Medicine is the science and practice of establishing the diagnosis, prognosis and prevention of disease. Medicine encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research and medical technology to diagnose and prevent injury and disease through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices and ionizing radiation, amongst others. Medicine has been around for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture. For example, a medicine man would apply herbs and say prayers for healing, or an ancient philosopher and physician would apply bloodletting according to the theories of humorism. In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science, most medicine has become a combination of art and science.
While stitching technique for sutures is an art learned through practice, the knowledge of what happens at the cellular and molecular level in the tissues being stitched arises through science. Prescientific forms of medicine are now known as traditional medicine and folk medicine, though they do not fall within the modern definition of “medicine”, based in medical science. Traditional medicine and folk medicine remain used with, or instead of, scientific medicine and are thus called alternative medicine. For example, evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture is "variable and inconsistent" for any condition, but is safe when done by an appropriately trained practitioner. In contrast, alternative treatments outside the bounds not just of scientific medicine, but outside the bounds of safety and efficacy are termed quackery. Quackery can encompass an array of practices and practitioners, irrespective of whether they are prescientific or modern pseudo-scientific, including chiropractic which rejects modern scientific germ theory of disease, with just over half of chiropractors rejecting the science of immunization.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, prognosis and prevention of disease. The word "medicine" is derived from Latin medicus, meaning "a physician". Medical availability and clinical practice varies across the world due to regional differences in culture and technology. Modern scientific medicine is developed in the Western world, while in developing countries such as parts of Africa or Asia, the population may rely more on traditional medicine with limited evidence and efficacy and no required formal training for practitioners. In the developed world, evidence-based medicine is not universally used in clinical practice. In modern clinical practice, physicians assess patients in order to diagnose, prognose and prevent disease using clinical judgment; the doctor-patient relationship begins an interaction with an examination of the patient's medical history and medical record, followed by a medical interview and a physical examination. Basic diagnostic medical devices are used.
After examination for signs and interviewing for symptoms, the doctor may order medical tests, take a biopsy, or prescribe pharmaceutical drugs or other therapies. Differential diagnosis methods help to rule out conditions based on the information provided. During the encounter, properly informing the patient of all relevant facts is an important part of the relationship and the development of trust; the medical encounter is documented in the medical record, a legal document in many jurisdictions. Follow-ups may be shorter but follow the same general procedure, specialists follow a similar process; the diagnosis and treatment may take only a few minutes or a few weeks depending upon the complexity of the issue. The components of the medical interview and encounter are: Chief complaint: the reason for the current medical visit; these are the'symptoms.' They are recorded along with the duration of each one. Called'chief concern' or'presenting complaint'. History of present illness: the chronological order of events of symptoms and further clarification of each symptom.
Distinguishable from history of previous illness called past medical history. Medical history comprises HPI and PMH. Current activity: occupation, what the patient does. Medications: what drugs the patient takes including prescribed, over-the-counter, home remedies, as well as alternative and herbal medicines/herbal remedies. Allergies are recorded. Past medical history: concurrent medical problems, past hospitalizations and operations, past infectious diseases or vaccinations, history of known allergies. Social history: birthplace, marital history and economic status, habits. Family history: listing of diseases in the family that may impact the patient. A family tree is sometimes used. Review of systems or systems inquiry: a set of additional que
Uthumphon Phisai is a district in the western part of Sisaket Province, northeastern Thailand. Neighboring districts are: Rasi Salai, Mueang Sisaket, Wang Hin, Prang Ku, Huai Thap Than, Mueang Chan, Pho Si Suwan, Bueng Bun; the district dates back to Mueang Uthumphon Phisai, converted into a district in 1911 named Phachim Sisaket. In 1913 it was renamed Uthomphon Phisai again; the district office was in tambon Samrong. The district is divided into 19 sub-districts. Kamphaeng is a township. There are a further 19 tambon administrative organizations. Missing numbers are tambons which now form the districts Pho Si Suwan. Amphoe.com
Quirino Principe is an Italian philosopher of music, translator, actor. Principe holds a degree in Philosophy from the University of Padua, he taught at the musicology courses of the "G. Verdi" Conservatory of Milan. Further teaching engagements of his include those at the University of Trieste, at Roma Tre "Ostiense" University and at Verona Accademia per l'Opera Italiana. Considered by music critic Paolo Isotta as "the greatest living expert on Mahler", Principe wrote two extensive monographs on Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss which are regarded as "fundamental" by Enciclopedia Treccani: Mahler, Rusconi 1983, 2nd edition Bompiani 2002, 3rd edition Bompiani 2011 Strauss, Rusconi 1989, 2nd edition Bompiani 2004Other books he authored in the field of musicology, literary analysis, music pedagogy are: Vita e morte della scuola, Rusconi 1970 I potenti della letteratura, Rusconi 1971 La rivelazione incompiuta, 1974 Il rombo del motore, Vallecchi 1974 Manuale di idee per la scuola, Rusconi 1977 La “Sonnambula” di Vincenzo Bellini, Mursia 1991 I quartetti per archi di Beethoven, Anabasi – Società del Quartetto di Milano 1993 La musica a Milano nel Novecento, UTET 1996 Gianandrea Gavazzeni alla Scala, Teatro alla Scala 2001 Il teatro d’opera tedesco 1830-1918, L’Epos 2004 Musica, Electa-Mondadori 2010 Wagner e noi: "Lohengrin" Jaca Book 2012 L’umano atterrito dal soprannaturale: "Tannhäuser" Jaca Book 2013.
Many poems of his have been published in monographic collections such as Il libro dei Cinque Sentieri, Scheiwiller-All’Insegna del Pesce d’Oro, 1973. Other poetic cycles have been published in "Poesia e spiritualità". Besides, poems in their own right are some theatrical works by Principe, such as: Turbativa La saracena... poudre d'Ophélia text for the Pantomime K446 by W. A. Mozart Speculum mundi. Various poems of Principe's have been set to music by composers such as Bruno Bettinelli, Sonia Bo, Massimo Di Gesu. Principe has translated a great number of works from German. Principe has been an advocate of writer John Ronald Reuel Tolkien: he contributed to the Italian diffusion of The Lord of the Rings by editing the Italian translation of the book from its second edition onwards. Besides, he has contributed since 1992 to the Sunday cultural supplement of Il Sole 24 Ore. In 1996 the President of the Austrian Republic awarded Principe the 1st Class Cross of Honour for Science and Art. In 2006 he was elected a member of the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome.
In 2009 the President of the Italian Republic bestowed on him the title of Knight of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic