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Medieval music

Medieval music consists of songs, instrumental pieces, liturgical music from about 500 A. D. to 1400. Medieval music was an era of Western music, including liturgical music used for the church, secular music, non-religious music. Medieval music includes vocal music, such as Gregorian chant and choral music instrumental music, music that uses both voices and instruments. Gregorian chant was sung by monks during Catholic Mass; the Mass is a reenactment of Christ's Last Supper, intended to provide a spiritual connection between man and God. Part of this connection was established through music; this era begins with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century and ends sometime in the early fifteenth century. Establishing the end of the medieval era and the beginning of the Renaissance music era is difficult, since the trends started at different times in different regions; the date range in this article is the one adopted by musicologists. During the Medieval period the foundation was laid for the music notation and music theory practices that would shape Western music into the norms that developed during the common-practice era, a period of shared music writing practices which encompassed the Baroque music composers from 1600–1750, such as J.

S. Bach and Classical music period composers from the 1700s such as W. A. Mozart and Romantic music era composers from the 1800s such as Wagner; the most obvious of these is the development of a comprehensive music notational system which enabled composers to write out their song melodies and instrumental pieces on parchment or paper. Prior to the development of musical notation and pieces had to be learned "by ear", from one person who knew a song to another person; this limited how many people could be taught new music and how wide music could spread to other regions or countries. The development of music notation made it easier to disseminate songs and musical pieces to a larger number of people and to a wider geographic area; however the theoretical advances in regard to rhythm—the timing of notes—and polyphony—using multiple, interweaving melodies at the same time—are important to the development of Western music. Many instruments used to perform medieval music still exist in the 21st century, but in different and more technologically developed forms.

The flute was made of wood in the medieval era rather than silver or other metal, could be made as a side-blown or end-blown instrument. While modern orchestral flutes are made of metal and have complex key mechanisms and airtight pads, medieval flutes had holes that the performer had to cover with the fingers; the recorder was made of wood during the Medieval era, despite the fact that in the 2000s, it may be made of synthetic materials, it has more or less retained its past form. The gemshorn is similar to the recorder as it has finger holes on its front, though it is a member of the ocarina family. One of the flute's predecessors, the pan flute, was popular in medieval times, is of Hellenic origin; this instrument's pipes were made of wood, were graduated in length to produce different pitches. Medieval music used many plucked string instruments like the lute, a fretted instrument with a pear-shaped hollow body, the predecessor to the modern guitar. Other plucked stringed instruments included the mandore, gittern and psaltery.

The dulcimers, similar in structure to the psaltery and zither, were plucked, but musicians began to strike the dulcimer with hammers in the 14th century after the arrival of new metal technology that made metal strings possible. The bowed lyra of the Byzantine Empire was the first recorded European bowed string instrument. Like the modern violin, a performer produced sound by moving a bow with tensioned hair over tensioned strings; the Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih of the 9th century cited the Byzantine lyra, in his lexicographical discussion of instruments as a bowed instrument equivalent to the Arab rabāb and typical instrument of the Byzantines along with the urghun and the salandj. The hurdy-gurdy was a mechanical violin using a rosined wooden wheel attached to a crank to "bow" its strings. Instruments without sound boxes like the jew's harp were popular. Early versions of the pipe organ, a precursor to the modern trombone were used. Medieval music was composed and, for some vocal and instrumental music, improvised for many different music genres.

Medieval music created for sacred and secular was written by composers, except for some sacred vocal and secular instrumental music, improvised. During the earlier medieval period, the liturgical genre, predominantly Gregorian chant done by monks, was monophonic. Polyphonic genres, in which multiple independent melodic lines are performed began to develop during the high medieval era, becoming prevalent by the 13th and early 14th century; the development of polyphonic forms, with different voices interweaving, is associated with the late Medieval Ars nova style which flourished in the 1300s. The Ars Nova, which means "new art" was an innovative style of writing music that served as a key transition from the medieval music style to the more expressive styles of the post-1400s Renaissance music era; the earliest innovations upon monophonic plainchant were heterophonic

Gornji Suhor pri Vinici

Gornji Suhor pri Vinici is a village on the route from Dragatuš to Vinica in the Municipality of Črnomelj in the White Carniola area of southeastern Slovenia. The area is part of the traditional region of Lower Carniola and is now included in the Southeast Slovenia Statistical Region; the name of the settlement was changed from Gornji Suhor to Gornji Suhor pri Vinici in 1953. In the past the German name was Obersuchor; the local church belongs to the Parish of Vinica. It was first mentioned in written documents dating to 1526, still has Gothic ribbed vaulting in its sanctuary; the main altar was restored in the late 19th century. Gornji Suhor pri Vinici on Geopedia

Tornadoes of 1980

This page documents the tornadoes and tornado outbreaks of 1980 in the United States. Most tornadoes form in the U. S. although some events may take place internationally. Tornado statistics for older years like this appear lower than modern years due to fewer reports or confirmed tornadoes. Numbers for 1980 were both in terms of number of tornadoes and number of fatalities. There were 7 tornadoes in the US in January. There were 11 tornadoes in the US in February. There were 41 tornadoes in the US in March, resulting in two fatalities. On March 1, an F3 tornado in Pompano Beach, Florida killed one and injured 33. There were 137 tornadoes in the US in April, resulting in four fatalities. On April 2, an F4 tornado struck Baylor Texas but resulted in no injuries. There were 203 tornadoes in the US in May, resulting in eight fatalities; the Kalamazoo Tornado of 1980 struck downtown Kalamazoo, Michigan, on May 13, 1980. The tornado, which touched down at 4:09 pm, was rated F3 on the Fujita scale; the tornado killed 5 people and injured 79.

Damage was estimated at 50,000,000 dollars There were 217 tornadoes in the US in June, resulting in seven fatalities. On June 29, an F2 tornado in Harford County, Maryland moved onto the Aberdeen Proving Ground resulting in no fatalities, but 10 people were injured; the 1980 Grand Island tornado outbreak known as The Night of the Twisters, affected the city of Grand Island, Nebraska on June 3, 1980. Seven tornadoes touched down in or near the city that night, killing five and injuring 200; the highest rated tornado was a F4 There were 95 tornadoes in the US in July, resulting in five fatalities. On July 9, an F4 tornado injured 25 in Rushville, Indiana. Three more people were killed in separate tornadoes in Wisconsin on July 15th. There were 73 tornadoes in the US in August. There were 37 tornadoes in the US in September, resulting in one fatality from an F3 tornado in St. Cloud, Minnesota on September 3. There were 43 tornadoes in the US in October, resulting in one fatality. There were 3 tornadoes in the US in November.

There were 2 tornadoes in the US in December. U. S. tornadoes in 1980 - Tornado History Project Tornado deaths monthly