Populus tremuloides is the most distributed tree in North America, being found from Canada to central Mexico, it is the defining species of the aspen parkland biome in the Prairie Provinces of Canada and extreme northwest Minnesota. The Quaking Aspen is the state tree of Utah; the quaking or trembling of the leaves, referred to in the common names is due to the flexible flattened petioles.
The specific epithet, evokes this trembling behavior and can be translated as "like tremula", the European trembling aspen. Quaking aspen is a tall, fast growing tree 20–25 m at maturity, with a trunk 20 to 80 cm in diameter; the bark is smooth, colored greenish-white to gray, is marked by thick black horizontal scars and prominent black knots. Parallel vertical scars are tell-tale signs of elk, which strip off aspen bark with their front teeth; the leaves on mature trees are nearly round, 4–8 centimeters in diameter with small rounded teeth, a 3–7-centimeter long, flattened petiole. Young trees and root sprouts have much larger nearly triangular leaves; some species of Populus have petioles flattened along their length, while the aspens and some other poplars have them flattened from side to side along the entire length of the petiole. Aspens are dioecious, with separate male and female clones; the flowers are catkins. Quaking aspen occurs across Canada in all provinces and territories, with the possible exception of Nunavut.
In the United States, it can be found as far north as the northern foothills of the Brooks Range in Alaska, where road margins and gravel pads provide islands of well-drained habitat in a region where soils are waterlogged due to underlying permafrost. It occurs at low elevations as far south as central Indiana. In the western United States, this tree survives at elevations lower than 1,500 feet due to hot summers experienced below that elevation, is found at 5,000–12,000 feet, it grows at high altitudes as far south as Mexico. Quaking aspen grows in a wide variety of climatic conditions. January and July average temperatures range from −30 °C and 16 °C in the Alaska Interior to −3 °C and 23 °C in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Average annual precipitation ranges from 1,020 mm in Gander and Labrador to as little as 180 mm in the Alaska Interior; the southern limit of the species' range follows the 24 °C mean July isotherm. Shrub-like dwarf clones exist in marginal environments too cold and dry to be hospitable to full-size trees, for example at the species' upper elevation limits in the White Mountains.
Quaking aspen propagates itself through root sprouts, extensive clonal colonies are common. Each colony is its own clone, all trees in the clone have identical characteristics and share a single root structure. A clone may turn color earlier or in the fall than its neighbouring aspen clones. Fall colors are bright tones of yellow; as all trees in a given clonal colony are considered part of the same organism, one clonal colony, named Pando, is considered the heaviest and oldest living organism at six million kilograms and 80,000 years old. Aspens do produce seeds, but grow from them. Pollination is inhibited by the fact that aspens are either male or female, large stands are all clones of the same sex. If pollinated, the small seeds are only viable a short time as they lack a stored food source or a protective coating. Beginning in 1996, individual North American scientists noticed an increase in dead or dying aspen trees; as this accelerated in 2004, word spread and a debate over causes began.
No insect, disease, or environmental condition is yet identified as a joint cause. Trees adjacent to one another are stricken or not. In other instances, entire groves have died. Many areas of the Western US have experienced increased diebacks which are attributed to ungulate grazing and wildfire suppression. At high altitudes where grasses can be rare, ungulates can browse young aspen sprouts and prevent those young trees from reaching maturity; as a result, some aspen groves close to cattle or other grazing animals, such as deer or elk, have few young trees and can be invaded by conifers, which are not browsed. Another possible deterrent to aspen regeneration is widespread wildfire suppression. Aspens are vigorous resprouters and though
The Yellowstone River is a tributary of the Missouri River 692 miles long, in the western United States. Considered the principal tributary of the upper Missouri, the river and its tributaries drain a wide area stretching from the Rocky Mountains in the vicinity of the Yellowstone National Park across the mountains and high plains of southern Montana and northern Wyoming; the Yellowstone River Watershed is a river basin spanning 37,167 square miles across Montana, with minor extensions into Wyoming and North Dakota toward headwaters and terminus, respectively. The Yellowstone Basin Watershed contains a system of rivers, including the Yellowstone River, four tributary basins: the Clarks Fork Yellowstone, Wind River and Bighorn River, Tongue River, Powder River; these rivers form tributaries to the Missouri River. The mainstem of the Yellowstone River is more than 700 miles long. At the headwaters, elevations exceed 12,800 feet above sea level and descends to 1,850 feet at the confluence with the Missouri River in North Dakota.
