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Medicare (United States)

Medicare is a national health insurance program in the United States, begun in 1966 under the Social Security Administration and now administered by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. It provides health insurance for Americans aged 65 and older, but for some younger people with disability status as determined by the Social Security Administration, as well as people with end stage renal disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In 2018, according to the 2019 Medicare Trustees Report, Medicare provided health insurance for over 59.9 million individuals—more than 52 million people aged 65 and older and about 8 million younger people. According to annual Medicare Trustees reports and research by the government's MedPAC group, Medicare covers about half of healthcare expenses of those enrolled. Enrollees always cover most of the remaining costs by taking additional private insurance and/or by joining a public Part C or Part D Medicare health plan. No matter which of those two options the beneficiaries choose—or if they choose to do nothing extra, beneficiaries have other healthcare-related costs.

These additional so-called out of pocket costs can include co-pays. Medicare is funded by a combination of a specific payroll tax, beneficiary premiums and surtaxes from beneficiaries, co-pays and deductibles, general U. S. Treasury revenue. Medicare is divided into four Parts. Medicare Part A covers hospital, skilled nursing, hospice services. Part B covers outpatient services including some providers' services while inpatient at a hospital, outpatient hospital charges, most provider office visits if the office is "in a hospital", most professionally administered prescription drugs. Part D covers self-administered prescription drugs. Part C is an alternative called Managed Medicare or Medicare Advantage which allows patients to choose health plans with at least the same service coverage as Parts A and B the benefits of Part D, always an annual out-of-pocket spend limit which A and B lack. A beneficiary must enroll in Parts A and B first before signing up for Part C; the name "Medicare" in the United States referred to a program providing medical care for families of people serving in the military as part of the Dependents' Medical Care Act, passed in 1956.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower held the first White House Conference on Aging in January 1961, in which creating a health care program for social security beneficiaries was proposed. In July 1965, under the leadership of President Lyndon Johnson, Congress enacted Medicare under Title XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide health insurance to people age 65 and older, regardless of income or medical history. Johnson signed the Social Security Amendments of 1965 into law on July 30, 1965, at the Harry S. Truman Presidential Library in Independence, Missouri. Former President Harry S. Truman and his wife, former First Lady Bess Truman became the first recipients of the program. Before Medicare was created, only 60% of people over the age of 65 had health insurance, with coverage unavailable or unaffordable to many others, as older adults paid more than three times as much for health insurance as younger people. Many of this group became "dual eligible" for both Medicare and Medicaid with the passing of the law.

In 1966, Medicare spurred the racial integration of thousands of waiting rooms, hospital floors, physician practices by making payments to health care providers conditional on desegregation. Medicare has been operating for just over a half century and, during that time, has undergone several changes. Since 1965, the program's provisions have expanded to include benefits for speech and chiropractic therapy in 1972. Medicare added the option of payments to health maintenance organizations in the 1970s; the government added hospice benefits to aid elderly people on a temporary basis in 1982, made this permanent in 1984. Congress further expanded Medicare in 2001 to cover younger people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; as the years progressed, Congress expanded Medicare eligibility to younger people with permanent disabilities who receive Social Security Disability Insurance payments and to those with end-stage renal disease. The association with HMOs that began in the 1970s was formalized and expanded under President Bill Clinton in 1997 as Medicare Part C.

In 2003, under President George W. Bush, a Medicare program for covering all self-administered prescription drugs was passed as Medicare Part D; the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, a component of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, administers Medicare, the Children's Health Insurance Program, the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments, parts of the Affordable Care Act. Along with the Departments of Labor and Treasury, the CMS implements the insurance reform provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and most aspects of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 as ame

Zagreb bypass

Zagreb bypass is a U-shaped motorway encircling Zagreb, Croatia. The largest part by far, between Jankomir and Ivanja Reka interchanges, was built between 1977 and 1979, while the Ivanja Reka – Sveta Helena section was built between 1996 and 1999; the bypass is 48.9 kilometres long, tracing around the city from the northwestern suburb of Zaprešić to Sveta Helena in the northeast. The bypass crosses the Sava River twice and comprises a bridge across the Sava-Odra floodwater overflow canal; as the busiest sections between Jankomir and Buzin interchanges carry traffic volume of 45,000 AADT, it is the most used motorway sector in Croatia. Zagreb bypass is not designated as a separate motorway with a distinct motorway number, rather it consists of sections of three motorways: Those motorway sections are concurrent with sections of the D1 and D3 state roads as well as European routes E59, E65, E70 and E71; the bypass comprises four traffic lanes along its entire length, with an emergency lane in each direction.

