The Meadowlands Sports Complex is a sports complex located in East Rutherford, Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. The facilty is operated by the New Jersey Sports and Exposition Authority; the complex consists of the MetLife Stadium, home to the New York Giants and New York Jets of the National Football League and the New York Guardians of the XFL. The complex is the home to the American Dream entertainment venue and the now-closed Meadowlands Arena, which served as a home for the New Jersey Devils of the National Hockey League, Seton Hall University's men's basketball team, the team the arena was built for, the now-Brooklyn Nets of the National Basketball Association. In the mid-1960s, civic leaders in New Jersey began calling for a sports complex in the New Jersey Meadowlands that would be able to lure a NFL team from New York City; the New Jersey Sports and Exposition Authority Law was passed by the New Jersey Legislature in 1971 and signed by then–Governor of New Jersey William T. Cahill.
The first chairman of the NJSEA was David A. "Sonny" Werblin, former president of the NFL's New York Jets. By year's end, Werblin had secured a deal for the New York Giants, who were playing in Yankee Stadium in the Bronx, to move to the Meadowlands. Ground was broken on Giants Stadium and the Meadowlands Racetrack on November 19, 1972. To accommodate the new facility, access roads were improved; the New Jersey Turnpike, suffering the burden of increased traffic volumes near its northern terminus in Ridgefield Park, built a new alignment, the "western spur", with an exit, interchange 16W, leading directly to the sports complex as well as to Route 3. Routes 3 and 20 received improvements. On September 1, 1976, the Meadowlands Racetrack became the first complex venue to open, featuring harness racing; the track drew a capacity crowd of 42,133 for its initial date. Giants Stadium opened on October 10, 1976, as 76,042 fans watched the New York Giants lose to the Dallas Cowboys, 24–14. By 1977, plans were in the works to expand the complex.
A new arena was to be built on the opposite side of Route 20 from the stadium and racetrack, connected by vehicle ramps and a pedestrian bridge. Brendan Byrne Arena, named for the sitting governor, opened July 2, 1981, with the first of six sold-out shows by musician Bruce Springsteen; the arena was renamed for its corporate sponsor, Continental Airlines, as Continental Airlines Arena, in early 1996, since the arena had a hub at nearby Newark Liberty International Airport. It was renamed again in 2007 for Izod as Izod Center; the first tenant in the arena was the New Jersey Nets in 1981. A year the New Jersey Devils of the NHL and the Seton Hall University men's basketball team joined the Nets; the Nets played their first game at the arena on October 30, 1981, lost to their cross-river rivals, the New York Knicks by a score of 103–99. The Devils played their first game on October 1982, against the Pittsburgh Penguins; the game ended in a 3–3 tie. The New York Jets moved to Giants Stadium on September 6, 1984, after playing at Shea Stadium for nearly 20 years.
In their first game at the stadium on that day, the Jets lost 23–17 to the Pittsburgh Steelers in front of 70,564 fans. In 2007, construction began on a mega-mall, named Meadowlands Xanadu. Work came to a halt in 2009, Triple Five, owners of the Mall of America, took over the project in 2011; the construction was not complete until 2019. The New Jersey Devils and Seton Hall Pirates left the complex when the Prudential Center was finished in 2007, followed by the New Jersey Nets, who moved there in 2010 to go to Prudential Center Brooklyn two years leaving the Izod Center devoid of a main tenant but free to host more concerts and events. Giants Stadium closed in at demolition started immediately. In September 2010, MetLife Stadium known as New Meadowlands Stadium, opened for its first game, it was built and funded by the Jets and Giants. A commuter train line and a training center for the Giants opened at the same time. MetLife bought the naming rights for the stadium and the entire complex in August 2011.
Meadowlands Arena closed in April 2015 to the public after suffering the loss of its major tenants and economic losses from other events. Since the arena has been used for concert rehearsals and private video productions; the former arena box offices are used as a station for the NJSEA EMS and the former Winner's Club lounge restaurant is the quarters for the New Jersey State Police. In addition to the three venues, the complex hosts events in the MetLife Stadium parking lot. State Fair Meadowlands began in 1986 and has been operated by State Fair of Belleville since 2003; the parking lot is the home of a twice-weekly flea market, canceled when the parking spaces are needed for stadium events. The NJSEA hires in-house security and emergency medical services staff to serve the venues at the Sports Complex, including MetLife Stadium. Law enforcement is provided by the New Jersey State Police Sports Complex Unit. MetLife Stadium is the home stadium for the New York Giants and New York Jets of the NFL and until the opening of SoFi Stadium in Inglewood, California is the only facility home to two NFL franchises.
