Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a Census-estimated 2,636,735 residents in 2015. It borders the borough of Queens at the end of Long Island. Today, if New York City dissolved, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous city in the U. S. behind Los Angeles, the borough continues, however, to maintain a distinct culture. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves, Brooklyns official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght which translates from early modern Dutch as Unity makes strength. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms. The history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years, the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North Americas first tidal mill. It was built by the Dutch, and the foundation can be seen today, the area was not formally settled as a town. Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furmans early compilation, what is today Brooklyn left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War.
The English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1,1683 and this tract of land was recognized as a political entity for the first time, and the municipal groundwork was laid for a expansive idea of Brooklyn identity. On August 27,1776 was fought the Battle of Long Island, the first major engagement fought in the American Revolutionary War after independence was declared, and the largest of the entire conflict. British troops forced Continental Army troops under George Washington off the heights near the sites of Green-Wood Cemetery, Prospect Park. The fortified American positions at Brooklyn Heights consequently became untenable and were evacuated a few days later, One result of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 was the evacuation of the British from New York City, celebrated by residents into the 20th century. The New York Navy Yard operated in Wallabout Bay for the entire 19th century, the first center of urbanization sprang up in the Town of Brooklyn, directly across from Lower Manhattan, which saw the incorporation of the Village of Brooklyn in 1817.
Reliable steam ferry service across the East River to Fulton Landing converted Brooklyn Heights into a town for Wall Street. Ferry Road to Jamaica Pass became Fulton Street to East New York and Village were combined to form the first, kernel incarnation of the City of Brooklyn in 1834. Industrial deconcentration in mid-century was bringing shipbuilding and other manufacturing to the part of the county. Each of the two cities and six towns in Kings County remained independent municipalities, and purposely created non-aligning street grids with different naming systems and it became the most popular and highest circulation afternoon paper in America. The publisher changed to L. Van Anden on April 19,1842, on May 14,1849 the name was shortened to The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, on September 5,1938 it was further shortened to Brooklyn Eagle
Cable Building (New York City)
The Cable Building is located at 611 Broadway at the northwest corner with Houston Street in NoHo and Greenwich Village, in Manhattan, New York City. Since it spans a block, the Cable Building has addresses of 2-18 West Houston Street, the Cable Building was built in 1892-1894. It is a steel and iron structure with brick, stone. It has a base with a two-story arcade featuring show windows graced by iron spandrels. It has a prominent copper cornice with lions faces and dart moldings and it is believed to be the architectural firm McKim, Mead & Whites first use of a complete steel frame in a commercial building. The contracts for this work above the foundations are still to be set. its architecture expresses distinctly the highest achievement of the art in this country at this time. The publication further remarked that, with this example, no excuse remains for building cheaply or meanly on any New York City property and these figures are 11 feet in height and are worthy of especial notice. Like the architect Stanford White, Rhind was a leader in the American Renaissance movement, such a prominent sculptural piece on a commercial structure like the Cable Building eas considered very unusual.
The Cable Building was designed by Stanford White, a partner in McKim, Mead & White and it is a nine story Beaux-Arts structure, which impressively captures Whites design principles of the American Renaissance. This is the only McKim, Mead & White building in the NoHo Historic District, Stanford White was the partner in charge for both of these projects for the family and was a close friend. The Cable Buildings dual use as both a major powerhouse and an approximately 140,000 square-foot modern office building appears unique in the McKim, Mead & White portfolio. However, both of these structures were single use, and most of McKim, Mead & Whites prolific output was for buildings or grand houses. The latter two buildings are believed to be the example in the McKim, Mead & White portfolio where one set of plans spawned two identical buildings. It was simply the mechanical back office of the cable railroad, in this instance, being situated on such a prominent street, probably propelled the investors, with deep ties to New York business and real estate, to make a grand statement.
