The American Mafia or Italian-American Mafia is a organized Italian-American criminal society. The organization is referred to by members as Cosa Nostra and by the government as La Cosa Nostra; the organization's name is derived from the original Mafia or Cosa nostra, the Sicilian Mafia, it emerged as an offshoot of the Sicilian Mafia. It is colloquially referred to as the Italian Mafia or Italian Mob, though these terms may apply to the separate yet related Sicilian Mafia or other organized crime groups in Italy; the Mafia in the United States emerged in impoverished Italian immigrant neighborhoods or ghettos in New York's East Harlem, Lower East Side, Brooklyn. It emerged in other areas of the East Coast of the United States and several other major metropolitan areas during the late 19th century and early 20th century, following waves of Italian immigration from Sicily and other regions of Southern Italy, it is a separate organization in the United States. Neapolitan and other Italian criminal groups in the U.
S. as well as independent Italian-American criminals merged with Sicilian Mafiosi to create the modern pan-Italian Mafia in North America. Today, the American Mafia cooperates in various criminal activities with Italian organized crime groups, such as the Sicilian Mafia, the Camorra of Naples, and'Ndrangheta of Calabria; the most important unit of the American Mafia is that of a "family," as the various criminal organizations that make up the Mafia are known. Despite the name of "family" to describe the various units, they are not familial groupings; the Mafia is most active in the northeastern United States, with the heaviest activity in New York City, with a substantial presence in Philadelphia, New Jersey and New England, in areas such as Boston and Hartford. It is highly active in Chicago and other large Midwestern cities such as Detroit, Milwaukee, Cleveland, St. Louis, Kansas City, a smaller presence in places like New Orleans, Denver, Las Vegas and Los Angeles, with smaller families and crews in other parts of the country.
At the Mafia's peak, there were at least 26 cities around the United States with Cosa Nostra families, with many more offshoots and associates in other cities. There are five main New York City Mafia families, known as the Five Families: the Gambino, Genovese and Colombo families. At its peak, the American Mafia dominated organized crime in the United States; each crime family has its own territory and operates independently, while nationwide coordination is overseen by the Commission, which consists of the bosses of each of the strongest families. Today, most of the Mafia's activities are contained to the northeastern United States and Chicago, where they continue to dominate organized crime, despite the increasing numbers of other crime groups; the term Mafia was used in Italy by the media and law enforcement to describe criminal groups in Sicily. The origins of the term are debatable, though most agree the term is derived from the word ma'afir, a term rooted in Arabic and meaning'shelter' or'place of refuge'.
Like the Sicilian Mafia, the American Mafia did not use the term mafia to describe itself. Neither group instead used the term cosa nostra when referring to themselves; when Italian immigrants started forming organized crime groups in the United States, the American press borrowed the term mafia from Italy and it became the predominant name used by law enforcement and the public."Mafia" properly refers to either the Sicilian or Italian-American Mafia. In modern usage, when referring to the Mafia, there may be several meanings, including a local area's Italian organized crime element, the Mafia family of a major city, the entire Mafia of the United States, or the original Sicilian Mafia. Widespread recognition of the word has led to its use in the names of other criminal organizations, such as the Jewish Mafia, Mexican Mafia, or Russian Mafia, as well as non-criminal organizations, such as John F. Kennedy's political team, referred to as the "Irish Mafia"; the press coined the name "National Crime Syndicate" to refer to the entire network of U.
S. organized crime, which includes the Italian-American Mafia. It was described as a confederation of Italian and Jewish-American organized crime groups throughout the U. S. as revealed by the findings of a U. S. Senate Special Committee in the 1950s chaired by Estes Kefauver; the first published account of what became the Mafia in the United States dates to the spring of 1869. The New Orleans Times reported that the city's Second District had become overrun by "well-known and notorious Sicilian murderers and burglars, who, in the last month, have formed a sort of general co-partnership or stock company for the plunder and disturbance of the city." Emigration from southern Italy to the Americas was to Brazil and Argentina, New Orleans had a heavy volume of port traffic to and from both locales. Mafia groups in the United States first became influential in the New York City area progressing from small neighb
Historic districts in the United States
Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few; the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but listing imposes no restrictions on what property owners may do with a designated property. State-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level.