The home of the New York Guardians of the XFL, the stadium opened in 2010, following the closing and demolition of the Giants' and the Jets' previous home
Jonathan Shay is a doctor and clinical psychiatrist. He holds a B. A from Harvard and an M. D. and a Ph. D. from the University of Pennsylvania. He is best known for his publications comparing the experiences of Vietnam veterans with the descriptions of war and homecoming in Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. Shay's early medical work was laboratory research on how central nervous system cells are affected by strokes, but after suffering a stroke himself, he went to work for the United States Department of Veterans' Affairs outpatient clinic in Boston. While working there, in his words, "The veterans kidnapped me," and his work with them "utterly redirected my life."In 1987, Shay shifted from neuropathology to the study of posttraumatic stress disorder and published a short article linking the combat histories of patients at the VA with the experience of war described in Homer's Iliad. He was approached by classics professor Gregory Nagy who suggested that the topic might be expanded into a full-length book on the nature and treatment of PTSD.
He has written two books, Achilles in Vietnam: Combat Trauma and the Undoing of Character and Odysseus in America: Combat Trauma and the Trials of Homecoming, which discuss PTSD by reference to the experiences of American veterans of the Vietnam War, the experiences depicted in the Iliad and the Odyssey. Shay's research uncovered what may be the earliest historical reference to PTSD, in Lady Percy's soliloquy in Henry IV, Part 1. Written around 1597, it represents an unusually accurate description of the symptom constellation of PTSD. Shay has done research on the use of Prozac in treating PTSD in Vietnam veterans. Shay writes, "For years I have agitated against the diagnostic jargon'Posttraumatic stress disorder' because transparently we are dealing with an injury, not an illness, disease, sickness, or disorder."Shay argues that PTSD is not an illness but the persistence of adaptive behaviors needed to survive in a stressful environment. For example, emotional numbing is useful in a disaster situation and maladaptive in a family setting, loss of trust enhances survival in a prison but not in a community setting.
Like Derek Summerfield, he argues against labeling and patronizing treatment. Shay recommends that we resocialize trauma survivors as a means of promoting acceptable behavior patterns, he cites classical Greek theater and the collective mourning described in the Iliad as possible precedents. In Odysseus in America he writes of "the circle of communalization of trauma": "When trauma survivors hear that enough of the truth of their experience has been understood and retold with enough fidelity to carry some of this truth... the circle of communalization is complete." Shay is a passionate advocate of improved mental health treatment for soldiers and of more vigorous efforts to prevent PTSD, in addition to structural reform of the ways the U. S. armed forces are organized and counseled. He has collaborated with General James Jones, the past commandant of the Marines, Major General James Mattis of the Marines, he has promoted the concept of preventative psychiatry in support of military cohesion and training: Prevention of psychological and moral injury in military service has three axes: cohesion and training.
First is keep people together. Train them together, send them into danger together, bring them home together, give them time together to digest what they've just been through... The second axis is expert and properly supported leadership... The third axis of prevention is prolonged, realistic training for what the troops have to do and face. Shay introduced the concept of "Moral injury" and recommended treatment strategies for it in his two books. Moral injury is a distinct syndrome from PTSD and is one of the primary themes for the veterans described in his books leading to personality changes and obstructing successful treatment. Shay writes. Moral injury is present. Factor is an instance of Shay's concept of "leadership malpractice". Other authors have alternative definitions. Hodgson and Carey note in their systematic scoping and comparative review of moral injury definitions, that there have emerged seventeen or more different definitional variations of "moral injury" since Shay's original term - some of which have explicitly retained the concept of "betrayal" while others have failed to mention this fundamental definitive factor.
