Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U. S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century, his third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has been subject to much criticism, he is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.
S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, to a Dutch American family made well known by Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States and William Henry Aspinwall. FDR attended Groton School, Harvard College, Columbia Law School, went on to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt, they had six children. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded the treatment center in Warm Springs, for people with poliomyelitis. In spite of being unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office by winning election as Governor of New York in 1928.
He was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform Governor, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide. Roosevelt took office while the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression, the worst economic crisis in the country's history. During the first 100 days of the 73rd United States Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief and reform, he created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other programs. He instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance and labor, presided over the end of Prohibition, he harnessed radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and becoming the first American president to be televised.
The economy having improved from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. However, the economy relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 and 1938. After the 1936 election, Roosevelt sought passage of the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court of the United States; the bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented passage of the bill and blocked the implementation of further New Deal programs and reforms. Major surviving programs and legislation implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security. Roosevelt ran for reelection in 1940, his victory made him the only U. S. President to serve for more than two terms. With World War II looming after 1938, Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China as well as the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union while the U. S. remained neutral.
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he famously called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a declaration of war on Japan the next day, a few days on Germany and Italy. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with strong national support, he worked with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, making the defeat of Germany a priority over that of Japan. He initiated the development of the world's first atomic bomb and worked with the other Allied leaders to lay the groundwork for the United Nations and other post-war institutions. Roosevelt won reelection in 1944 but with his physical health declining during the war years, he died in April 1945, just 11 weeks into his fourth term; the Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies in the months following Roosevelt's death, during the presidency of Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York, to businessman James Roosevelt I and his second wife, Sara Ann Delano. Roosevelt's parents, who were sixth cousins, both came from wealthy old New York families, the Roosevelts, the Aspinwalls and the Delanos, respectively. Roo
Lewis and Clark County, Montana
Lewis and Clark County is a county located in the U. S. state of Montana. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 63,395, its county seat is the state capital. The numerical designation for Lewis and Clark County is 5; the county was established in 1865 as Edgerton County, was renamed "Lewis and Clark County" two years later. The present name was given in honor of explorers Clark. Lewis and Clark County is part of Montana Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,948 square miles, of which 3,459 square miles is land and 39 square miles is water. I-15 US 12 US 287 MT 21 MT 200 S-279 S-284 S-434 Lewis and Clark County leans Republican, but it has voted for Democratic candidates in the past. Bill Clinton won by nearly seven percentage points in 1992, but Bob Dole won by 130 votes in 1996. Barack Obama carried the county in 2008 but lost it to Mitt Romney in 2012; as of 2000, there were 55,716 people, 22,850 households, 14,966 families in the county.
The population density was 16 people per square mile. There were 25,672 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.21% white, 0.20% Black or African American, 2.04% Native American, 0.52% Asian American, 0.05% Pacific Islander American, 0.38% from other races, 1.61% from two or more races. 1.51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 22.6% were of German, 15.5% Irish, 10.9% English, 9.5% Norwegian and 6.1% American ancestry. There were 22,850 households out of which 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.40% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.50% were non-families. 29.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.95. The county population contained 25.60% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 26.20% from 45 to 64, 11.70% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,360, the median income for a family was $46,766. Males had a median income of $33,515 versus $23,961 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,763. About 7.30% of families and 10.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.60% of those under age 18 and 6.50% of those age 65 or over. In the county of the population that's 25 years old and over 91.4% of them have a High school diploma, 31.6% of that population has a Bachelor's degree or higher, 17.2% of the population is disabled, 1.6% of them are foreign born, only 4.0% of the population can speak another language at home. According to the 2000 Census 59.7% of the population is married but, now separated. For the women it is only 3% lower at 56.7%. The average family size is 2.95. In the county, there are 25,672 homes; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 63,395 people, 26,694 households, 16,705 families in the county.
The population density was 18.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 30,180 housing units at an average density of 8.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.0% white, 2.1% American Indian, 0.6% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.5% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 29.2% were German, 19.3% were Irish, 15.0% were English, 8.9% were Norwegian, 5.1% were American. Of the 26,694 households, 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.0% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.4% were non-families, 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 40.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $50,238 and the median income for a family was $65,573. Males had a median income of $44,476 versus $34,893 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $25,894. About 5.8% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.2% of those under age 18 and 4.1% of those age 65 or over. Helena East Helena List of cemeteries in Lewis and Clark County, Montana List of lakes in Lewis and Clark County, Montana List of mountains in Lewis and Clark County, Montana List of counties in Montana National Register of Historic Places listings in Lewis and Clark County, Montana Lewis and Clark County web site
Lewis and Clark National Forest
Lewis and Clark National Forest is located in west central Montana, United States. Spanning 2,912 square miles, the forest is managed as two separate zones; the eastern sections, under the Jefferson Division, is a mixture of grass and shrublands dotted with "island" pockets of forested areas. Here, cattle leases to local ranchers as well as timber harvesting are the norm; the western Rocky Mountain Division, which straddles the Continental divide, is managed chiefly for environmental preservation, as much of the land has been designated as wilderness. Forest headquarters are located in Montana. Local ranger district offices have been established in Choteau, Neihart and White Sulphur Springs; the forest lands were defined and established by the federal government in 1897, following its Treaty of 1896 with the Blackfeet establishing their adjacent reservation. This forest is one of the oldest forest preserves in the U. S; the forest is named in honor of the members of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, which passed through the forest between 1804 and 1806 while exploring the Louisiana Purchase for President Thomas Jefferson.
