click links in text for more info

Medieval fortification

Medieval fortification refers to medieval military methods that cover the development of fortification construction and use in Europe from the fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Renaissance. During this millennium, fortifications changed warfare, in turn were modified to suit new tactics and siege techniques. Towers of medieval castles were made of stone or sometimes wood. Toward the part of the era they included battlements and arrow loops. Arrow loops were vertical slits in the wall through which archers inside shot arrows at the attackers, but made it difficult for attackers to get many arrows back through at the defenders. An exact nature of the walls of a medieval town or city would depend on the resources available for building them, the nature of the terrain, the perceived threat. In northern Europe, early in the period, walls were to have been constructed of wood and proofed against small forces. Where stone was available for building, the wood will have been replaced by stone to a higher or lower standard of security.

This would have been the pattern of events in the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw in England. In many cases, the wall would have had an external pomoerium; this was a strip of clear ground adjacent the wall. The word is from the late medieval, derived from the classical Latin post murum. An external pomoerium, stripped of bushes and building, gave defenders a clear view of what was happening outside and an unobstructed field of shot. An internal pomoerium gave ready access to the rear of the curtain wall to facilitate movement of the garrison to a point of need. By the end of the sixteenth century, the word had developed further into pomery. By that time, the medieval walls were no longer secure against a serious threat from an army, as they were not designed to be strong enough to resist cannon fire, they were sometimes rebuilt, as at Berwick on Tweed, or retained for use against thieves and other threats of a lower order. Elaborate and complex schemes for town defences were developed in the Netherlands and France, but these belong to the post-medieval periods.

By 1600, the medieval wall is to have been seen more as a platform for displaying hangings and the pomery as a gathering ground for spectators, or as a source of building stone and a site for its use, respectively. However, a few, such as those of Carcassonne and Dubrovnik, survived well and have been restored to a nearly complete state. Medieval walls that were no longer adequate for defending were succeeded by the star fort. After the invention of the explosive shell, star forts became obsolete as well. Harbours or some sort of water access was essential to the construction of medieval fortification, it was a direct route for fortification. Having direct access to a body of water provided a route for resupply in times of war, an additional method of transportation in times of peace, potential drinking water for a besieged castle or fortification; the concept of rivers or harbours coming directly up to the walls of fortifications was used by the English as they constructed castles throughout Wales.

There is evidence that harbours were fortified, with wooden structures in the water creating a semi-circle around the harbour, or jetties, as seen in an artists reconstruction of Hedeby, in Denmark, with an opening for ships to access the land. These wooden structures would have small bases at either end, creating a'watch' and defense platform. Religion was a central part of the lives of medieval soldiers, churches, chapels and other buildings of religious function were included within the walls of any fortification, be it temporary or permanent. A place to conduct religious services was essential to the morale of the soldiers. Motte-and-bailey was the prevalent form of castle during 12th centuries. A courtyard was protected by a palisade; the entrance was protected by a lifting bridge, a drawbridge or a timber gate tower. Inside the bailey were stables, a chapel; the motte was the final refuge in this type of castle. It was a raised earth mound, varied with these mounds being 3 metres to 30 metres in height, from 30 to 90 metres in diameter.

There was a tower on top of the motte. In most cases, the tower was made of timber, though some were made of stones. Stone towers were found in natural mounds, as artificial ones were not strong enough to support stone towers. Larger mottes had towers including the great hall. Smaller ones had only a watch tower. Construction could sometimes take decades; the string of Welsh castles Edward I of England had built were an exception in that he focused much of the resources of his kingdom on their speedy construction. In addition to paid workers, forced levies of labourers put thousands of men on each site and shortened construction to a few years. Nature could provide effective defenses for the castle. For this reason many castles were built on larger hills, close to rivers, lakes or caves. Materials that were used in the building of castles varied through history. Wood was used for most castles until 1066, they were quick to construct. The reason wood fell into disuse. Soon stone became more popular. Stone castles took years to construct depending on the overall size of the castle.

Stone was stronger and of course much more expensive than wood. Most stone had to be quarried miles away, brought to the building site, but with the invention of the cannon and gunpowder, cas

Mary Love

Mary Love, was an American soul and gospel singer, Christian evangelist. After the 1980s she was known as Mary Love Comer. Love was born in Sacramento, California. After being discovered by Sam Cooke's manager, J. W. Alexander, she began singing on sessions in Los Angeles before recording "You Turned My Bitter into Sweet" for the Modern record label in 1965. Records for the label met with little success until the single "Move a Little Closer" made No. 48 on the R&B chart in 1966. Her recordings for Modern, some of which were issued in the UK, became popular on the English Northern soul scene, she revisited the lower reaches of the R&B chart with "The Hurt Is Just Beginning" which reached No. 46 for Josie in 1968, but thereafter she made few recordings for some years. Love married preacher Brad Comer. In the early 1980s, she re-emerged as Mary Love Comer, singing gospel-flavored soul with a Christian message. In 1987, along with her husband, she released the single "Come Out of the Sandbox"; the couple ran their own church in Moreno Valley, California.