In its current form, the Zagreb bypass has a small number of interchanges spaced apart. For example, the current Zaprešić interchange extends a trip from Zaprešić to Zagreb via the bypass by 4.5 km. The last new interchange was built in 2007–2008 at Kosnica in the southeast, to connect the Homeland Bridge and Zagreb via Radnička cesta. There are two rest areas along the bypass: Lučko rest area is located between Jankomir and Lučko interchanges comprising famous Plitvice Motel, well known for its pedestrian bridge across the bypass, while Sesvete rest area is located between Popovec and Sveta Helena interchanges. A new rest area is planned between Kosnica interchanges. A proposal has been made in 2007 for a new interchange near Zaprešić, one that would reduce traveling time between the cities; as a part of the A11 motorway construction works, a new Jakuševec interchange was built east of the Buzin interchange. The Buzin interchange in turn is planned to be abolished, in favor of another new interchange, Sveta Klara, further to the west.

A long-term plan exists to build a new outer bypass road around Zagreb. The outer bypass would be a part of the tolled motorway network thus permitting vehicles not to stop at two toll plazas near Zagreb as they enter and leave the present bypass, decreasing congestion on the inner bypass motorway. 2009–2012 motorway and road construction plan entails funds for development of design documents for the outer bypass motorway and specifies its route: It is to be a 106 km long motorway originating from the A2 motorway Luka interchange, connecting the A3 motorway Gradina interchange near Samobor, the A1 motorway Horvati interchange, the A11 motorway Mraclin interchange, once again the A3 motorway Ivanić Grad interchange and the A4 motorway Zelina interchange. A total of 14 interchanges are planned on the new bypass, including the ones connecting it to the other motorways specified, connecting the outer bypass to all major roads intersected; because of the Medvednica Mountain north of Zagreb, the present bypass is U-shaped, leaving the city without a northern bypass that would connect the A2 and A4 highways.

A northern branch of the bypass was designed to bridge the gap. It was planned to connect the Zaprešić interchange with the Popovec interchange; the route would have required a number of long viaducts making it expensive. According to the general design alternative in a study executed by the Faculty of Architecture and Institut IGH, the route would comprise 15 tunnels; the tunnels longer than 500 m would be: Ivanec Tunnel, Borčec Tunnel, Pantovčak Tunnel, Dotrščina Tunnel, Remete 1 Tunnel, Čuguvec Tunnel and Novaki Tunnel. The construction works were planned in stages with an additional 5–10 km long tunnel built subsequently through Medvednica Mountain to connect Zagreb and Hrvatsko zagorje directly. However, as of September 2011, all such plans were cancelled as unfeasible. Hrvatske autoceste Autocesta Zagreb - Macelj

House of Bellême

* This article is based in part on a translation of the article fr:Famille de Bellême from the French Wikipedia on 19 July 2012. House of Bellême referred to as the Family of Bellême was an important seigneurial family during the 10th through the 12th centuries. Members of this family held the important castles of Bellême, Alençon, Domfront and Sées as well as extensive lands in France and Maine; the first known progenitor of this family is Yves de Bellême, the son of Yves de Creil, The caput of the lordship was the castle of Bellême, constructed "a quarter of a league from the old dungeon of Bellême" in Maine. The second lord, William of Bellême, with the consent of Richard I, Duke of Normandy constructed two castles, one at Alençon and the other at Domfront, the caput of the lordship remained the castle of Bellême, yet in a charter to the abbey of Lonlay of the lands of Neustria Pia, he describes himself as William princeps and provinciae principatum gerens indicating he considered himself an independent ruler or prince of his own domains.