Prior to that, the region was inhabited by various cultures of Native Americans for a period of at least 8,000-10,000 years. When the Lewis & Clark expedition came to this area, different areas of the large forest territory were used by members of the Blackfeet, Cheyenne and Crow nations for hunting and as an area for their seasonal winter camps; the forests provided shelter from the winter. Altitudes range from 4,500 feet to the top of Rocky Mountain Peak at 9,362 feet; the forest encompasses eight mountain ranges. The westernmost section includes portions of the Scapegoat and the Bob Marshall wildernesses, borders Glacier National Park to the north; the western Rocky Mountain Division, informally called the Rocky Mountain Front, consists of a dense coniferous forest and has numerous species of spruce and pine. The Jefferson Division is dominated by lodgepole pine which prefer a drier climate; the grizzly bear and timber wolf are found in the western sections of the forest, are dense in the designated wilderness areas.
In addition, the western section contains much of the wildlife present at the time of the Lewis and Clark Expedition through the region. Mountain goats, bighorn sheep, cougars, Canadian lynxes and black bears are most common nearest the Continental Divide. In other sections of the forest, black bears, mule deer and white-tailed deer are the largest mammals found. Coyotes, beavers, muskrats, river otters and Columbian white-tailed deer inhabit the up-stream inlands. Throughout the forest, bald eagles, peregrine falcon and red tailed hawks are increasing in numbers. Lakes and streams are more numerous in the western section due to a higher altitude and more precipitation, are home to the native westslope cutthroat trout. In the 1,600 miles of rivers and streams in the forest, rainbow trout, brook trout and northern pike are common. Excellent fly fishing opportunities are plentiful in the Smith River; the National Forest has 29 vehicle-accessible campgrounds. Two ski areas operate within the forest.
1,500 miles of hiking trails provide access to remote locations in the seven different mountain ranges within the Forest. Solitude is most common in the Crazy Mountains and in the wilderness areas near the Continental divide. Summertime average high temperatures are in the 70s °F, but the winter can be cold in the more exposed eastern sections. Snow can linger for up to 10 months of the year along the Continental divide; the forest lies in parts of thirteen counties. In descending order of land area, they are Lewis and Clark, Judith Basin, Cascade, Fergus, Chouteau, Golden Valley, Sweet Grass, Park counties. In the late 19th century, after the end of the Indian Wars, the federal government worked to move Native American tribes on to Indian reservations, requiring them to cede land and extinguish their land claims to large areas of territory; the United States wanted to open the West to development by European Americans. The Blackfeet Indian Reservation, with members of the Piegan Blackfeet branch, was established by Treaty of 1896 to the east of this forest area and Glacier National Park, bordering the province of Alberta, Canada to the north.
The forest was established on February 22, 1897 as the Lewis and Clarke Forest Reserve under the management of the US General Land Office. On June 9, 1903 the Flathead Forest Reserve was added, on March 2, 1907 the spelling was changed to Lewis and Clark, land was added; the forest territory had been transferred to the U. S. Forest Service in 1906, was designated by the government as a National Forest. On April 8, 1932 the entire Jefferson National Forest was added, which itself comprised the former Little Belt, Crazy Mountain, Snowy Mountains, Little Rockies and Highwood Mountains National Forests. On July 1, 1945, part of Absaroka National Forest was added as the last portion of this forest; the Helena and Lewis and Clark National forests consolidated their administrations in 2014. List of Forests in Montana Alice Creek Fire "Lewis and Clark National Forest". U. S. Forest Service. Retrieved 2006-07-08
Montana is a landlocked state in the Northwestern United States. Montana has several nicknames, although none are official, including "Big Sky Country" and "The Treasure State", slogans that include "Land of the Shining Mountains" and more "The Last Best Place". Montana is the 4th largest in area, the 8th least populous, the 3rd least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In all, 77 named; the eastern half of Montana is characterized by badlands. Montana is bordered by Idaho to the west, Wyoming to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the north; the economy is based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic resources include oil, coal, hard rock mining, lumber; the health care and government sectors are significant to the state's economy. The state's fastest-growing sector is tourism.
Nearly 13 million tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, the Beartooth Highway, Flathead Lake, Big Sky Resort, other attractions. The name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña, which in turn comes from the Latin word Montanea, meaning "mountain", or more broadly, "mountainous country". Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the entire mountainous region of the west; the name Montana was added to a bill by the United States House Committee on Territories, chaired at the time by Rep. James Ashley of Ohio, for the territory that would become Idaho Territory; the name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson and Benjamin F. Harding, who complained Montana had "no meaning"; when Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox of Ohio, objected to the name. Cox complained the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one.
Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was decided the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, so the original name of Montana was adopted. Montana is one of the nine Mountain States, located in the north of the region known as the Western United States, it borders North South Dakota to the east. Wyoming is to the south, Idaho is to the west and southwest, three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, are to the north. With an area of 147,040 square miles, Montana is larger than Japan, it is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska and California. S. state. The state's topography is defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montana's 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the state's western half, most of, geologically and geographically part of the Northern Rocky Mountains; the Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the state's south-central part are technically part of the Central Rocky Mountains.
The Rocky Mountain Front is a significant feature in the state's north-central portion, isolated island ranges that interrupt the prairie landscape common in the central and eastern parts of the state. About 60 percent of the state is part of the northern Great Plains; the Bitterroot Mountains—one of the longest continuous ranges in the Rocky Mountain chain from Alaska to Mexico—along with smaller ranges, including the Coeur d'Alene Mountains and the Cabinet Mountains, divide the state from Idaho. The southern third of the Bitterroot range blends into the Continental Divide. Other major mountain ranges west of the Divide include the Cabinet Mountains, the Anaconda Range, the Missions, the Garnet Range, Sapphire Mountains, Flint Creek Range; the Divide's northern section, where the mountains give way to prairie, is part of the Rocky Mountain Front. The front is most pronounced in the Lewis Range, located in Glacier National Park. Due to the configuration of mountain ranges in Glacier National Park, the Northern Divide crosses this region and turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak.
It causes the Waterton River and Saint Mary rivers to flow north into Alberta, Canada. There they join the Saskatchewan River, which empties into Hudson Bay. East of the divide, several parallel ranges cover the state's southern part, including the Gravelly Range, the Madison Range, Gallatin Range, Absaroka Mountains and the Beartooth Mountains; the Beartooth Plateau is the largest continuous land mass over 10,000 feet high in the continental United States. It contains Granite Peak, 12,799 feet high. North of these ranges are the Big Belt Mountains, Bridger Mountains, Tobacco Roots, several island ranges, including the Crazy Mountains and Little Belt Mountains. Between many mountain ranges are rich river valleys; the Big Hole Valley, Bitterroot Valley, Gallatin Valley, Flathead Valley, Paradise Valley have extensive agricultural resources and multiple opportunities for tourism and recreation. East and north of this transition zone are the expansive and sparsely populated Northern Plains, with tableland prairies, smaller island mountain ranges, badlands.
The isolated island ranges east of the Divide include the Bear Paw Mountains, Bull Mountains, Castle Mountains, Crazy Mountains, Highwood Mountains, Judi
White Sulphur Springs, Montana
White Sulphur Springs is a city in and the county seat of Meagher County, United States. The population was 939 at the 2010 census; the center of population of Montana is located in White Sulphur Springs. White Sulphur Springs is located at 46°32′47″N 110°54′9″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.01 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 939 people, 433 households, 255 families residing in the city; the population density was 929.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 563 housing units at an average density of 557.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.2% White, 0.1% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population. There were 433 households of which 22.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 1.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.1% were non-families.
37.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.75. The median age in the city was 51.2 years. 19% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.8% male and 50.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 984 people, 443 households, 265 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,069.1 people per square mile. There were 567 housing units at an average density of 616.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.24% White, 1.42% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 1.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.93% of the population. There were 443 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.1% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.0% were non-families.
37.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.84. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 22.5% from 25 to 44, 26.9% from 45 to 64, 21.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,229, the median income for a family was $34,342. Males had a median income of $23,403 versus $13,929 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,836. About 11.6% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.5% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over. Dirk Benedict, actor, is from White Sulphur Springs. Ivan Doig, was born in White Sulphur Springs. Emmanuel Taylor Gordon, Harlem Renaissance singer and performer, was born and died in White Sulphur Springs.
Sarah Calhoun, founder of the women's workwear company Red Ants Pants. Doctor Thomas Merton MongarA student rights advocate, radical thinker, controversial critic of government policy who made pioneering contributions through his research, to the field of Political Science, he completed a BA at the University of Montana and continued his studies at the University of Oregon where he obtained a PhD. He taught at the University of Washington, Queens College in New York City, McMaster University in Burlington and Memorial University of Newfoundland. Richard T Ringling, Son of Ringling brothers founder, Alf T. Ringling. Paul Ringling, legislator. Son of Richard and Aubrey Ringling. Grandson of Alf T. Ringling. National Register of Historic Places in Meagher County Chamber of commerce
1976 United States presidential election in Montana
The 1976 United States presidential election in Montana was part of the 1976 United States presidential election, which took place on November 2, 1976. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Montana voted for the Republican nominee, President Gerald Ford, over the Democratic nominee, former Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter. Ford won Montana by a margin of 7.44%. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which McCone County and Wibaux County voted for a Democratic Presidential candidate
1972 United States presidential election in Montana
The 1972 United States presidential election in Montana took place on November 7, 1972, was part of the 1972 United States presidential election. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Montana voted for the Republican nominee, President Richard Nixon, over the Democratic nominee, Senator George McGovern. Nixon won Montana by a margin of 20.08 percent.