An album of her material and Then, including some old unreleased recordings, was issued in the UK. She made special appearances onstage at the Jazz Café in 2000, at a Kent Records anniversary show in 2007, both in London. Mary Love died on June 21, 2013, at the age of 69. Mary Love website, Retrieved February 17, 2015. Full account of Mary Love's music career, based on 2001 interview, Retrieved February 17, 2015. Profile, Retrieved February 17, 2015

Reid Robison

Reid Robison is an American physician. He was the CEO and co-founder of Tute Genomics, acquired in 2016 by PierianDx, he serves as Medical Director of Center for Change, a treatment center for Eating Disorders. He is most notable for his contributions in humanitarian work. Robison earned a bachelor's degree from Brigham Young University in Provo, UT before attending the University of Utah School of Medicine in Salt Lake City, UT, where he earned a dual MD/MBA, he completed psychiatry residency training followed by fellowship training in genetics and bioinformatics at the University of Utah. In his early career he held a faculty position at the University of Utah and co-directed the molecular genetics lab where he focused his research on the genetic associations of autism, ADHD, contributed to the discovery of Ogden Syndrome. During his time on faculty within the Department of Psychiatry he led global health initiatives and guided trainees during trips to underserved locations such as Haiti and refugee camps along the Thai/Burma border.

Robison is the founder of the Polizzi Foundation, a free clinic based in Salt Lake City offering mental health services to the uninsured. He, along with Clark W Johnson MD, his medical school colleague and business partner, were co-founders of Clinical Methods, a center for clinical trials, acquired in 2012 by CRI Lifetree. In 2012, Robison co-founded Tute Genomics, acquired by PierianDx in 2016, sits on the board of directors. Robison was named one of the top 40 healthcare transformers, one of the Utah Venture Entrepreneur Forum peak 100 entrepreneurs in 2014. Robison is known for his use of google fiber to speed up genomic data transfer & analysis. Robison is a certified Yoga instructed and completed his training under Sri Dharma Mittra in New York City, he speaks and writes about yoga and mindfulness for mental health

Leonard Coleman

Leonard Coleman is a former American football player who played cornerback in the National Football League for the Indianapolis Colts and San Diego Chargers from 1985 to 1989. He played college football at Vanderbilt University and was drafted by the Colts in the first round of the 1984 NFL Draft, the first player drafted by the team following its relocation from Baltimore. Coleman sat out the 1984 NFL season because of a contract dispute, instead signing a deal with the Memphis Showboats of the United States Football League and completing his degree at Vanderbilt. Early in the 1985 season, Coleman joined the Colts after the club bought out his contract with Memphis, he started all 16 games for Indianapolis in 1986, but played in only four games in 1987. Coleman was traded to the Chargers for an undisclosed draft pick on July 9, 1988, playing 16 games in 1988 and one in 1989 before being waived on September 12, 1989


Fingest is a village in Buckinghamshire, England. It is in the Chiltern Hills near the border with Oxfordshire, it is about six miles WSW of High Wycombe. It lies in the civil parish of Hambleden; the village name of Fingest comes from the Anglo Saxon name Thinghurst, meaning'wooded hill where assemblies are made'. In the 16th century the name is recorded as Thingest and Fingest. Although the early name is the etymological root of both'Tinghurst' and'Fingest', the latter doesn't follow the former by any normal linguistic line; the ancient parish of Fingest included Cadmore End to the north of the village, which became a separate ecclesiastical parish in 1852. The manor of Fingest anciently belonged to St Albans Abbey. In 1163 it was given to the bishop of Lincoln; the ghost of Henry Burghersh, 14th-century Bishop of Lincoln, is reputed to haunt the area. After this time it was used as the country residence for the Lincoln diocese until 1547 when it was seized by the Crown, it was given two years to the Duke of Somerset who exchanged it with a property belonging to Wells Cathedral.