His sons Fulk and Warin died in his lifetime leaving Robert as his heir. Robert de Bellême died a prisoner leaving the fourth son, Ives as lord of Bellême, who shortly thereafter became Bishop of Séez. William Talvas, held the lands of Bellême in right of his brother Bishop Ives who retained the Lordship himself until his death at which time William came into possession of the lands of Bellême, Domfront and Alençon. After the infamous incident with William fitz Giroie, his kinsmen sacked and destroyed the lands of William Talvas who would not face them in the field. In turn Talvas' son Arnulf exiled his father, now reviled by everyone, he wandered until he was taken in by the de Montgomery family whose son Roger agreed to marry his daughter Mabel in return for the lands William lost. Mabel inherited all the vast estates of her father and married the heir of one of the most prominent families in Normandy, Roger de Montgomery, who became the 1st Earl of Shrewsbury. Mabel was succeeded by her son Robert of Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, who continued the aggressive policy of his mother.

He built several castles to ensure control of the vast lordship of Bellême and held in total forty castles, including those of Alençon and Bellême, defends the territory and form a barrier to any attempt to bid. In 1098 Robert's younger brother Hugh died, Robert inherited, on payment of £3,000 in relief, the English properties, their father's, including the Rape of Arundel and the Earldom of Shrewsbury. Robert had acquired the countship of Ponthieu jure uxoris and the honor of Tickhill. Robert rebelled against the King of England and Duke of Normandy. In 1112 Robert was sent as an envoy of the French king to Henry I at his court at Bonneville whereas Henry seized Robert and imprisoned him. Robert spent the rest of his life as a prisoner; as early as the latter half of the tenth century members of this family held the bishoprics of Le Mans and Séez. Seinfroy sought the bishopric of Le Mans and offered Geoffrey I, Count of Anjou the hamlet of Coulaines and the villa of Dissay-sue-Courcillon including all fiscal rights if he could use his influence.

Geoffrey interceded with King Lothair to obtain the see for Seinfroy who became Bishop c. 970-71. Geoffrey's choice of bishop proved to be a useful ally against the counts of Maine. Although their parentage is unknown, his sister, was the wife of Yves de Bellême, he was followed as Bishop of Le Mans in 997 by his nephew, Avesgaud de Bellême, son of Godeheut and Yves de Bellême. Throughout most of his reign as bishop he and Herbert Wakedog were locked in a bitter and endless power struggle. At Avesgaud's death in 1036 his nephew Gervais de Bellême, son of his sister Hildeburge de Bellême succeeded him as Bishop of Le Mans; the chroniclers of ducal Normandy, William of Jumieges and Orderic Vitalis depict several members of the family as cruel and deceptive. While William Talvas was as treacherous and self-serving as any of his family before him he surpassed them in wickedness and cruelty, he had married a Hildeburg, daughter of a nobleman named Arnulf, but he had his wife strangled on her way to church, according to Orderic, because she loved God and would not support his wickedness.

On the occasion of his second wedding, William Talvas invited one of his vassals William fitz Giroie to attend. Suspecting nothing, fitz Giroie, while a guest at the festivities, was seized by Talvas' men and imprisoned according to Orderic horribly mutilated and blinded before being released. Somehow William Giroie survived his torture and mutilation and retired to Bec Abbey to live out the remainder of his life as a monk. Of all of Orderic's female subjects William's daughter Mabel was the most treacherous. In one passage Orderic describes her as "small talkative, ready enough to do evil and jocular cruel and daring. Mabel was hostile to most members of the clergy, she deliberately burdened their limited resources by visiting the abbey for extended stays with a large retinue of her soldiers. When rebuked by Theodoric the abbot for her callousness she snapped back that the next time she would visit with an larger group; the abbot predicted that if she did not repent of her evilness she would suffer great pains and that evening she did.

She left the abbey in great hast

Flag of Morocco

The flag of Morocco is made a red field with a green emerald pentagram. Red has considerable historic significance in Morocco, proclaiming the descent from royal Alaouite dynasty; this ruling house was associated with the Islamic prophet Muhammad via Fatimah, the wife of Ali, the fourth Muslim Caliph. Red is the color, used by the sharifs of Mecca and the imams of Yemen. From the 17th century on, when Morocco was ruled by the Alaouite dynasty, the flags of the country were plain red. On November 17, 1915, Resident General Hubert Lyautey had Sultan Yusef sign a dhahir that made Morocco's flag red with a green interlaced pentangle; the five points of the star stand for Love, Peace and Justice. While Morocco was under French and Spanish control, the red flag with the seal in the center remained in use, but only inland, its use at sea was prohibited. When independence was restored in 1956, it once again became the national flag; the red background on the Moroccan flag represents hardiness, bravery and valour, while the green represents love, wisdom and hope.

The 5 branches represents the pillars of Islam. The colors approximation is listed below: To be known from this book, may God uphold its value and to be around the centre of grace and joy its orbit, that due to the promotion of our Cherifian kingdom affairs, the spread of its glory and its pride, the need to assign a flag that distinct it from the rest of the kingdoms as that our sacred ancestors flag use to be similar to some other flags the ones used in the marine signs, our noble vision decided to distinct our joyful flag by making the five pointed seal of Solomon in the middle in green, asking the almighty god to keep it waving with the winds of fortune and ambition for this time and the becoming and peace.. In accordance with the seventh article of the constitution, the emblem of the Kingdom shall be a red flag with a five-pointed green star in the center; the flag shall be made with fabric of canna red and rectangular in shape. The star shall be open, green like the leaf of palm trees, made of five continuous branches and woven in the same fabric where it must be visible on both sides of the flag.

One of its points must point upwards. The hoist of the flag equals two thirds of its fly; the star is inscribed in an invisible circle whose radius equals one sixth of the fly's length and whose centre is the intersection point of the invisible diagonal lines of the flag's rectangular. The width of each one of the branches of the star shall be ​1⁄20 of its length.. On May 8, 2010, a Moroccan flag with a size of 60,409.78 square metres, weighing 20,000 kilograms, was set in Dakhla, a city in the disputed territory of Western Sahara. It was certified by the Guinness Book of World Records as the largest flag draped. Coat of arms of Morocco List of Moroccan flags Morocco at Flags of the World Morocco Historical Flags, FOTW

Sky Office Tower

Sky Office Tower is a dual business tower, elliptically shaped, located in Zagreb, north of the Zagrebačka Avenue, near the intersection with Zagrebačka cesta. The office tower was completed in 2012, it is one of the few high-rise construction projects in Zagreb that persisted throughout the economic crisis in 2010. The tower has a number of underground floors; the whole project was set to cost 76 million euros. The tower was planned to have 29 floors and be 108 meters high, becoming the tallest skyscraper in Zagreb and the whole of Croatia; the plan was revised to 22 floors. It is still possible for Sky Office Tower to build to 29 floors, it has 47 in the outdoor space. Access to the underground garages is provided via two entry-exit ramps, which are heated against freezing. Underground levels with parking and storage areas are directly linked to the office spaces. List of tallest buildings in Croatia Official website Željko Rogošić. "Zagrebački blizanci šibenskog magnata". Nacional. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012.

Retrieved 22 July 2012

Louis Cattiaux

Louis Cattiaux was a French painter and poet. Louis Cattiaux was born in Valenciennes on 17 August 1904, he lost his mother at a young age and was raised by his older sister. In 1914, he was evacuated with her sister to the Paris region and entered the Hanley boarding school. In 1922, he prepared his admission to the “Arts et Métiers” in Paris. In 1928, he spent some time in Dahomey as an employee of a commercial company, he devoted himself more and more to painting. He began to associate with the avant-garde Parisian artistic circles of the time. In 1932, he married Henriette Péré with whom he settled at n° 3 rue Casimir-Périer in Paris, where they opened an art gallery called Gravitations, in honour of the poet Jules Supervielle. In 1934, he signed the manifesto Transhylisme with such painers as Jean Lafon, Pierre Ino, Jean Marembert, poets as Louis de Gonzague Frick and Jules Supervielle. From 1936 onwards, he became more interested in alchemy, he almost abandoned the practice of painting to devote himself to writing his book Le Message Retrouvé ou l’Horloge de la Nuit et du Jour de Dieu.