The watershed spans 34,167 square miles. The area contains many lakes, including Yellowstone Lake. There are no storage dams located on the mainstem of the Yellowstone River. However, the watershed contains five major reservoirs: Bull Lake, Buffalo, Tongue River, Lake De Smet reservoirs; the river rises in northwestern Wyoming in the Absaroka Range, on the Continental Divide in southwestern Park County. The river starts where the South Fork of the Yellowstone River converge; the North Fork, the larger of the two forks, flows from Younts Peak. The South Fork flows from the southern slopes of Thorofare Mountain; the Yellowstone River flows northward through Yellowstone National Park and draining Yellowstone Lake dropping over the Upper and Lower Yellowstone Falls at the head of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone within the confines of the park. After passing through the Black Canyon of the Yellowstone downstream of the Grand Canyon, the river flows northward into Montana between the northern Absaroka Range and the Gallatin Range in Paradise Valley.
The river emerges from the mountains near the town of Livingston, where it turns eastward and northeastward, flowing across the northern Great Plains past the city of Billings. East of Billings, it is joined by the Bighorn River. Further downriver, it is joined by the Tongue near Miles City, by the Powder in eastern Montana, it flows into North Dakota just upstream from Lake Sakakawea. In Montana the river has been used extensively for irrigation since the 1860s. In its upper reaches, within Yellowstone Park and the mountains of Montana, it is a popular destination for fly fishing; the Yellowstone is a Class I river from the Yellowstone National Park boundary to the North Dakota border for the purposes of stream access for recreational purposes. The division of water rights to the entire Yellowstone River Basin among Wyoming and North Dakota, governed by a 1950 compact, was disputed in a 2010 lawsuit brought directly in the U. S. Supreme Court by Montana against Wyoming. Oral argument took place in January 2011.
On May 2, 2011, the Court held 7-2 that Montana had no valid claim for diminution of its water, since Wyoming was irrigating the same acreage as always, albeit by a more modern method that returned less runoff to go downstream to Montana. The name is believed to have been derived from the Minnetaree Indian name Mi tse a-da-zi. Common lore states that the name came from the yellow-colored rocks along the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, but the Minnetaree never lived along the upper stretches of the Yellowstone; some scholars think that the river was named after yellow-colored sandstone bluffs on the lower Yellowstone, instead. The Crow Indians, who lived along the upper Yellowstone in Southern Montana, called it E-chee-dick-karsh-ah-shay. Translating the Minnetaree name, French trappers called the river Roche Jaune, a name used by mountain men until the mid-19th century. Independently and Clark recorded the English translation of Yellow Stone for the river, after encountering the Minnetaree in 1805.
With expanding settlement by people from the United States, the English name became the most used. The river was explored in 1806 by William Clark during the return voyage of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Clark's Fork of the river was named for him. Most of the natural features of the Yellowstone Valley that were not named by Lewis and Clark were named by pioneer steamboat captain Grant Marsh. Marsh was selected by the Army for an exploratory expedition in 1873 on his boat the Key West. Marsh kept a detailed log, the names he bestowed were recorded by a representative of the War Department and applied on official maps; these include:- Forsyth Butte, named in honor of Brevet Brig. Gen. George Alexander Forsyth, commander of the expedition. - Cut Nose Butte, Chimney Rock and Diamond Island, for their resemblance to these objects. - Seven Sisters Islands, in remembrance of Captain Marsh's seven sisters. - Crittenden Island, for General T. L. Crittenden, who commanded the 17th Infantry, garrisoned at posts along the Missouri River.
- Mary Island, for the chambermaid on the Key West, wife of the steward, "Dutch Jake." - Reno Island, for Major Marcus A. Reno, of the 7th Cavalry. - Schindel Island, for Major M. Bryant, commanding t
The Territory of Dakota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1861, until November 2, 1889, when the final extent of the reduced territory was split and admitted to the Union as the states of North and South Dakota. The Dakota Territory consisted of the northernmost part of the land acquired in the Louisiana purchase in 1803, as well as the southernmost part of Rupert's Land, acquired in 1818 when the boundary was changed to the 49th parallel; the name refers to the Dakota branch of the Sioux tribes. Most of Dakota Territory was part of the Minnesota and Nebraska territories; when Minnesota became a state in 1858, the leftover area between the Missouri River and Minnesota's western boundary fell unorganized. When the Yankton Treaty was signed that year, ceding much of what had been Sioux Indian land to the U. S. Government, early settlers formed an unofficial provisional government and unsuccessfully lobbied for United States territory status.
