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Medina

Medina transliterated as Madīnah, is the capital of the Al-Madinah Region in Saudi Arabia. At the city's heart is al-Masjid an-Nabawi, the burial place of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Medina is one of the three holiest cities in the other two being Mecca and Jerusalem. Medina was Muhammad's destination in his Hijrah from Makkah, became the capital of a increasing Muslim Empire, under Muhammad's leadership, serving as the power base of Islam, where Muhammad's Ummah, composed of both locals and immigrants from Muhammad's original home of Mecca, developed. Medina is home to three prominent mosques, namely al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Quba Mosque, Masjid al-Qiblatayn. Muslims believe that the chronologically final surahs of the Quran were revealed to Muhammad in Medina, are called Medinan surahs in contrast to the earlier Meccan surahs; the Arabic word al-Madīnah means'the city'. Before the advent of Islam, the city was known as Yathrib; the word Yathrib has been recorded in Surat al-Ahzab of the Quran.

The city has been called Taybah and Tabah. An alternative name is al-Madīnah an-Nabawiyyah or Madīnat an-Nabī; as of 2010, the city of Medina has a population of 1,183,205.. The city's name was changed to Madīna-tu n-Nabī or al-Madīnatu'l-Munawwarah. Medina is celebrated for containing al-Masjid an-Nabawi and as the city which gave refuge to him and his followers, so ranks as the second holiest city of Islam, after Mecca. Muhammad was buried in Medina, under the Green Dome, as were the first two Rashidun caliphs, Abu Bakr and Umar, who were buried next to him in what used to be Muhammad's house. Medina is 210 miles north about 120 miles from the Red Sea coast, it is situated in the most fertile part of all the Hejazi territory, the streams of the vicinity tending to converge in this locality. An immense plain extends to the south; the historic city formed an oval, surrounded by a strong wall, 30 to 40 feet high, dating from the 12th century CE, was flanked with towers, while on a rock, stood a castle.

Of its four gates, the Bab-al-Salam, or Egyptian gate, was remarkable for its beauty. Beyond the walls of the city and south were suburbs consisting of low houses, yards and plantations; these suburbs had walls and gates. All of the historic city has been demolished in the Saudi era; the rebuilt city is centred on the vastly expanded al-Masjid an-Nabawi. The graves of Fatimah and Hasan, across from the mosque at Jannat al-Baqi', Abu Bakr, of Umar ibn Al-Khattab), the second caliph, are here; the mosque has been twice reconstructed. Because of the Saudi government's religious policy and concern that historic sites could become the focus for idolatry, much of Medina's Islamic physical heritage has been altered. Medina's importance as a religious site derives from the presence of al-Masjid an-Nabawi; the mosque was expanded by the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I. Mount Uhud is a mountain north of Medina, the site of the second battle between Muslim and Meccan forces. After Muhammad migrated to Madinah, he built Quba' Mosque and offered prayers in it.

He would walk to the mosque every Saturday to offer 2 rakaats of prayers. Quba' Mosque is now located in the metropolitan area of Medina, it was destroyed by lightning about 850 CE, the graves were forgotten. In 892, the place was cleared up, the graves located and a fine mosque built, destroyed by fire in 1257 CE and immediately rebuilt, it was restored by Qaitbay, the Egyptian ruler, in 1487. Muslims are encouraged to perform 2 rakaat of Sunnah prayer at this Quba' Mosque. According to a hadith from Sunan Ibn Majah, Sahl ibn Hunayf reported that Muhammad said, “Whoever purifies himself in his house comes to the mosque of Quba' and prays in it, he will have a reward like the Umrah pilgrimage.” Masjid al-Qiblatain is another mosque historically important to Muslims. It is where the command was sent to Muhammad to change the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to Mecca, according to a hadith. At the prayer hall, you would be able to see signs showing the direction of Makkah as well as Jerusalem; the mosque is being expanded to be able to hold more than 4,000 worshippers.