The Cable Building was originally the headquarters and power station for the Metropolitan Traction Company, MTC had been assembled in 1892 as a holding company for street railways, including the Broadway & Seventh Avenue Railroad. Their original investment in the building was $750,000, in all MTC spent $12 million on a cable car railway system to move cars on Broadway from Bowling Green to 36th Street. It was the most expensive system on a basis of any in the nation. When it became operational in the summer of 1893, its fleet comprised 125 cable cars and this was the central power station, other stations were at 51st Street and Front Street
Boston Public Library, McKim Building
The Boston Public Library McKim Building in Copley Square contains the librarys research collection, exhibition rooms and administrative offices. When it opened in 1895, the new Boston Public Library was proclaimed a palace for the people, the building includes lavish decorations, a childrens room, and a central courtyard surrounded by an arcaded gallery in the manner of a Renaissance cloister. The library regularly displays its rare works, often in exhibits that will combine works on paper, rare books, several galleries in the third floor of the McKim building are maintained for exhibits. Boston Public Library was founded in 1852, the first Boston Public Library location opened in 1854 in two rooms in the Adams School on Mason Street. Because the Mason Street space was small and poorly lit, a new building opened at 55 Boylston Street in 1858 and it cost $365,000 to build and held 70,000 volumes. It opened in 1895 and cost $2,268,000, charles Follen McKims design shows influence from a number of architectural precedents.
The open-air courtyard at the center of the building is based closely on that of the sixteenth-century Palazzo della Cancelleria in Rome, seven different types of Guastavino vaulting can be seen in the library. It was the first major Beaux Arts building in the United States, McKim chose to have monumental inscriptions, similar to those found on basilicas and monuments in ancient Rome, in the entablature on each of the main buildings three façades. D. MDCCCLXXXVIII, and on the north, THE COMMONWEALTH REQUIRES THE EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE AS THE SAFEGUARD OF ORDER AND LIBERTY, the last quotation has been attributed to the librarys Board of Trustees. Another inscription, above the keystone of the entrance, proclaims. Below each second-story arched window on the three façades are inscribed lists of the names of great writers, scientists, philosophers. The monuments inscription responds to the McKim building reading IT WAS IN MY HEART TO HELP A LITTLE, the text is excerpted from a letter enclosed with Gibrans generous bequest to the library.
Bates Hall is named for the librarys first great benefactor, Joshua Bates, the form of Bates Hall, rectilinear but terminated with a semi-circular apse on each end, recalls a Roman basilica. A series of robust double coffers in the ceiling provide a canopy to the room. The east side has a series of arched windows with light buffered by wide overhanging hood on the exterior. Heavy deep green silk velvet drapery installed in 1888, and again in the 1920s and 1950s, was not recreated in the 1993 restoration of the room, the drapery helped to muffle sound and lower light levels. Included in the BPLs research collection are more than 1.7 million rare books, there are large collections of prints, photographs and maps. The library, for example, holds one of the collections of watercolors
The Villard Houses is a historic landmark located at 455 Madison Avenue between 50th and 51st Street in Manhattan, New York City. The building was constructed in 1884, designed by architect Joseph M. Wells of the architecture firm McKim, Mead and it is considered to be a Roman design with specific Renaissance touch points. Among the artists who worked on the elaborate interior were sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens. The houses were commissioned by Henry Villard, president of the Northern Pacific Railway, ownership of the building changed through many hands throughout the century. The houses themselves are now owned by the Sultan of Brunei, in 1968, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission designated the complex an historical landmark. A combined restoration/new hotel complex construction project was proposed by real estate developer Harry B, helmsley who constructed the 51-story New York Palace Hotel tower directly behind the original building. The project was designed by architects Emery Roth & Sons and Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer in 1977, the original building was restored in 2003 and office space was furnished for city preservation group The Municipal Art Society, as part of an agreement to save the building from demolition.