Local districts are administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, predating the U. S. federal government designation by more than three decades. Charleston city government designated an "Old and Historic District" by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it. New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission and authorizing it to act to maintain the historic character of the city's French Quarter. Other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955; the regulatory authority of local commissions and historic districts has been upheld as a legitimate use of government police power, most notably in Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York; the Supreme Court case validated the protection of historic resources as "an permissible governmental goal." In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, soon after a report from the U.
S. Conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from "rootlessness." By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts. Some states, such as Arizona, have passed referendums defending property rights that have stopped private property being designated historic without the property owner's consent or compensation for the historic overlay. Historic districts are two types of properties and non-contributing. Broadly defined, a contributing property is any property, structure or object which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make a historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Different entities governmental, at both the state and national level in the United States, have differing definitions of contributing property but they all retain the same basic characteristics. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. In addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories.
They are, structure, site and object. All but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register. A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district. However, the Register is "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives." The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition a historic district is: a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the official recognition by the U.
S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, it is only in cases where the threatening action involves the federal government. If the federal government is not involved the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. For example, if company A wants to tear down the hypothetical Smith House and company A is under contract with the state government of Illinois the federal designation would offer no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected. A federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation. In general, the criteria for acceptance to the National Register are applied but there are considerations for exceptions to the criteria and historic districts have influence on some of those exceptions; the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, or properties that have achieved significance within the last 50 years.
However, if a property falls into one of those categories and are "integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria" an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic dis
Apple Store is a chain of retail stores owned and operated by Apple Inc. The stores sell Mac personal computers, iPhone smartphones, iPad tablet computers, iPod portable media players, Apple Watch smartwatches, Apple TV digital media players and select third-party accessories; the first Apple Stores were opened as two locations in May 2001 by then-CEO Steve Jobs, after years of attempting but failing store-within-a-store concepts. Seeing a need for improved retail presentation of the company's products, he began an effort in 1997 to revamp the retail program to get an improved relationship to consumers, hired Ron Johnson in 2000. Jobs relaunched Apple's online store in 1997, opened the first two physical stores in 2001. Despite initial media speculation that Apple would fail, its stores were successful, by passing the sales numbers of competing nearby stores and within three years reached US$1 billion in annual sales, becoming the fastest retailer in history to do so. Over the years, Apple has expanded the number of retail locations and its geographical coverage, with 506 stores across 25 countries worldwide as of 2018.
Strong product sales have placed Apple among the top-tier retail stores, with sales over $16 billion globally in 2011. In May 2016, Angela Ahrendts, Apple's current Senior Vice President of Retail, unveiled a redesigned Apple Store in Union Square, San Francisco, featuring large glass doors for the entry, open spaces, rebranded rooms. In addition to purchasing products, consumers can get advice and help from "Creative Pros" – individuals with specialized knowledge of creative arts; the new design will be applied to all Apple Stores worldwide, a process that has seen stores temporarily relocate or close. Many Apple Stores are located inside shopping malls, but Apple has built several stand-alone "flagship" stores in high-profile locations, it has been granted design patents and received architectural awards for its stores' designs and construction for its use of glass staircases and cubes. The success of Apple Stores have had significant influence over other consumer electronics retailers, who have lost traffic and profits due to a perceived higher quality of service and products at Apple Stores.
Apple's notable brand loyalty among consumers causes long lines of hundreds of people at new Apple Store openings or product releases. Due to the popularity of the brand, Apple receives a large number of job applications, many of which come from young workers. Although Apple Store employees receive above-average pay, are offered money toward education and health care, receive product discounts, there are limited or no paths of career advancement. A May 2016 report with an anonymous retail employee highlighted a hostile work environment with harassment from customers, intense internal criticism, a lack of significant bonuses for securing major business contracts. Many Apple Stores are located inside shopping malls, but Apple has built several stand-alone "flagship" stores in high-profile locations, such as the one located in Grand Central Terminal in New York City. Several multi-level stores feature glass staircases, some glass bridges; the New York Times wrote in 2011 that these features were part of then-CEO Steve Jobs' extensive attention to detail, Apple received a design patent in 2002 for its glass staircase design.
