Medieval philosophy is the philosophy that existed through the Middle Ages, the period extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century to the Renaissance in the 15th century. Medieval philosophy, understood as a project of independent philosophical inquiry, began in Baghdad, in the middle of the 8th century, in France, in the itinerant court of Charlemagne, in the last quarter of the 8th century, it is defined by the process of rediscovering the ancient culture developed in Greece and Rome during the Classical period, by the need to address theological problems and to integrate sacred doctrine with secular learning. The history of medieval philosophy is traditionally divided into two main periods: the period in the Latin West following the Early Middle Ages until the 12th century, when the works of Aristotle and Plato were rediscovered and studied upon, the "golden age" of the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries in the Latin West, which witnessed the culmination of the recovery of ancient philosophy, along with the reception of its Arabic commentators, significant developments in the fields of philosophy of religion and metaphysics.
The Medieval Era was disparagingly treated by the Renaissance humanists, who saw it as a barbaric "middle period" between the Classical age of Greek and Roman culture, the rebirth or renaissance of Classical culture. Modern historians consider the medieval era to be one of philosophical development influenced by Christian theology. One of the most notable thinkers of the era, Thomas of Aquinas, never considered himself a philosopher, criticized philosophers for always "falling short of the true and proper wisdom"; the problems discussed throughout this period are the relation of faith to reason, the existence and simplicity of God, the purpose of theology and metaphysics, the problems of knowledge, of universals, of individuation. Medieval philosophy places heavy emphasis on the theological. With the possible exceptions of Avicenna and Averroes, medieval thinkers did not consider themselves philosophers at all: for them, the philosophers were the ancient pagan writers such as Plato and Aristotle.
However, their theology used the methods and logical techniques of the ancient philosophers to address difficult theological questions and points of doctrine. Thomas Aquinas, following Peter Damian, argued. Despite this view of philosophy as the servant of theology, this did not prevent the medievals from developing original and innovative philosophies against the backdrop of their theological projects. For instance, such thinkers as Augustine of Hippo and Thomas of Aquinas made monumental breakthroughs in the philosophy of temporality and metaphysics, respectively; the principles that underlie all the medieval philsophers' work are: The use of logic and analysis to discover the truth, known as ratio. One of the most debated topics of the period was that of faith versus reason. Avicenna and Averroes both leaned more on the side of reason. Augustine stated that he would never allow his philosophical investigations to go beyond the authority of God. Anselm attempted to defend against what he saw as an assault on faith, with an approach allowing for both faith and reason.
The Augustinian solution to the faith/reason problem is to believe, seek to understand. The boundaries of the early medieval period are a matter of controversy, it is agreed that it begins with Augustine who belongs to the classical period, ends with the lasting revival of learning in the late eleventh century, at the beginning of the high medieval period. After the collapse of the Roman empire, Western Europe lapsed into the so-called Dark Ages. Monasteries were among the limited number of focal points of formal academic learning, which might be presumed to be a result of a rule of St Benedict's in 525, which required monks to read the Bible daily, his suggestion that at the beginning of Lent, a book be given to each monk. In periods, monks were used for training administrators and churchmen. Early Christian thought, in particular in the patristic period, tends to be intuitional and mystical, is less reliant on reason and logical argument, it places more emphasis on the sometimes-mystical doctrines of Plato, less upon the systematic thinking of Aristotle.
Much of the work of Aristotle was unknown in the West in this period. Scholars relied on translations by Boethius into Latin of Aristotle's Categories, the logical work On Interpretation, his Latin translation of Porphyry's Isagoge, a commentary on Aristotle's Categories. Two Roman philosophers had a great influence on the development of medieval philosophy: Augustine and Boethius. Augustine is regarded as the greatest of the Church Fathers, he is a theologian and a devotional writer, but much of his writing is philosophical. His themes are truth, the human soul, the meaning of history, the state and salvation. For over a thousand years, there was hardly a Latin work of theology or philosophy that did not quote his writing, or invoke his authority; some of his writing had an influence on the development of early modern philosophy, such as that of Descartes. Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius was a Christian philosopher born in Rome to an ancient and influential family, he became consul in 510 in the kingdom of the Ostrogoths.
His influence on the early medieval period was marked (so
Margareta Eriksdotter Vasa called Margareta Vasa and Margareta of Hoya, was a Swedish noblewoman, sister of king Gustav I of Sweden. Between 1525 and 1534, she commanded Vyborg Castle on several occasions during the absence of her spouse. Margareta was born to Erik Johansson Vasa and Cecilia Månsdotter and thus sister to the future king Gustav Vasa. Nothing is known of her childhood, but it is known that she could speak both Swedish and German, that she could read and write and that she had a great interest in literature: she placed her own daughters in school at Sko Abbey at the age of five, it is considered that she was herself spent a period at convent school, at the time customary within the Swedish nobility. On 30 March 1516, she married riksråd Joakim Brahe at Tre Kronor in a wedding hosted by the Swedish regent Sten Sture the Younger: her spouse was a loyal follower of Sture, the regent was married to her aunt, Christina Gyllenstierna. In November 1520, Margareta and her spouse attended the coronation of Christian II of Denmark as king of Sweden.