As a part of the renovation of the hotel, part of what is now known as the Villard Mansion is available as an event rental. In 2014, the residences were available for public viewing when they hosted the annual Kips Bay Decorator Show House program to raise money for the Kips Bay Boys & Girls Club. Exterior shots of the Villard Houses were used on the TV series Gossip Girl as the hotel where the van der Woodsen family lives, list of New York City Landmarks National Register of Historic Places listings in New York County, New York Notes Further reading Kathrens, Michael C. Great Houses of New York, 1880–1930, media related to Villard Houses at Wikimedia Commons
The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States, located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. It has been the residence of every U. S. president since John Adams in 1800, the term White House is often used to refer to actions of the president and his advisers, as in The White House announced that. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the Neoclassical style, construction took place between 1792 and 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white. When Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior, reconstruction began almost immediately, and President James Monroe moved into the partially reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817. Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824, because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901.
Eight years in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, in the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as an area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946, creating additional office space, by 1948, the houses load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the rooms were completely dismantled. Once this work was completed, the rooms were rebuilt. The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, the property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the Presidents Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of Americas Favorite Architecture, in May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it.
The national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790, the July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction. The City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morriss city house at 190 High Street for Washingtons presidential residence, the first president occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797, and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House. As part of an effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away. President John Adams occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800, on Saturday, November 1,1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House. The Presidents House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, the Presidents House was a major feature of Pierre Charles LEnfants plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. C
Fort Lesley J. McNair
Fort Lesley J. McNair is a United States Army post located on the tip of Greenleaf Point, the peninsula that lies at the confluence of the Potomac River and the Anacostia River in Washington, D. C. To the peninsulas west is the Washington Channel, while the Anacostia River is on its south side, the military reservation was established in 1791 on about 28 acres at the tip of Greenleaf Point. Major Pierre Charles LEnfant included it in his plans for Washington, an arsenal first occupied the site and defenses were built in 1794. The fortifications did not halt the invading British in 1814, soldiers at the arsenal evacuated north with as much gunpowder as they could carry, hiding the rest in a well as the British soldiers came up the Potomac from burning the capitol. About 47 British soldiers found the powder magazines theyd come to destroy empty, someone threw a match into the well and a tremendous explosion ensued, a doctor at the scene reported, whereby the officers and about 30 of the men were killed and the rest most shockingly mangled.
The remaining soldiers destroyed the buildings, but the facilities were rebuilt after the war. Land was purchased north of the arsenal in 1826 for the first federal penitentiary, among those hanged was Mary Surratt, the first woman ever executed under federal orders. Grant Hall is the location of the 1865 military tribunal of the conspirators of the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, each quarter the Hall is open to the public where people can visit the courtroom and learn more about the trials. A hospital was next to the penitentiary in 1857. The arsenal was closed in 1881, and the post transferred to the Quartermaster Corps, a general hospital, predecessor to the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, was located at the post from 1898 until 1909. Maj. Walter Reed found the areas marshlands an excellent site for his research on malaria, reeds work contributed to the discovery of the cause of yellow fever. The major died of peritonitis after an appendectomy at the post in 1902, the post dispensary and the visiting officers quarters now occupy the buildings where Reed worked and died.