Apple has partnered with architectural firm Bohlin Cywinski Jackson in designing and creating its original retail stores, has in recent years partnered with architectural firm Foster + Partners in designing its newer stores, as well as its corporate Apple Park campus. Apple has received numerous architectural awards for its store designs, its "iconic" glass cube, designed in part by Peter Bohlin, at Apple's Fifth Avenue store in New York City, received a separate design patent in 2014. Ron Johnson held the position of Senior Vice President of Retail Operations from 2001 until November 1, 2011. During his tenure, it was reported that while Johnson was responsible for site selection, in-store service, store layout, inventory was controlled by then-COO and now-CEO Tim Cook, who has a background in supply chain management. In January 2012, Apple transferred retail leadership to John Browett. However, after attempts to cut costs, including reducing new hires and limiting staff hours, he was fired after six months telling a conference that he "just didn’t fit with the way they ran the business".
In October 2013, Apple hired Angela Ahrendts from Burberry. Due to the popularity of the brand, applicants for jobs at Apple Stores are numerous, with many young workers applying; the pace of work iPad. Employees work for only a few years as career prospects are limited with no path of advancement other than limited retail management slots. Apple Store employees make above-average pay for retail employees and are offered money toward college tuitions, gym memberships, health care, 401 plans, product discounts, reduced price on purchase of stock; the retention rate for the technicians who staff the Genius Bar is over 90%. A May 2016 Business Insider article featured a lengthy interview with an anonymous Apple Store retail worker in the United Kingdom, where the employee highlighted significant dissatisfactions and issues for retail workers, including harassment and death threats from customers, an intense internal criticism policy that feels "like a cult", a lack of any significant bonus if a worker manages to secure a business contract worth "hundre
Hudson Street (Manhattan)
Hudson Street is a north–south oriented street in the New York City borough of Manhattan running from Tribeca to the south, through Hudson Square and Greenwich Village, to the Meatpacking District. Hudson Street has two distinct one-way traffic patterns that meet at Abingdon Square, at the street's intersection with Eighth Avenue and Bleecker Street; the southern portion of Hudson Street carries northbound traffic and begins at the intersection of West Broadway and Chambers Street. At Abingdon Square, the traffic is directed onto Eighth Avenue. Meanwhile, the section of Hudson Street north of Abingdon Square runs from 14th Street to Eighth Avenue. At 14th Street, southbound traffic from Ninth Avenue splits off into this street. Just below 14th Street, it is one of the major streets in the Meatpacking District. At Abingdon Square, traffic on Hudson Street goes into Bleecker Street; the former New York Mercantile Exchange building is located at the corner of Hudson and Harrison Street in TriBeCa.
Other notable buildings on this stretch of Hudson Street include The Church of St. Luke in the Fields and its garden, the White Horse Tavern, the headquarters of radio station WQHT, the site of several shootings including a gunfight between the entourages of 50 Cent and The Game in 2005; the street is home to the U. S. headquarters of the Pearson-owned Penguin Group. The Money.net firm is located at 333 Hudson Street, maker of an alternative platform to the Bloomberg Terminal. The uptown M20 bus runs on the northbound Hudson Street between Harrison Street and Hudson Street's end, continues along Eighth Avenue; the Christopher Street PATH subway station is located on Christopher Street just west of Hudson Street. At St. John's Park near Canal Street, Hudson Street is one of the primary access routes leading to and from the Holland Tunnel. In December 2007 a bike lane was striped in the roadway, connecting a bike lane in Ninth Avenue to one in Bleecker Street. Writer and activist Jane Jacobs lived above a candy shop.
Jacobs' fought and won in her battle against Robert Moses and his efforts to build the Lower Manhattan Expressway, which would have destroyed fourteen blocks along Hudson Street in Greenwich Village. Her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities was written from this apartment and described the day-to-day activities from outside her window. Golfer Tiger Woods moved onto Hudson Street in late August 2010. Writer John Cheever lived in a boarding house on Hudson Street in the 1930s. A. E. S. Hudson Street was a comedy television show running on ABC from March 16, 1978 through April 20, 1978; this short-lived series followed the poorly equipped Adult Emergency Service hospital set on Hudson Street. The cast of MTV's 2001 series The Real World: Back to New York lived in a four-story loft apartment on 632 Hudson Street; the Northern Irish electronic duo Agnelli and Nelson released an album entitled Hudson Street in 2000. In the 1982 film Annie, the orphanage Annie comes from is the Hudson St. Home for Girls.