Louis Cattiaux died in Paris on 16 July 1953, following a spleen illness. In 1938, Cattiaux started work on a series of maxims or aphorisms "encapsulating the inspiration of a friendly muse", gives them the title of Le Message Perdu. Over a number of years, while not neglecting his painting, he continues writing the book. By 1946, considering the work to be finished, he publishes it at his own expense under the title of The Message Rediscovered. Made up of twelve chapters, it comprises all the aphorisms that reflect his hermetic experience, numbered by verses and divided in two columns, it was at this time. In 1947, he began a correspondence with René Guénon. Thanks to a review by Guénon on The Message Rediscovered published in 1948 in the journal Études Traditionnelles, Louis Cattiaux got in touch in 1949 with Emmanuel d’Hooghvorst, author of Le Fil de Pénélope; this marked the beginning of an intense relationship between them and with Charles d'Hooghvorst, Emmanuel’s younger brother, whom he met in May 1949.

In 1951, Louis Cattiaux published an obituary to René Guénon in Théophile Briant’s poetic journal Le Goéland. He said in it: “He prepared the ways of the Lord by recalling the universal transcendence of divine revelation, by denouncing, without weakening, the two perversions of God’s Science, the tenebrous occultism on the one hand, the profane science on the other, which overwhelm the present world.” He ends his eulogy with these words: “René Guénon is not dead and his work only comes to the world, despite the extraordinary modesty he has always shown in all matters concerning the disclosure of his personality. I do not think I am betraying his thought by letting it be expressed through a few excerpts from his letters in this friendly journal. Having illuminated the source of revealed life, it is right and proper that life should now illuminate him with its sweet and true light.”In 1954, Les Poèmes du fainéant et les poèmes alchimiques, zen, d'avant, de la résonance, de la connaissance by Louis Cattiaux were published by Le Cercle du Livre.

In 1954, excerpts from his essay on the Physics and Metaphysics of Painting were published in a Swiss journal, Les Cahiers Trimestriels Inconnues n° 96, as well as an article by Emmanuel d’Hooghvorst entitled “Le Message Prophétique de Louis Cattiaux.”In 1956, the Message Rediscovered was published in its entirety for the first time by Éditions Denoël. Louis Cattiaux’s literary works total more than twenty editions, it is translated into Castilian, English, Portuguese, German. In 1999, a lecture dedicated to Cattiaux and The Message Rediscovered was held at the Sorbonne as part of the Canseliet Colloquium. In 1946, Louis Cattiaux published the first twelve chapters of The Message Rediscovered on his own account, with a preface by Lanza del Vasto, he continued to add new chapters until his death. In September 1948, René Guénon published, in the issue 270 of the journal Études Traditionnelles, a review of The Message Rediscovered, which he concluded in these terms: “We do not know what ‘specialists’ of hermeticism, if any are still competent, can think of this book, how they will appreciate it.

A second edition was published in 1978 in Brussels. At the same time, various translations are published in Spain, Germany, etc; the Message Rediscovered is written in the form of sentences or verses arranged on two columns and divided into 40 books or chapters. This book, which took the author fifteen years to write, is the result of his spiritual experience; each chapter is preceded by two epigraphs and followed by two hypographs from the Holy Scriptures of all nations. The Message Rediscovered is Louis Cattiaux’s masterpiece; these aphorisms or verses deal with different subjects, each independently, while forming a homogeneous whole on fundamental human issues. The Message Rediscovered makes use of a particular language, it does not develop any subject systematically, but uses maxims Cattiaux, The Message Rediscovered, Grez-Doiceau, Éditions Beya, 2006. Cattiaux, Lo