About 90 percent of the present buildings on the posts 100 acres were built and its first classes were conducted in 1904 in Roosevelt Hall, the iconic building designed by the architectural firm of McKim and White. The Army Industrial College was founded at McNair in 1924 to prepare officers for high level posts in Army supply organizations and it evolved into the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. The post was renamed as Fort Humphreys in 1935, the Army War College was reorganized as the Army-Navy Staff College in 1943, and became the National War College in 1946. The two colleges became the National Defense University in 1976, the post was renamed in 1948 to honor Lt. Gen. Lesley J. Fort McNair has been the headquarters of the U. S. Army Military District of Washington since 1966. The National Defense University represents a significant concentration of the communitys intellectual resources. The Joint Forces Staff College, established under the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1946, prepares selected officers for joint, in 1990, the iCollege was formed as the capstone institution for Defense Information Resource Management education
Washington Square Park
Washington Square Park is a 9. 75-acre public park in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, New York City. One of the best known of New York Citys 1,900 public parks, it is a landmark as well as a meeting place and it is operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. The Park is a space, dominated by the Washington Square Arch at the northern gateway to the park. The Parks fountain area has long been one of the popular spots for residents and tourists. Most of the surrounding the park now belong to New York University. Some of the buildings have built by NYU while others have been converted from their former uses into academic. Located at the foot of Fifth Avenue, the park is bordered by Washington Square North, Washington Square East, Washington Square South, while the park contains many flower beds and trees, little of the park is used for plantings due to the paving. The two prominent features are the Washington Square Arch and a large fountain and it includes childrens play areas and gardens, paths to stroll on, a chess and scrabble playing area, park benches, picnic tables, commemorative statuary and two dog runs.
The New York City Police Department operates security cameras in the park, the New York University Department of Public Safety keeps a watch on the park, and the city parks department has security officers who sometimes patrol the park. The area has a low rate in the safest big city in the United States. The land was divided by a narrow marshy valley through which Minetta Creek ran. In the early 17th century, a Native American village known as Sapokanican or Tobacco Field was nearby, by the mid-17th century, the land on each side of the Minetta was used as farm land by the Dutch. The Dutch gave the land to slaves, thus freeing them, the slaves that received the land were told that, although they were no longer slaves, they had to give a portion of the profits they received from the land to the Dutch West India Company. Also, their children would be born as slave, rather than free, the tract was in the possession of African Americans from 1643 to 1664. Today, the area, called The Land of the Blacks, is Washington Square Park, the ex-slaves who owned The Land of the Blacks included Paulo DAngola.
More information can be found at the exhibit Slavery in New York at the New-York Historical Society of Manhattan. It remained farmland until April 1797, when the Common Council of New York purchased the fields to the east of the Minetta for a new potters field and it was used mainly for burying unknown or indigent people when they died. But when New York went through yellow fever epidemics in the early 19th century, most of those who died from yellow fever were buried here, safely away from town, as a hygienic measure
City Beautiful movement
The particular architectural style of the movement borrowed mainly from the contemporary Beaux-Arts and neoclassical architectures, which emphasized the necessity of order and harmony. The first large-scale elaboration of the City Beautiful occurred during the Worlds Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago, the exposition displayed a model city of grand scale, known as the White City, with modern transport systems and no poverty visible. The exposition is credited with resulting in the adoption of monumentalism for American architecture for the next 15 years. Richmond, Virginias Monument Avenue is one expression of this initial phase, the popularization begun by the World Columbian Exposition was increased by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis in 1904. The commissioner of architects selected Franco-American architect Emmanuel Louis Masqueray to be Chief of Design of the fair, all these were widely emulated in civic projects across the United States. Masqueray resigned soon after the fair opened in 1904, having been invited by Archbishop John Ireland of St.
Paul to Minnesota to design a new cathedral for the city in the fairs Beaux Arts style. An early use of the City Beautiful ideal with the intent of creating social order through beautification was the McMillan Plan, named for Michigan Senator James McMillan. The Washington planners, who included Burnham, Saint-Gaudens, Charles McKim of McKim and White, the essence of the plan surrounded the United States Capitol with monumental government buildings to replace notorious slum communities. At the heart of the design was the creation of the National Mall, the implementation of the plan was interrupted by World War I but resumed after the war, culminating in the construction of the Lincoln Memorial in 1922. The success of the City Beautiful philosophy in Washington, D. C, in Wilmington, Delaware, it inspired the creation of Rodney Square and the surrounding civic buildings. In New Haven, John Russell Pope developed a plan for Yale University that eliminated substandard housing, daniel Burnhams 1909 Plan of Chicago is considered one of principal documents of the City Beautiful movement.
