Medical school

A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Doctor of Medicine, or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine. Many medical schools offer additional degrees, such as a Doctor of Philosophy, Master's degree, a physician assistant program, or other post-secondary education. Medical schools can carry out medical research and operate teaching hospitals. Around the world, structure, teaching methodology, nature of medical programs offered at medical schools vary considerably. Medical schools are highly competitive, using standardized entrance examinations, as well as grade point average and leadership roles, to narrow the selection criteria for candidates. In most countries, the study of medicine is completed as an undergraduate degree not requiring prerequisite undergraduate coursework. However, an increasing number of places are emerging for graduate entrants who have completed an undergraduate degree including some required courses.

In the United States and Canada all medical degrees are second entry degrees, require several years of previous study at the university level. Medical degrees are awarded to medical students after the completion of their degree program, which lasts five or more years for the undergraduate model and four years for the graduate model. Many modern medical schools integrate clinical education with basic sciences from the beginning of the curriculum. More traditional curricula are divided into preclinical and clinical blocks. In preclinical sciences, students study subjects such as biochemistry, pharmacology, anatomy and medical microbiology, among others. Subsequent clinical rotations include internal medicine, general surgery, pediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology, among others. Although medical schools confer upon graduates a medical degree, a physician may not practice medicine until licensed by the local government authority. Licensing may require passing a test, undergoing a criminal background check, checking references, paying a fee, undergoing several years of postgraduate training.

Medical schools are regulated by each country and appear in the World Directory of Medical Schools, formed by the merger of the AVICENNA Directory for medicine and the FAIMER International Medical Education Directory. By 2005 there were more than 100 medical schools across Africa, most of, established after 1970. There are seven medical schools in Ghana: The University of Ghana Medical School in Accra, the KNUST School of Medical Sciences in Kumasi, University for Development Studies School of Medicine in Tamale, University of Cape Coast Medical School and the University of Allied Health Sciences in Ho, Volta Region, the leading private medical school in Ghana - the Accra College of Medicine, Family Health Medical School another private medical school. Basic Medical education lasts 6 years in all the medical schools. Entry into these medical schools are competitive and it is based on successful completion of the Senior High School Examinations; the University of Ghana Medical School has however introduced a graduate entry medical program to admit students with science-related degrees into a 4-year medical school program.

Students graduating from any of these medical schools get the MBChB degree and the title "Dr". For the First 3 years Students are awarded BSc in the field of Medical science for University of Ghana medical school; the University of Ghana Medical School and KNUST School of Medical Sciences in Kumasi use the Tradition medical education model whiles University for Development Studies School of Medicine uses the problem-based learning model. Medical graduates are registered provisionally with the Medical and Dental Council of Ghana as House Officers. Upon completion of the mandatory 2-year housemanship, these medical doctors are permanently registered with the MDC and can practice as medical officers anywhere in the country; the housemanship training is done only in hospitals accredited for such purposes by the Medical and Dental Council of Ghana Following the permanent registration with the medical and dental council, doctors can specialize in any of the various fields, organized by either the West African college of Physicians and Surgeons or the Ghana College of Physician and Surgeons.

Medical officers are sometimes hired by the Ghana Health Service to work in the Districts/Rural areas as Primary Care Physicians. In Kenya, medical school is a faculty of a university. Medical education lasts for 6 years; this is followed by a mandatory 12-month full-time internship at an approved hospital after which one applies for registration with the Kenya Medical Practitioners and Dentists Board if they intend to practice medicine in the country. The first two years of medical school cover the basic medical sciences while the last four years are focused on the clinical sciences and internship. There are no medical school entry examinations or interviews and admission is based on students' performance in the high school exit examination. Students who took the AS Level or the SAT can apply but there is a strict quota limiting the number of students that get accepted into public universities; this quota does not apply to private universities. There are four established public medical schools: University


Leaseweb is a Dutch cloud computing and web services company with offices in Europe and the United States. Leaseweb is a subsidiary of OCOM, an internet services company headquartered in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Leaseweb was founded in 1997 by Dutch pilots Con Laurens Rosenthal. In 1998, Leaseweb set up their first office in Utrecht. By 2005 the company owned a number that had doubled to 10,000 two years later. In 2007, Leaseweb relocated the company headquarters to the Amsterdam area. In 2010, Leaseweb acquires German hosting provider Netdirekt. In 2016, Leaseweb acquires the Illinois based Nobis Technology Group, its Ubiquity Hosting operations. In 2018, Leaseweb USA acquires ServInt, a Northern Virginia-based web hosting and managed hosting services for cloud IT operations; the company operates eighteen data centers in Europe and the United States. Leaseweb peers with Internet exchanges in Amsterdam, Warsaw, Vienna, Dusseldorf, Brussels, Luxembourg, Madrid, Washington DC, New York, Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, Palo Alto, San Jose, Hong Kong and Singapore.