Three years President-elect Abraham Lincoln's cousin-in-law, J. B. S. Todd lobbied for territory status and the U. S. Congress formally created Dakota Territory, it became an organized territory on March 2, 1861. Upon creation, Dakota Territory included much of present-day Montana and Wyoming as well as all of present-day North Dakota and South Dakota and a small portion of present-day Nebraska. A small patch of land known as "Lost Dakota" existed as a remote exclave of Dakota Territory until it became part of Gallatin County, Montana Territory, in 1873. Dakota Territory was not directly involved in the American Civil War but did raise some troops to defend the settlements following the Dakota War of 1862 which triggered hostilities with the Sioux tribes of Dakota Territory; the Department of the Northwest sent expeditions into Dakota Territory in 1863, 1864 and 1865. It established forts in Dakota Territory to protect the frontier settlements of the Territory and Minnesota and the traffic along the Missouri River.
Following the Civil War, hostilities continued with the Sioux until the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie. By 1868, creation of new territories reduced Dakota Territory to the present boundaries of the Dakotas. Territorial counties were defined including Bottineau County, Cass County and others. During the existence of the organized territory, the population first increased slowly and very with the "Dakota Boom" from 1870 to 1880; because the Sioux were considered hostile and a threat to early settlers, the white population grew slowly. The settlers' population grew and the Sioux were not considered as severe a threat; the population increase can be attributed to the growth of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Settlers who came to the Dakota Territory were from other western territories as well as many from northern and western Europe; these included large numbers of Norwegians, Germans and Canadians. Commerce was organized around the fur trade. Furs were carried by steamboat along the rivers to the settlements.
Gold was discovered in the Black Hills in 1874 and attracted more settlers, setting off the last Sioux War. The population surge increased the demand for meat spurring expanded cattle ranching on the territory's vast open ranges. With the advent of the railroad agriculture intensified: wheat became the territory's main cash crop. Economic hardship hit the territory in the 1880s due to a drought; the territorial capital was Yankton from 1861 until 1883. The Dakota Territory was divided into the states of North Dakota and South Dakota on November 2, 1889; the admission of two states, as opposed to one, was done for a number of reasons. The two population centers in the territory were in the northeast and southeast corners of the territory, several hundred miles away from each other. On a national level, there was pressure from the Republican Party to admit two states to add to their political power in the Senate. Admission of new western states was a party political battleground with each party looking at how the proposed new states were to vote.
At the beginning of 1888, the Democrats under president Grover Cleveland proposed that the four territories of Montana, New Mexico and Washington should be admitted together. The first two were expected to vote Democratic and the latter two were expected to vote Republican so this was seen as a compromise acceptable to both parties. However, the Republicans won majorities in Congress and the Senate that year. To head off the possibility that Congress might only admit Republican territories to statehood, the Democrats agreed to a less favorable deal in which Dakota was divided in two and New Mexico was left out altogether. Cleveland signed it into law on February 22, 1889 and the territories could become states in nine months time after that. However, incoming Republican president Benjamin Harrison had a problem with South Dakota. There had been previous attempts to open up the territory, but these had foundered because the Treaty of Fort Laramie required that 75% of Sioux adult males on the reservation had to agree to any treaty change.
Most a commission headed by Richard Henry Pratt in 1888 had failed to get the necessary signatures in the face of opposition from Sioux leaders and government worker Elaine Goodale Superintendent of Indian Education for the Dakotas. The government believed that the Dawes Act, which attempted to move the Indians from hunting to farming, in theory meant that they needed less land (but in reality was an economic dis
North Dakota's at-large congressional district
North Dakota's At-Large Congressional District is the sole congressional district for the state of North Dakota. Based on size, it is the eighth largest congressional district in the nation; the district is represented by Kelly Armstrong. The district was first created when North Dakota achieved statehood on November 2, 1889, electing a single member. Following the 1900 Census the state was allocated two seats, both of whom were elected from an at large district. Following the 1910 Census a third seat was gained, with the legislature drawing three separate districts; the third district was eliminated after the 1930 Census. After the third seat was lost, North Dakota returned to electing two members At-Large. Following the 1960 Census two separate districts were created. In 1970, the second district was eliminated following the 1970 Census and a single At-Large district was created. Since 1972, North Dakota has retained a single congressional district. Election statistics compiled by the Clerk to the House of Representatives.
Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
U.S. Route 85
U. S. Route 85 is a 1,479-mile-long north–south United States Highway that travels in the Mountain and Northern Plains states of the United States; the southern terminus of the highway is at the Mexican border in El Paso, connecting with Mexican Federal Highway 45. The northern terminus is at the Canadian border in Fortuna, North Dakota, where the route continues north as Saskatchewan Highway 35; the highway route is part of the CanAm Highway. Sections of US 85 are considered part of the Theodore Roosevelt Expressway; the highway passes through Texas, New Mexico, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota. From Anthony, Texas to Fountain, Colorado, US-85 shares its alignment with interstate routes and is not signed. US 85 in Texas begins at the Mexico–US border with US 62 and travels north through El Paso, beginning at the Santa Fe Street Bridge, following Santa Fe Street Paisano Drive westward, along the Rio Grande until Paisano Drive ends where it joins with Interstate 10, about 14 miles before both reach the New Mexico border.
The route is concurrent with I-10 for the remainder of its route within Texas. The original route of US 85 in Texas had the highway concurrent with Doniphan Drive, parallelling the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway through the Mesilla Valley communities of Canutillo and Anthony before crossing the Texas/New Mexico state line in Anthony, New Mexico following the road, now New Mexico State Road 478 up the Mesilla Valley to Las Cruces; this route is marked as Texas State Highway 20 north of the intersection with Mesa Street/Country Club Drive. The unsigned route of US 85 through New Mexico exists only on paper to maintain continuity with signed sections in Colorado and Texas. Except for a 4-mile segment through Las Vegas, US 85 in New Mexico is concurrent with Interstate Routes. For the first 20 miles it shares its route with I-10 continues north for the remainder of its length in New Mexico concurrent with I-25. US-85 was de-signed in segments between 1990 as I-25 was built through the state. I-25 between Bernalillo and a point just south of Santa Fe was built over the old US 85 alignment.
I-25 was built directly over US 85 from east of Santa Fe to Las Vegas and from US 64 to the Colorado border at Raton Pass. At one point, the route went along the historic El Camino Real; the original route from Anthony to Las Cruces is now signed as NM 478. The original route from Las Cruces to Hatch is now signed as NM 185. For concurrencies of interstate, US routes, routes of different levels of significance, the New Mexico Department of Transportation's policy is to sign only the route of greater significance, while leaving the route of lesser significance unsigned. Consistent with this policy, NMDOT has removed US 85 from its route logs, but the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials retains US 85 on a concurrent alignment with I-10 and I-25 to maintain continuity with signed segments in Texas and Colorado. US 85 is not signed. US 85 leaves I-25 at Exit 128 and follows Santa Fe Avenue through Fountain before turning west onto Lake Avenue turning north following Nevada Avenue through Colorado Springs before rejoining I-25 at Exit 148.
Approaching the south side of Denver, US 85 again leaves I-25 at Exit 184. From there it heads north as a two lane rural highway, it becomes an expressway near Chatfield Lake and the southern Denver suburbs of Littleton and Englewood, where it's known as Santa Fe Drive. It continues north through Denver for a few miles before once again joining with I-25 at mile marker 207. There it heads north through downtown Denver. At exit 214, US 85 turns east and becomes a concurrency with I-70 and US 6 for about a mile where it exits with U. S. 6 and heads northeast through Commerce City. In just a few miles the US 6/US 85 concurrency merges with I-76 at mile marker 9, they travel concurrently for 3 miles until exit 12 when US 85 becomes an expressway and continues north out of the Denver area through Brighton. From there it parallels I-25 for about 75 miles passing through Fort Lupton, Evans and Eaton before crossing into Wyoming. US 85 enters Wyoming from Colorado 8 miles south of Cheyenne. In Cheyenne it joins with Business Route 87, a mile with I-180 until it meets with US 30.
