Mechatronics, called mechatronic engineering, is a multidisciplinary branch of engineering that focuses on the engineering of both electrical and mechanical systems, includes a combination of robotics, computer, telecommunications, systems and product engineering. As technology advances over time, various subfields of engineering have succeeded in both adapting and multiplying; the intention of mechatronics is to produce a design solution that unifies each of these various subfields. The field of mechatronics was intended to be nothing more than a combination of mechanics and electronics, hence the name being a portmanteau of mechanics and electronics; the word mechatronics originated in Japanese-English and was created by Tetsuro Mori, an engineer of Yaskawa Electric Corporation. The word mechatronics was registered as trademark by the company in Japan with the registration number of "46-32714" in 1971. However, the company released the right to use the word to public, whereupon the word began being used across the world.
Nowadays, the word is translated into many languages and is considered an essential term for industry. French standard NF E 01-010 gives the following definition: "approach aiming at the synergistic integration of mechanics, control theory, computer science within product design and manufacturing, in order to improve and/or optimize its functionality". Many people treat mechatronics as a modern buzzword synonymous with robotics and electromechanical engineering. A mechatronics engineer unites the principles of mechanics and computing to generate a simpler, more economical and reliable system; the term "mechatronics" was coined by Tetsuro Mori, the senior engineer of the Japanese company Yaskawa in 1969. An industrial robot is a prime example of a mechatronics system. Engineering cybernetics deals with the question of control engineering of mechatronic systems, it is used to regulate such a system. Through collaboration, the mechatronic modules perform the production goals and inherit flexible and agile manufacturing properties in the production scheme.
Modern production equipment consists of mechatronic modules that are integrated according to a control architecture. The most known architectures involve hierarchy, polyarchy and hybrid; the methods for achieving a technical effect are described by control algorithms, which might or might not utilize formal methods in their design. Hybrid systems important to mechatronics include production systems, synergy drives, planetary exploration rovers, automotive subsystems such as anti-lock braking systems and spin-assist, everyday equipment such as autofocus cameras, hard disks, CD players. Mechatronics students take courses in various fields: Mechanical engineering and materials science and engineering Electronics engineering Electrical engineering Computer engineering Computer science Systems engineering Control engineering Optical engineering Telecommunications Machine vision Automation and robotics Servo-mechanics Sensing and control systems Automotive engineering, automotive equipment in the design of subsystems such as anti-lock braking systems Building automation / Home automation Computer-machine controls, such as computer driven machines like CNC milling machines, CNC waterjets, CNC plasma cutters Expert systems Industrial goods Consumer products Mechatronics systems Medical mechatronics, medical imaging systems Structural dynamic systems Transportation and vehicular systems Mechatronics as the new language of the automobile Computer aided and integrated manufacturing systems Computer-aided design Engineering and manufacturing systems Packaging Microcontrollers / PLCs Mechanical modeling calls for modeling and simulating physical complex phenomena in the scope of a multi-scale and multi-physical approach.
This implies to implement and to manage modeling and optimization methods and tools, which are integrated in a systemic approach. The specialty is aimed for students in mechanics who want to open their mind to systems engineering, able to integrate different physics or technologies, as well as students in mechatronics who want to increase their knowledge in optimization and multidisciplinary simulation techniques; the speciality educates students in robust and/or optimized conception methods for structures or many technological systems, to the main modeling and simulation tools used in R&D. Special courses are proposed for original applications to prepare the students to the coming breakthrough in the domains covering the materials and the systems. For some mechatronic systems, the main issue is no longer how to implement a control system, but how to implement actuators. Within the mechatronic field two technologies are used to produce movement/motion. An emerging variant of this field is biomechatronics, whose purpose is to integrate mechanical parts with a human being in the form of removable gadgets such as an exoskeleton.
This is the "real-life" version of cyberware. Another variant that we can consider is Motion control for Advanced Mechatronics, which presently is recognized as a key technology in mechatronics; the robustness of motion control will be represented as a function of stiffness and a basis for practical realization. Target of motion is parameterized by control stiffness which could be variable according to the task reference. However, the system robustness of motion alway
Early general elections were held in Jordan on 9 November 2010 following the dissolution of the previous parliament by King Abdullah II in November 2009. A majority of the seats were won by pro-government or tribal candidates who were seen as to support the government's agenda. Seventeen candidates were excluding the Islamic Action Front. Seventy-eight MPs were first time parliamentarians. Voter turnout was 53%. In 2009, King Abdullah II dissolved parliament on the grounds that it failed to "address the people's needs" only halfway through a four-year mandate, for "inept handling of legislation and failing to address poverty and unemployment."In 1991, the National Accord was signed, 2 years after political parties were legalised and an election was called. In return for agreeing to work under the government instead of against it, political freedoms and legalisation of the parties were allowed. However, there had been allegations of repeated violations of the pact and attempts to undermine the election.
An electoral law created in 1993 gave the rural areas a larger representation at the expense of the urban areas and had in effect created sub-identities and split the country into Palestinian areas, most of whom tended to side with the Islamic Action Front or leftist and pan-Arab nationalists, Bedouin areas. There were 763 candidates in the election, with 75% of incumbent MPs running again; the main opposition, the Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated Islamic Action Front, announced on 30 July 2010 it would boycott the polls due to unfair election laws which gave undue weight to the rural, sparsely populated areas, other issues. The "one-man-one-vote" law was seen as "engineered to deprive the Islamic Action Front of votes." Seven IAF candidates defied the boycott and ran as independents, with the IAF expelling five of them. As a result of the boycotts, including the main opposition group, the poll was viewed with skepticism; as a result of the calls for a boycott and allegations of fraud, a low voter turnout was expected amongst the Palestinian population.
The result was expected to be a predictable win for pro-government candidates and tribesmen with strong ties to the monarchy. For the first time the government allowed international observers into the country, with 250 in attendance. Although Jordan was criticised for not allowing freedom of expression amidst arrests of those calling for a boycott of the election, the National Democratic Institute reported that there had been a "clear improvement" compared with the 2007 elections. On election day, there were 53 incidences of violence across the country, with fighting between tribes loyal to different candidates led to at least one death and more injures. An Al Jazeera analysis said that while the election may have succeeded in "manufacturing consent", the costs may be much higher in that it fomented an "atmosphere of mutual suspicion that undermines national unity and social cohesion at a time when Jordan needs to confront tremors of regional instability."
"Johnny" is a song recorded by Nigerian Afro pop recording artist Yemi Alade, taken from her debut studio album King of Queens. The song was an international smash hit in many countries including Nigeria, Kenya, South Africa, Uganda, The United Kingdom and others; the music video was directed by Clarence Peters. Before the song was released, it was leaked over the internet; the music video was uploaded on March 2014 onto Alade's official Vevo account. The music video shows how the title character, "Johnny", cheats and lies about his relationship with several women in the clip. "Johnny" was nominated for Best Pop Single and Song of the Year at The Headies 2014. It now surpasses more than a 100 million views on YouTube