Notes New York Songlines: Hudson Street, a virtual walking tour
Stella Nina McCartney, OBE is an English fashion designer. She is a daughter of American photographer and animal rights activist Linda McCartney and former Beatles member Sir Paul McCartney. Like her parents, McCartney is a firm supporter of animal rights and is known for her use of vegetarian and animal-free alternatives in her work. McCartney was born in Lambeth, the second child of American photographer Linda McCartney and former Beatle Paul McCartney, she is named after her maternal great-grandmothers. As a little girl, McCartney travelled the globe with her parents and their group Wings, along with her siblings: older half-sister Heather, older sister Mary, younger brother James. According to her father, the name of Wings was inspired by Stella's difficult delivery; as his daughter was being born by emergency caesarean section, Paul sat outside the operating room and prayed that she be born "on the wings of an angel". Despite their fame, the McCartneys wanted their children to lead as normal a life as possible, so Stella and her siblings attended local state schools in East Sussex, one of them being Bexhill College.
McCartney has said that while attending state school, she was a victim of bullying, as well as being a bully herself. McCartney became interested in designing clothes as a youth. At age thirteen, she designed her first jacket. Three years she interned for Christian Lacroix, working on her first haute couture collection, honing her skillsworking for Edward Sexton, her father's Savile Row tailor for a number of years, she studied her foundation at Ravensbourne College of Design and Communication, followed by Fashion Design at Central Saint Martins in the early 1990s: she graduated in 1995. Her graduation collection was modelled by friends and supermodels Naomi Campbell, Yasmin Le Bon and Kate Moss – for free – at the graduation runway show; the collection was shown to a song penned by her famous father, called "Stella May Day". A lifelong vegetarian, McCartney does not use any fur in her designs; the Guardian described her in 2015 as a "vocal" supporter of animal rights. She supports PETA; some of McCartney's designs have text.
A pair of her vinyl and ultrasuede boots were marketed as being vegan-friendly, although her use of oil-based synthetics still raised ecological concerns. In 2001, McCartney launched her own fashion house under her name in a joint venture with Gucci Group and showed her first collection in Paris. McCartney now operates 17 freestanding stores in locations including Manhattan’s Soho, London’s Mayfair, LA’s West Hollywood, Paris’ Palais Royal, Barcelona's Passeig de Gracia and Milan, opened doors in Rome and Houston. In 2003, McCartney launched Stella. In January 2007, McCartney launched a skincare line, CARE; the 100% organic line includes seven products, from a cleansing milk made with lemon balm and apricot to green tea and linden blossom floral water. In 2008, she launched a new lingerie line. In November 2010, the Stella McCartney Kids collection was launched for newborns and children up to age 12. In June 2012, McCartney invited the Soul Rebels Brass Band to perform at her 2013 spring fashion presentation hosted at the New York Marble Cemetery in New York City on 11 June 2012.
Other guests invited to the party included Anne Hathaway, Jim Carrey, Anna Wintour, Annie Leibovitz, Lauren Hutton, Amy Poehler, Solange Knowles, P'Trique, Greta Gerwig and André Leon Talley. In 2012, McCartney was part of the book "The sustainable Fashion Handbook"In November 2016, McCartney launched her first menswear collection; the collection is made up of pyjama-like casual outfits. McCartney said. In April 2018, after 17 years of partnership with Kering, Stella McCartney has decided to purchase the fashion giant's stake of her company and take the reins of her global fashion empire. McCartney was the designer of Meghan Markle's wedding reception dress, she created 46 replicas of the dress, 23 in lily white and 23 in onyx black, for her Made With Love capsule collection each priced at £3,500. On 15 October 2018, Stella McCartney announced the launch of Stella McCartney Cares Foundation – a charity dedicated to breast cancer; the cause is close to McCartney, since she lost her mother to the disease in 1998.
The charity will donate 1,000 of the brand’s Louis Listening post-operative mastectomy compression bras to women undergoing breast cancer treatment. McCartney launched a joint-venture line with Adidas, establishing a long-term partnership with the corporation in September 2004; this line is a sports performance collection for women. In January 2010, McCartney announced she would be collaborating with Disney to create an Alice in Wonderland-inspired jewelry collection. In July of the same year, together with PETA and eco designer Atom Cianfarani, McCartney worked to petition the British Ministry of Defence to cease the use of Canadian Black Bears as the fur for their guards' hats; as of yet, the Military has not taken up the change. In July 2011 she participated at the catwalk of The Brandery fashion show in Barcelona. In December 2018, Stella McCartney announced to launch a new fashion industry charter for climate action, in collaboration with the United Nations. To help fashion companies welcome sustainable business practices.