The manor is now owned. The civil parish of Fingest based on the ecclesiastical parish, was enlarged in 1934 by adding land from the parishes of West Wycombe, Great Marlow and Hambleden; as a result, Lane End became the largest settlement in the parish, the parish was renamed Fingest and Lane End in 1937. In the 1980s the civil parish was abolished; the larger part became the parish of Lane End, the village of Fingest was added to Hambleden parish. Scenes of the period drama The Monuments Men were shot in Fingest in May 2013, starring George Clooney, Matt Damon and Jean Dujardin; the parish church of St Bartholomew's dates from the early Norman period. It has an unusual tower, with a double vaulted roof; the church is a Grade I listed building. Media related to Fingest at Wikimedia Commons Map sources for Fingest

Ashbel P. Willard

Ashbel Parsons Willard was state senator, the 12th Lieutenant Governor, the 11th Governor of the U. S. state of Indiana. His terms in office were marked by severe partisanship leading to the breakup of the state Democratic Party in the years leading up to the American Civil War, his brother-in-law was executed. Willard went to the south to advocate unsuccessfully for his release, became despised by southerners who accused him of having a secret involvement in the raid, he died two months before the start of the war while giving a speech on national unity, was the first governor of Indiana to die in office. Ashbel Parsons Willard was born on October 31, 1820 in Oneida County, New York, the son of Erastus and Sarah Parsons Willard, his father was the county sheriff. There he studied law with Judge Barker, he lived there for about a year. In 1843 he made a trip on his return stopped in Carrolton, Kentucky. After living there about a year there he moved again to Louisville, Kentucky where he continued teaching.

In his spare time he studied. In the 1844 election Willard, a Democrat, stumped all around the Louisville area and southern Indiana for James Polk who won the election. While on the stump the people of New Albany, Indiana so liked him that they invited him to come live in their community, he moved there in the spring of 1845 and set up a law office. Finding there to be a lack of clients, he worked for a time as a writer in the clerk's office to obtain extra income, he met Carline C. Cook, a town native, was married to her in 1847; the couple had three children, but the oldest, Ashbel P. Willard Jr. died from scarlet fever at age three. New Albany remained Willard's home for the rest of his life. In 1849 Willard became a New Albany councilman. In 1850 he was elected to the Indiana House of Representatives as New Albany's representative, he chaired the states Ways and Means Committee, became Speaker of the House. His rapid progress led him to become a leader in the state Democratic Party. In the General Assembly he was known for his wit and oratory, won most debates he entered.

In 1852 he was nominated to the candidate for Lieutenant Governor of Indiana at the state Democratic Convention. His quick rise in the party was attributed to political skills; the ticket won, in large part because of the stumping of Willard, he served with Governor Joseph A. Wright. Willard was bitterly antagonistic towards the Know-Nothing party, newly formed from disaffected Whigs, the Free Soil Party, the Liberty Party, his derision toward them in the Senate created problems for him when its member joined the Republican Party. During his time as President of the Senate, the senate was split between the parties; when the measure to enter a joint session to elect a new United States Senator, the Senate had a tie vote. Knowing that given the number of Know-Nothings in the House they would be a majority in a joint session, Willard refused to break the tie and Indiana remained several years with only one Senator in Congress. In 1856 Willard was nominated to run as the Democratic Candidate for Governor on the Democratic ticket.

He was opposed in the election by Oliver P. Morton, the most influential man among the Know-Nothing opposition; the remnants of the Whig party did not field their own candidate. The election was referred to as the "battle of the Giants", was one of the most divisive in the history of the state. Both men being among the most astute politicians in the history of the state; the state Democratic party had been undergoing a major division during the two years preceding the campaign. The former Governor Wright was unpopular with the party's leadership, party leader Jesse D. Bright. Wright and other members were expelled from the party when they failed to support the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which the leaders treated as a loyalty test. Many of the expelled and their constituents launched numerous personal attacks against Willard. Much like the nation, Indiana had split along southern lines. Resident of southern Indiana, who were predominantly of southern ancestry, went democrat. Northern Indiana resident who were dominantly of northern origin, voted for the Know-Nothings.

Willard won the close election by about six thousand votes. Shortly after his election, Willard traveled to a Mississippi governors' meeting where he voiced his support for state-rights, southern slavery, the Fugitive Slave Law, his statements caused an uproar in Indiana among his adversaries. Willard's term was marked with severe in-fighting in the Democratic Party; the Know-Nothing Party fell apart during the first two years of his term, but was replaced by the strengthening Republican Party, which absorbed most its members. The divisive atmosphere left the General Assembly in deadlock for most of his term, leading him to call the first special session of the body in state history, because the parties could not agree on the terms of a budget. In 1857 mid-term elections, the Republicans gained control of the Senate, the Democrats retook the House after absorbing the remaining Whigs; the state still only had one US Senator, the governor was hoping to have the assembly elect one, nominate Jesse D. Bright to return to the Senate.

The opposition was more hostile to Bright because of his actions regarding slavery. The Republicans were still angry over Willard's blocking their Senate pick, so the Senate decided to