The McMurdo Station is a United States Antarctic research station on the south tip of Ross Island, in the New Zealand–claimed Ross Dependency on the shore of McMurdo Sound in Antarctica. It is operated by the United States through the United States Antarctic Program, a branch of the National Science Foundation; the station is the largest community in Antarctica, capable of supporting up to 1,258 residents, serves as one of three United States Antarctic science facilities. All personnel and cargo going to or coming from Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station first pass through McMurdo. By road, McMurdo is 3 kilometres from New Zealand's smaller Scott Base; the station takes its name from its geographic location on McMurdo Sound, named after Lieutenant Archibald McMurdo of HMS Terror. Under the command of British explorer James Clark Ross, the Terror first charted the area in 1841; the British explorer Robert Falcon Scott established a base camp close to this spot in 1902 and built a cabin there, named Discovery Hut.
It still stands as a historic monument near the water's edge on Hut Point at McMurdo Station. The volcanic rock of the site is the southernmost bare ground accessible by ship in the world; the United States opened its first station at McMurdo on February 16, 1956 as part of Operation Deep Freeze. The base, built by the U. S. Navy Seabees, was designated Naval Air Facility McMurdo. On November 28, 1957, Admiral George J. Dufek visited McMurdo with a U. S. congressional delegation for a change-of-command ceremony. McMurdo Station became the center of scientific and logistical operation during the International Geophysical Year, an international scientific effort that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958; the Antarctic Treaty, subsequently signed by over forty-five governments, regulates intergovernmental relations with respect to Antarctica and governs the conduct of daily life at McMurdo for United States Antarctic Program participants. The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System, opened for signature on December 1, 1959, entered into force on June 23, 1961.
The first scientific diving protocols were established before 1960 and the first diving operations were documented in November 1961. On March 3, 1962, the U. S. Navy activated the PM-3A nuclear power plant at the station; the unit was prefabricated in modules to facilitate assembly. Engineers designed the components to weigh no more than 30,000 pounds each and to measure no more than 8 feet 8 inches by 8 feet 8 inches by 30 feet. A single core no larger than an oil drum served as the heart of the nuclear reactor; these size and weight restrictions aimed to allow delivery of the reactor in an LC-130 Hercules aircraft. However, the components were delivered by ship; the reactor generated 1.8 MW of electrical power and replaced the need for 1,500 US gallons of oil daily. Engineers applied the reactor's power, for instance, in producing steam for the salt-water distillation plant; as a result of continuing safety issues, the U. S. Army Nuclear Power Program decommissioned the plant in 1972. Conventional diesel generators replaced the nuclear power station, with a number of 500 kilowatts diesel generators in a central powerhouse providing electric power.
A conventionally-fueled water-desalination plant provided fresh water. As of 2007, McMurdo Station was Antarctica's largest community and a functional, modern-day science station, including a harbor, three airfields, a heliport and more than 100 buildings, including the Albert P. Crary Science and Engineering Center; the station is home to the continent's two ATMs, both provided by Wells Fargo Bank. The work done at McMurdo Station focuses on science, but most of the residents are not scientists, but station personnel who provide support for operations, information technology and maintenance. Scientists and other personnel at McMurdo are participants in the USAP, which co-ordinates research and operational support in the region. Werner Herzog's 2007 documentary Encounters at the End of the World reports on the life and culture of McMurdo Station from the point-of-view of residents. Anthony Powell's 2013 documentary Antarctica: A Year on Ice provides time-lapse photography of Antarctica intertwined with personal accounts from residents of McMurdo Station and of the adjacent Scott Base over the course of a year.
An annual sealift by cargo ships as part of Operation Deep Freeze delivers 8 million U. S. gallons of fuel and 11 million pounds of supplies and equipment for McMurdo residents. The ships, operated by the U. S. Military Sealift Command, are manned by civilian mariners. Cargo may range from mail, construction materials, tractors and frozen food, to scientific instruments. U. S. Coast Guard icebreakers break a ship channel through ice-clogged McMurdo Sound in order for supply ships to reach Winter Quarters Bay at McMurdo. Additional supplies and personnel are flown in to nearby Williams Field from Christchurch in New Zealand. Between 1962 and 1963, 28 Arcas sounding rockets were launched from McMurdo Station. McMurdo Station stands about two miles from Scott Base, the New Zealand science station, all of Ross Island lies within a sector claimed by New Zealand. Criticism has been leveled at the base regarding its construction projects the McMurdo- South Pole highway. McMurdo Station has attempted to improve environmental management and waste removal in order to adhere to the Pr
The Fatboy Slim/Norman Cook Collection is a compilation album by British big beat musician Fatboy Slim, released on Hip-O Records in 2000. It was produced by Fatboy Slim. Beats International – "Won't Talk About It" Pierre Henry – "Psyché Rock" Deeds + Thoughts – "The World Is Made Up of This and That" Beats International – "Echo Chamber" Beats International – "Dub Be Good to Me" Jean-Jacques Perrey – "E. V. A." A Tribe Called Quest – "I Left My Wallet in El Segundo" Beats International – "The Sun Doesn't Shine" Shinehead – "Start an Avalanche" Wildchild – "Renegade Master" Lunatic Calm – "Roll the Dice" James Brown – "Payback" Beats International – "Tribute to King Tubby" The Fatboy Slim/Norman Cook Collection at MusicBrainz The Fatboy Slim/Norman Cook Collection at Discogs
Kristen Hager is a Canadian actress. She co-starred in films Aliens vs. Predator: Requiem and Wanted, played Leslie Van Houten in the independent film Leslie, My Name Is Evil. From 2011 to 2014, Hager starred as Nora Sergeant in the Syfy supernatural comedy-drama series, Being Human. Hager was born in Ontario, she made her first television appearance in the Lifetime mini-series where she gained a role on the Beach Girls in 2005. The following year, Hager had the recurring role on the short-lived Runaway. In 2007, she had a small part in the biographical drama film I'm Not There, in the same year played one of the female leads in the science-fiction action horror film Aliens vs. Predator: Requiem, the sequel to Alien vs. Predator. In 2008, she played James McAvoy's character's girlfriend in the action thriller, Wanted. In 2009, Hager played the leading role in the independent film Leslie, My Name Is Evil about Leslie Van Houten, she had a supporting role in the Canadian family drama series, Wild Roses, starred as the lead character in the MTV miniseries Valemont.
In 2011, she was cast as Nora Sergeant in the Syfy supernatural comedy-drama series. The series ended after four seasons in 2014. Hager appeared in the films A Little Bit Zombie, The Right Kind of Wrong and The Barber. In 2015, Hager was cast as a lead character on the ABC drama pilot The Adversaries, about a New York legal dynasty, co-starring alongside Christine Lahti and Terry O'Quinn. Kristen Hager on Twitter Kristen Hager on IMDb