Shay is respected in military circles, having conducted the Commandant of the Marine Corps Trust Study. S. Naval War College. S. Army Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel. In 2007 he received a MacArthur "Genius Grant" fellowship. In 2010 he was awarded the Salem Award for Human Rights and Social Justice for "building public awareness and acceptance of post-traumatic stress disorder as a serious and bona fide war injury."In 2018, Volunteers of America established The Shay Moral Injury Center, named in his honor and dedicated to deepening understanding about moral injury in the many populations who experience it. Jonathan Shay talks about the concept of moral injury, part 1 and Part 2 December 20, 2010 Why Study Thymos? Video of lecture at Col
The Phoenix Companies, Inc. is a financial services company that traces its origins to 1851. Phoenix is headquartered in Hartford and has 650 employees as of 2015. Phoenix remains one of the few insurance companies to keep its headquarters in Hartford; the Phoenix Companies comprises a number of businesses that trace their origins to the mid-19th century. In 1851, the oldest predecessor of The Phoenix Companies, The American Temperance Life Insurance Company, was founded; the American Temperance Life Insurance Company was a part-mutual, part-stock company that insured only those who abstained from alcohol and was founded by a group of prominent Hartford businessmen as well as religious and civic leaders. As the temperance movement began to wane, American Temperance Life Insurance Company changed its name to Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Company in 1860, accepting all customers; the company's new name is in reference to the mythological Phoenix, rather than the city. In 1857, an agent from the Phoenix Companies, Sylvester M. Wait, assigned the name Phoenix, named after the company, to a small town in Southern Oregon.
In 1860, another early predecessor, the Home Life Insurance Company was formed in Brooklyn, New York and was the first life insurer authorized by the New York Insurance Department. In 1894, Home Life built a new 16-story headquarters on Broadway in New York City, which as one of the world's first steel-framed skyscrapers for a short time was one of the world's tallest buildings. In the early 20th century, the company pioneered several innovations in the marketing of insurance. In 1901, Phoenix published The Field, believed to be the first agent newsletter and in 1906 produced "A Prospectus and Ten Lessons Upon Life Insurance," the first agent training course used by a life insurance company. In 1912, Phoenix became the first life insurance company to use direct mail advertising. In 1923, Phoenix created the first advertisement to promote the value of life insurance and in 1926, runs advertisements for its retirement income plan in national magazines, with the tag line, "You don't have to be rich to retire at 55 on $200 a month."
Phoenix pioneered other innovations, including offering reduced life insurance premium rates for women for the first time in 1955 and selling group life and health insurance plans to small businesses in 1957. In 1967, Phoenix is the first insurer to offer discounted premiums to nonsmokers. Phoenix and Home Life completed a merger in 1992 to create the Phoenix Home Life Mutual Insurance Company. At the time of the merger, the combined company would become the 13th-largest mutual life insurance company in the U. S. with assets of nearly $11 billion. The combined company was headquartered in Hartford, where Phoenix was based and the bulk of the senior management of the company came from the Phoenix side of the merger. In 1995, Phoenix merged its asset management subsidiary, Phoenix Securities Group, with Duff & Phelps, forming Phoenix Duff & Phelps Corporation, publicly held for five years. In 2001, Phoenix converted from a mutual to a stock company; the company is renamed The Phoenix Companies, Inc. and listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol of PNX.
At the same time Phoenix Home Life Mutual Insurance Company changed its name to Phoenix Life Insurance Company. In 2008, Phoenix spun off its asset management subsidiary to shareholders as an independent publicly traded company renamed Virtus Investment Partners. In 2011, Phoenix sold its Goodwin Capital Advisers subsidiary to Company. In September 2015, Phoenix announced they were being acquired by Nassau Reinsurance Group, a held company, for $217.2 million. The acquisition closed on June 20, 2016 and Phoenix became a private company. On March 15, 2004, Trust Operations were discontinued in the fourth quarter of 2003. Prior-period results have been restated. On March 11, 2005, the company's fourth-quarter and full-year 2004 net income reflected revised after-tax net gains of $40.4 million and $41.2 million related to Phoenix's 16.5 percent equity stake in Aberdeen. Notes SourcesNew Look for the Nest Egg. New York Times, April 10, 1997 Official website