Her spouse and father belonged to those executed at the Stockholm Bloodbath. Margareta and her children, along with her mother, sister Emerentia, grandmother Sigrid Eskilsdotter and aunt Christina Gyllenstierna, belonged to the women and children related to the executed that were imprisoned at Stockholm Castle and transferred to the infamous Blåtårn of Copenhagen Castle the following summer. In the chronicle of her son Per Brahe the Elder the captivity of the Swedish noblewomen in Denmark were described: "They were much deprived of food and drink. Hardly given enough each day to keep their lives but they worked to be fed": king Gustav I of Sweden used their treatment in captivity in his propaganda against Christian II and claimed that the Danish monarch starved the women and children who only survived by the mercy showed them by the queen of Denmark, Isabella of Austria. Whatever the truth of this, it is confirmed that many of the imprisoned women and children died, among them Margareta's mother Cecilia, sister Emerentia and cousin Magdalena, though the cause of death are given as the plague, at that point used to classify a number of different illnesses.
In 1524, Margareta was released and returned to Sweden, where her brother was now king Gustav I. In August of that year, she was engaged to the German count John VII of Hoya and Brockenhusen, the wedding took place 15 January 1525 in Stockholm; the marriage was arranged by her brother for political reasons. During his early reign, the German nobles John VII of Hoya and Berend von Melen belonged to the most trusted allies of the king, he arranged the marriage between John VII of Hoya and his sister Margareta and Berend von Melen and his second cousin Margareta to secure their loyalty: the marriages were however controversial among the peasantry, who disliked the Germans around the king and criticized them and the foreign marriages when the king married the German princess Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg. After their marriage, king Gustav granted the governorship of Vyborg Castle to John VII of Hoya and Kalmar Castle to Berend von Melen. Margareta settled in Vyborg Castle in Finland in the spring of 1525 and was, as was the contemporary custom, made responsible for the office of her spouse and command of the fortress whenever he was absent on the frequent assignments given to him by the king.
She corresponded with her brother the king about both political and private issues, preserved. Margareta disliked her life in Finland, was afraid of the Russians and asked for permission to return to Sweden, but he refused stating that he needed her there. During the Swedish Reformation, she expressed concerns over the rumors that her brother was destroying churches and convents, which she had been informed by her chaplain, but he replied that she was able to tell truths from lies, that he expected her to interrogate and punish her chaplain for such traitorous thoughts. In 1528, she visited Lübeck in Germany. On her return to Sweden in April 1529, she and Wulf Gyl were captured by mayor Nils Arvidsson of Jönköping; this incident was the beginning of the Westrogothian rebellion of the nobility against the ongoing Swedish Reformation. The rebellion was subdued by her brother in May, she was released unharmed. In the summer of 1531, Margareta and Johan of Hoya were assigned to head the fleet of the "highest lords and ladies of the realm" sent to escort the bride of the king, Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg, from Germany to her wedding with the king in Stockholm.
Margareta was interested in literature and corresponded with bishop Hans Brask, with whom she discussed and changed books. In June 1534, during the Count's Feud, John VII of Hoya broke with Gustav I and left Sweden for Germany, he soon fought against Sweden. Margareta accompanied Johan to Germany with her children and their escape attracted attention and bad publicity about Gustav I around the Baltic Sea; the King wrote to her and asked her to abandon her traitorous husband and return to Sweden, but she refused, fearing to be imprisoned upon her return. Her son Per Brahe the Elder stated that she had in fact not been worried for her own sake, but for the sake of her two sons from her second marriage because they were the brood of John VII of Hoya, "therefore she would not take them with her, nor to part with them"; when she was widowed in June 1535, she asked her brother if he would force her to enter another arranged marriage if she returned. When he avoided
The Turan Group is a fake Muslim Russian private military company in Syria. For unknown reasons, the existence of Turan was fabricated by a Russian journalist and others through staged photographs and Photoshop, it is described as a hoax. The group was founded in the spring of 2017 Central Asian and other former Soviet nationals with Special Forces and general military background; the group is similar to another Russian PMC active in Syria called the Wagner Group, however many of its recruits are Central Asians who have adopted Shiite beliefs and were therefore recruited to go to Syria to fight alongside other Shiite militia groups such as Hezbollah. In an interview in a Russian newspaper with an individual affiliated with the group reported that Russian speaking Arabs with Hezbollah patches had recruited on behalf of the organization, individuals from the former Soviet Union, offering recruits 15000 USD to fight for 8 months in Syria against ISIL. Members are the group use NATO weapons such as M4 Carbines, members of the group wear black and blue stripes on their shirts with "Turan" inscribed on them and patches with a clenched fist holding a Kalashnikov type rifle, similar to Hezbollah's logo.