In September 2010, Stella McCartney was appointed Team GB’s Creative Director for the 2012 Olympics by Adidas – the first time in the history of the games that a leadi
New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission
The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission is the New York City agency charged with administering the city's Landmarks Preservation Law. The Commission was created in April 1965 by Mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr. following the destruction of Pennsylvania Station the previous year to make way for the construction of the current Madison Square Garden. The Commission is responsible for protecting New York City's architecturally and culturally significant buildings and sites by granting them landmark or historic district status, regulating them once they're designated, it is the largest municipal preservation agency in the nation. The Landmarks Preservation Commission consists of 11 commissioners, is required by law to include a minimum of three architects, a historian, a city planner or landscape architect, a realtor and at least one resident of each of the five New York City boroughs. According to the Landmarks Preservation Law, a building must be at least thirty years old before the Commission can declare it a landmark.
City law allows for the Commission's decision to be overturned if an appeal is filed within 90 days. The goal of New York City's landmarks law is to preserve the aesthetically and important buildings and other objects that make up the New York City vista; the Landmarks Preservation Commission is responsible for deciding which properties should be subject to landmark status and enacting regulations to protect the aesthetic and historic nature of these properties. These regulations are designed to allow property owners to continue to use and maintain their properties, while preserving the important architectural characteristics of the properties; the commission preserves not only architecturally significant buildings, but the overall historical sense of place of neighborhoods that are designated as historic districts. The commission is responsible for overseeing a range of designated landmarks in all five boroughs ranging from the Fonthill Castle in the North Bronx, built in 1852 for the actor Edwin Forrest, to the 1670s Conference House in Staten Island, where Benjamin Franklin and John Adams attended a conference aimed at ending the Revolutionary War.
The Commission helps preserve the City's landmark properties by regulating changes to their significant features. The role of the Commission has evolved over time with the changing real estate market in New York City; the Commission was created in 1965 through groundbreaking legislation signed by Mayor Robert F. Wagner in response to the mounting losses of significant buildings in New York City, most infamously Pennsylvania Station; the Landmarks Preservation Commission's first public hearing occurred in September, 1965 over the future of the Astor Library on Lafayette Street in Manhattan. The building was designated a New York City Landmark. Subsequently, the building was adaptively reused as The Public Theater. Twenty-five years the Commission was cited by David Dinkins as having preserved New York City's municipal identity and enhanced the market perception of a number of neighborhoods; this success is believed to be due, in part, to the general acceptance of the commission by the city's developers.
The Commission was headquartered in the Mutual Reserve Building from 1967 to 1980, the Old New York Evening Post Building from 1980 to 1987. In 1989, when the Commission and its process was under review following a panel created by Mayor Koch in 1985, a decision was made to change the process by which buildings are declared to be landmarks due to some perceived issues with the manner by which the Commission operates as well as the realization that the destruction feared when the Commission was formed was no longer imminent. In its first 25 years of existence, the Commission designated 856 buildings, 79 interiors and 9 parks or other outdoor places as landmarks, while declaring 52 neighborhoods with more than 15,000 buildings as historic districts; as of May 30, 2017, there are more than 36,000 landmark properties in New York City, most of which are located in 141 historic districts in all five boroughs. The total number of protected sites includes 1,398 individual landmarks, 119 interior landmarks and 10 scenic landmarks.
Some of these are National Historic Landmarks sites, many are National Registered Historic Places. One of the most prominent decisions in which the Commission was involved was the preservation of the Grand Central Terminal with the assistance of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. In 1978, the United States Supreme Court upheld the law in Penn Central Transportation Co. et al. v. New York City, et al. stopping the Penn Central Railroad from altering the structure and placing a large office tower above it. This success is cited as significant due to the Commission's origins following the destruction of Pennsylvania Station, referred to by some as architectural vandalism. In 1989, the Commission designated the Ladies' Mile Historic District; the next year marked the first time in the Commission's history that a proposed landmark, the Guggenheim Museum, received a unanimous vote by the Commission members. The vast majority of the Commission's actions are not unanimous by the Commission members or the community with a number of cases including: St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church, Bryant Park and a number of Broadway theatres resulting in challenges.
One of the most controversial properties was 2 Columbus Circle, which remained at the center of a discussion over its future for a number of years. Cultural landmarks, such as Greenwich Village's Stonewall Inn, are recognized as well not for their architecture, but rather for their location in a designated historic district. In a heatedly discussed decision on August 3, 2010, the Commission unanimo