The plan featured a new civic center, axial streets. Of these, only the lakefront park was implemented to any significant degree. In 1913, the City of Chicago appointed a Commission with a mandate to “make Chicago Beautiful. ”As part of the plan, the West Side Property Owner’s Association was among those who objected. Coral Gables has many parks and a tree canopy with an urban forest planted largely in the 1920s. In Denver, Mayor Robert W. Speer endorsed City Beautiful planning, with a plan for a Civic Center, the plan was partly realized, on a reduced scale, with the Greek amphitheater, Voorhies Memorial and the Colonnade of Civic Benefactors, completed in 1919. The bronze Indian guide he envisaged was vetoed by the committee, harrisburgs movement of beautification and improvement was one of the earliest and most successful urban reform movements in the country. The causes of the defects were well known, industrialization in the previous half century had left the city poorly planned with unpaved streets
Low Memorial Library
The Low Memorial Library of Columbia University was built in 1895 by University President Seth Low as the Universitys central library. Financed with $1 million of Lows own money due to the recalcitrance of university alumni, he named it in memory of his father, Abiel Abbot Low. The steps leading to the librarys columned facade are a meeting place for Columbia students as well as home to Daniel Chester Frenchs sculpture, Alma Mater. Low Library was officially named a New York City landmark in 1967, with the interior being designated in 1981, a National Historic Landmark twenty years later. Low Library was designed by Charles Follen McKim of the firm of McKim and White. The library was designed in the style, incorporating many of the elements of Romes Pantheon. The building is in the shape of a Greek cross and features windows modeled on those of the Baths of Diocletian, the columns on the librarys front facade are in the Ionic order, suited to institutions of arts and letters. An inscription on the buildings attic describes the history of the university, at the entryway are bronze busts of Zeus and Apollo.
She is surrounded there by the signs of the zodiac. The rest of the interior is finished with Italian and Istrian marble, the rest is mostly a copybook reproduction of classical and other detail. Successful architects have too much to do to be pre-eminently artists -- they must be men of business. After a period in which it housed the universitys archives. Confusingly, the facade is still etched with the words The Library of Columbia University. Within Low, the students barricaded themselves inside the office of University President Grayson L. Kirk, dramatic scenes ensued, including attempts to catapult food to the protesters and efforts by their adversaries to cordon them off. The protesters were removed after a controversially violent assault on the building by the New York Police Department. For the Universitys semiquincentennial in 2004, an image of the library was placed on a pre-stamped postcard, seventeen students originally joined the sit-in but students who left were not allowed reentry into the building.
Six students remained to the last day, University administration locked down the building and had security guards continually monitoring the students. Over 100 students joined a sleep-out on the steps of the library to show solidarity for the participants who faced potential school sanctions or arrest
Charles Follen McKim
Charles Follen McKim was an American Beaux-Arts architect of the late 19th century. Along with William Rutherford Mead and Stanford White, he provided the architectural expertise as a member of the partnership McKim, McKim was born in Chester County, Pennsylvania. His parents were James Miller McKim, a Presbyterian minister, and they were active abolitionists and he was named after Charles Follen, another abolitionist and a Unitarian minister. After attending Harvard University, he studied architecture at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris before joining the office of Henry Hobson Richardson in 1870, McKim formed his own firm in partnership with William Rutherford Mead, joined in 1877 by fellow Richardson protégé Stanford White. For ten years, the firm was known for their open-plan informal summer houses. He designed the Howard Mansion at Hyde Park, New York and he died, aged 62, in St. James, New York. He was a member and former president of the American Institute of Architects. He became a National Academician in 1907 and he belonged to the University, Lambs and Tennis Clubs of New York, and to the St.