The company operates eight datacenters in Europe and the United States. Leaseweb peers with Internet exchanges in Amsterdam, London, New York City, Stockholm, Zurich, Düsseldorf, Warsaw, Milan, Prague, Bucharest, Copenhagen, Ashburn, Chicago, Palo Alto and Los Angeles. Leaseweb's network consists of 55 Points-of-Presence and 33 Internet Exchanges across the globe; the network has a bandwidth capacity of 5.5 Tbit/s with peak traffic about 2.5 Tbit/s and reports uptime of 99.9999%

Ashoka's Hell

Ashoka's Hell was, according to legend, an elaborate torture chamber disguised as a beautiful palace full of amenities such as exclusive baths and decorated with flowers, fruit trees and ornaments. It was built by Emperor Ashoka in the capital city of the Maurya Empire; the torture palace's legend is detailed in the Ashokavadana, the text that describes Emperor Ashoka's life through both legendary and historical accounts. According to legend, the palatial torture chamber was artfully designed to make its exterior visually pleasing, was referred to as the "beautiful gaol". Beneath the veneer of beauty and deep inside the exclusive mansion, chambers were constructed filled with sadistic and cruel instruments of torture—including furnaces used to melt the metals that were to be poured on prisoners; the narrative states the chamber's architect drew inspiration from the five tortures of the Buddhist hell. The Ashokavadana describes the torture chamber in such terrifying detail that it spawned a belief that Ashoka—in his quest to perfect its sinister design—had visited hell itself.

Through a pact made between Ashoka and the official executioner of the torture chamber anyone entering the palace by chance as a visitor, was not allowed to come out alive. According to the narrations of Ashokavadana, Emperor Ashoka, prior to his conversion to Buddhism, was a fierce and sadistic ruler, known as Ashoka the Fierce, or Chandashoka, who sent his minions on a quest to find a vicious man to work as his official executioner. After some searching, Ashoka's men found a suitable candidate by the name of Girika, so vicious that he killed his own parents because they did not want him to become Ashoka's executioner. Girika was introduced to Ashoka. According to legend, Girika persuaded Ashoka to design the torture chamber based on the suffering endured by people reborn in Buddhist hell; the Ashokavadana documents a long list of torture acts Girika designed and planned to force upon his prisoners including "prying open their mouths with an iron and pouring boiling copper down their throats".

Innocent persons were not exempt from such treatment. In the narrative of Ashokavadana, Ashoka asked Girika to disguise the torture chamber as a beautiful and "enticing" palace full of amenities such as exclusive baths and to decorate it with flowers, fruit trees and many ornaments; the palatial torture chamber was artfully designed to make people long to just look at it, attract them to enter, was referred to as the "beautiful gaol". According to the mythology, beneath the veneer of beauty, inside the exclusive mansion, torture chambers were constructed which were full of the most sadistic and cruel instruments of torture including furnaces producing molten metal for pouring on the prisoners. In the narrative, Ashoka made a pact with Girika that he would never allow anyone who entered the palace to exit alive, including Ashoka himself; the torture chamber was so terrifying, that Emperor Ashoka was thought to have visited hell so that he could perfect its evil design. In the Biographical Sutra of Emperor Ashoka the palace is described by the sentence:'Emperor Ashoka constructed a hell'.

Ashokavadana refers to Girika as Girika the Cruel. It appears that Girika overheard a Buddhist monk recite the Balapanditasutta which contains vivid descriptions of the five tortures of hell, such as: Finally, there are beings who are reborn in hell whom the hell-guardians grab, stretch out on their backs on a fiery floor of red-hot iron, but a mass of flames, they carry out the torture of the five-fold tether. O monks, hell is a place of great suffering He got his ideas of how to torture prisoners from there; the text describes Girika's attitude toward punishment as follows: "Such are the five great agonies, Girika reflected, he began to inflict these same tortures on people in his prison". In addition, the Balapanditasutta compares the King's torture methods to the tortures of hell; the Ashokavadana further mentions that sometime a Buddhist monk by the name of Samudra happened to visit the palace and upon entering he was informed by Girika that he would be tortured to death, was subsequently led into the torture chamber.

His torturers, failed to injure him and he appeared able to neutralise their torture methods by realising that the suffering of the other prisoners is part of the Buddhist dogma of suffering and attaining arhatship. A particular narration detailed how Samudra, while tortured in a cauldron full of boiling water, human blood, bone marrow and excrement, caused the contents of the cauldron to cool down and sat meditating cross-legged on a lotus sprouting from the fluid; the narrative further describes that when Ashoka heard of these miracles, he was overcome with curiosity and decided to enter the chamber to verify for himself the veracity of the stories. After arriving there he witnessed Samudra levitating with half his body on fire and the other half raining water. Intrigued he asked Samudra to identify himself. Samudra replied that he was adherent to the Dharma. Samudra chastised Ashoka for having built the torture chamber and further instructed him to build 84,000 stupas according to Buddha's prophecy, to guarantee the security of all beings.

To those demands, Ashoka acquiesced. Further, he accepted Buddha and the Dharma; the Ashokavadana describes the events leading to the demolition of Ashoka's torture chamber. According to the text, the torture chamber had become the site and the reason