The segment with I-180 is the only at-grade interstate route in the U. S. At exit 12, it joins with I-25 and US 87 in a concurrency for 5 miles until US 85 leaves at exit 17 and travels northeast towards Meriden. From there it heads north to Torrington, where it meets with US 26 and concurrencies for 10 miles until Lingle, 47 miles it meets US 20 and US 18 at Lusk, it shares the next 47 miles with US 18 and 33 miles meets US 16 near Newcastle. From here it is; the South Dakota section of US 85, with the exception of two concurrencies with US 14 Alternate and a concurrency with I-90, is defined at South Dakota Codified Laws § 31-4-181. US 85 enters the Black Hills from Wyoming and travels northeast until it meets with US
Little Missouri River (North Dakota)
The Little Missouri River is a tributary of the Missouri River, 560 miles long, in the northern Great Plains of the United States. Rising in northeastern Wyoming, in western Crook County about 15 miles west of Devils Tower, it flows northeastward, across a corner of southeastern Montana, into South Dakota. In South Dakota, it flows northward through the Badlands into North Dakota, crossing the Little Missouri National Grassland and both units of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. In the north unit of the park, it turns eastward and flows into the Missouri in Dunn County at Lake Sakakawea, where it forms an arm of the reservoir 30 miles long called Little Missouri Bay and joins the main channel of the Missouri about 25 miles northeast of Killdeer; the seasonal runoff from badlands and other treeless landscapes along the Little Missouri carries heavy loads of eroded sediment downstream. The sedimentary layers, which extend from the headwaters in Wyoming all the way to the mouth in North Dakota, vary in age, but most of the beds along the river belong to the Bullion Creek and Sentinel Butte formations, both deposited during the Paleocene.
The deposits include siltstone, claystone and lignite coal laid down in a coastal plain during the Laramide orogeny. List of rivers of North Dakota List of longest rivers of the United States List of rivers of Montana List of rivers of South Dakota List of rivers of Wyoming Montana Stream Access Law Wyoming State River Plan: Little Missouri River The Lewis and Clark Trail: The Little Missouri River National Park Service: North Dakota Segments
Williams County, North Dakota
Williams County is a county in the U. S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 22,398, its county seat is Williston. Between 2010 and 2017, according to Census Bureau estimates, it was the second fastest growing county in the United States, trailing only neighboring McKenzie County, to its south; the Williston Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Williams County. The Micropolitan Statistical Area is the fastest-growing Primary Statistical Area, growing 48.9% in population from 2010 to 2017. In 2014, Williams County had the lowest percentage of unemployed people of any county in the United States, at 1.2 percent. There have been two Williams counties in the history of North Dakota; the first, created in 1873, was located south of the Missouri River near where Dunn and Mercer counties are today. This county continued to exist through North Dakota statehood, while the second Williams County was created in 1891; the first Williams County was extinguished by a county referendum on November 8, 1892.
The second Williams County was created by the North Dakota legislature on March 2, 1891, from the previous counties of Buford and Flannery, which were dissolved. The government of this county was organized on December 8, 1891; this county's boundaries were altered in 1910, when a portion of its territory was annexed to create Divide County. Its boundaries have remained unchanged since then; the county is named for Erastus Appleman Williams, who served in the Dakota Territory legislature and the North Dakota legislature. Williams County lies on the west edge of North Dakota, its west boundary line abuts the east boundary line of the state of Montana. The Missouri River flows eastward along the county's south boundary line. Horse Creek and Willow Creek flow to the west across the upper portion of the county; the terrain consists of isolated hills amid rolling hilly semi-arid stretches. The area is devoted to agriculture; the terrain is highest across its midpoint, slopes to the NW and SE. Its highest point is a hill near the NE corner, at 2,470' ASL.
The county has a total area of 2,148 square miles, of which 2,077 square miles is land and 70 square miles is water. It is the fourth-largest county in North Dakota by area. Lake Sakakawea, a reservoir on the Missouri River, is situated on the southern boundary of the county. Little Muddy Creek is within Williams County; the confluence of the Yellowstone River with the Missouri is west of Williston. The Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site is located in Williams County along the Missouri River on the Montana border. Williams County is one of several western North Dakota counties with significant exposure to the Bakken formation in the Williston Basin; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 19,761 people, 8,095 households, 5,261 families in the county. The population density was 10 people per square mile. There were 9,680 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.95% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 4.40% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, 2.21% from two or more races.
0.94 % of the population were Latino of any race. 48.3 % were of 22.0 % German ancestry. There were 8,095 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.3% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.0% were non-families. Of all households 30.9% were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.99. The county population contained 26.2% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 96.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.6 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,491, the median income for a family was $39,065. Males had a median income of $29,884 versus $19,329 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,763.
About 9.6% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.5% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 22,398 people, 9,293 households, 5,746 families in the county; the population density was 10.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,464 housing units at an average density of 5.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.1% white, 4.0% American Indian, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.3% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 46.2% were of Norwegian, 35.9% of German, 9.8% of Irish, 4.5% of Swedish and 4.4% of English ancestry. Of the 9,293 households, 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.8% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.2% were non-families, 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.95.
The median age was 39.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $55,396 and the median income for a family was $67,875. Males had a median income of $50,735 versus $27,071 for females; the per capita income for the county was $29,153. About 4.7% of families and 8.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.7% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or