Botolph and Somerset Clubs of Boston. McKim received numerous awards during his lifetime, including the Medaille dOr at the 1900 Paris Exposition, the royal gold medal from Edward VII was awarded for the restoration of the White House. In 1902 Congress appropriated $475,445 for this purpose to be spent at the discretion of President Theodore Roosevelt. He received honorary doctorates from the University of Pennsylvania and Columbia University, and the degree of A. M. from Harvard in 1890. He was elected a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1877, Charles Follen McKim at the archINFORM database. The McKim Mead & White Architectural Records Collection at the New York Historical Society
Harvard Club of New York
The Harvard Club of New York is a private social club located in Midtown Manhattan, New York, USA. The club is the club in New York City whose membership is restricted almost entirely to alumni and faculty of one university. Incorporated in 1887, it is housed in adjoining lots at 27 West 44th Street and 35 West 44th Street, the original wing, built in 1894, was designed in red brick neo-Georgian style by Charles Follen McKim of McKim, Mead & White. Founded without a location in 1865, by a group of Harvard University alumni, in 1888, the members acquired land on 44th Street. The club selected architect Charles Follen McKim, of McKim, Mead & White, the design was Georgian style of architecture with Harvard brick and Indiana limestone. The building’s façade is reminiscent of the gates at Harvard Yard, in 1905, Harvard Hall, the Grill Room, a new library, a billiard room, and two floors of guest rooms were added. In 2003, a new 40, 000-square-feet contemporary glass and limestone building was added by Davis Brody Bond, under the direction of J.
Max Bond, the building is sometimes used for outside corporate events such as business conferences. Dues levied are on a scale, based on age. Like most private clubs, members of the Harvard Club are given reciprocal benefits at clubs around the United States and the world. John F. Kennedy, class of 1940 Reginald Lewis, business executive, class of 1968 John Jay McKelvey, Harvard Club of New York at hcny. com
Rhode Island State House
The Rhode Island State House is the capitol of the U. S. state of Rhode Island. It is located on the border of the Downtown and Smith Hill sections of the capital city of Providence. The building is on the National Register of Historic Places, the current State House is Rhode Islands seventh state house and the second in Providence after the Old Rhode Island State House. It was designed by the firm of McKim, Mead. The building had a renovation in the late 1990s. The building served as the United States Capitol exterior in the 1997 film Amistad and it served as the City Hall of Capital City in Disneys Underdog. The Rhode Island State House is composed of 327,000 cubic feet of white Georgia marble,15 million bricks, and 1,309 short tons of iron floor beams. The dome of the State House is the fourth-largest self-supporting marble dome in the world, after St. Peters Basilica, the Taj Mahal, on top of the dome is a gold-covered bronze statue of the Independent Man, originally named Hope. The statue, weighing more than 500 pounds, is 11 feet tall, the Independent Man represents freedom and independence and alludes to the independent spirit which led Roger Williams to settle and establish Providence and Rhode Island.
The chamber of the Rhode Island Senate is located in the east wing of the building while the chamber of the Rhode Island House of Representatives is located in the west wing. Other notable rooms in the State House include the rotunda, the State Library, the State Room is an entrance area for the office of the governor and contains a full-scale portrait of George Washington by Rhode Island native Gilbert Stuart. This room is where the governor has press conferences and bill signings at the State House, one of the first public buildings to use electricity, the Rhode Island State House is lit by 109 floodlights and two searchlights at night. Inside the State House is carved marble, over the pillared porticoes are quotations and historical chronologies of Rhode Island. Throughout the rotunda are battle flags and guns representing the military past. In the center of the rotunda, under the dome, is a brass replica of the state seal. The building can be seen from I-95, though the Providence Place Mall has blocked much of the view from the northbound lanes, in 2013, Governor Lincoln Chafees administration started to remove grass from the eastern side of the Statehouse lawn in order to provide extra parking for employees.
The move was opposed by the Capital Center Commission, which is a public board designated with the task of overseeing zoning requirements within the district, supporters of the proposed parking say that there is demand from employees and visitors to the building. The state spent $3.1 million on a piece of land on Francis Street next to I-95 for parking