Like Mecca, the city of Medina only permits Muslims to enter, although the haram of Medina is much smaller than that of Mecca, with the result that many facilities on the outskirts of Medina are open to non-Muslims, whereas in Mecca the area closed to non-Muslims extends well beyond the limits of the built-up area. Both cities' numerous mosques are the destination for large numbers of Muslims on their'Umrah. Hundreds of thousands of Muslims come to Medina annually while performing pilgrimage Hajj. Al-Baqi' is a significant cemetery in Medina where several family members of Muhammad and scholars are buried. Islamic scriptures emphasise the sacredness of Medina. Medina is mentioned several times for example ayah. Medinan suras are longer than their Meccan counterparts. There is a book withi

Pefaur (Ventimiglia) Peninsula

Pefaur Peninsula is the glaciated peninsula projecting 11 km in northwest direction from Danco Coast on the west side of Antarctic Peninsula. Bounded by Hughes Bay to the northeast and Charlotte Bay to the south, separated from Brabant Island to the northwest by Gerlache Strait; the peninsula is named both by Argentina and Chile, in the latter case for Jaime E. Pefaur, biologist at the University of Chile who worked on board the naval vessel Yelcho during the 1967-68 Chilean Antarctic Expedition. Pefaur Peninsula is centred at 64°27′00″S 61°27′00″W. British mapping in 1978. British Antarctic Territory. Scale 1:200000 topographic map. DOS 610 Series, Sheet W 64 60. Directorate of Overseas Surveys, Tolworth, UK, 1978. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica

Altena

Altena is a town in the district of Märkischer Kreis, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The town's castle is the origin for the Dukes of Berg. Altena is situated in the northern stretches of the Sauerland. Altena Castle was built as a stronghold of the older Counts of Berg. A short time a village was founded beneath the hill, with the castle alongside the river Lenne, which feeds into the river Ruhr. After the distribution of the Berg family estates in 1161, Altena became the centre of the County of Altena; the first Count of Altena became Eberhard Count of Berg-Altena. In 1180, after the death of the first count, the county was divided between the two oldest sons: Arnold of Altena and Friedrich of Altena; the third son, Adolf of Altena, became Archbishop of Cologne. Arnold was provided with on half of the Castle and County of Altena, the Castle Hövel and some estates as fiefdoms of the Archbishops of Cologne and bailiwicks of the Abbey Essen. Near the Village and Castle of Hövel, he built the Castle and town of Nienbrügge on the Lippe riverbanks.

His family branch renamed themselves after selling their half of Altena to the Archbishop of Cologne as de Nienbrügge or de Novus Ponte, their new principal residence about forty kilometers to the north. The heir of Arnold was Friedrich de Novus Ponte who changed his title to Isenberg after his new castle in Hattingen, he was sentenced to death as head of the conspiration to murder Engelbert I. Archbishop of Cologne, Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Westphalia and Count of Berg - a close relative - in 1226; the Archbishop was ambushed and slain on his way from his City of Soest to City of Cologne by Friedrich and his men near Gevelsberg in a hollow way. Both had a dispute over the bailiwicks of Essen Abbey; the junior branch of the Counts of Altena, was founded by Friedrich de Altena. He was provided with a vassal to his brother the Archbishop of Cologne. In or around 1170 he was rewarded with it by the Archbishop; the Oberhof was a mayor manor without fortifications in the village of Mark, between the Lippe and Ahse rivers less than five kilometers to the east of the Nienbrügge Castle and about seven kilometers southeast of Hövel Castle.

Today, about a 1,5 kilometers to the east of the centre of the city of Hamm. Before or in 1198 he built the Castle of Mark, his son Adolf I. named himself in 1202 puer became the first Count of Mark. He sometimes used the old title Altena in combination with Mark, his principal residence was the Castle of Mark. After the execution of his cousin Friedrich de Isenberg in Cologne, he destroyed the Castle of Neinbruegge and took over the possessions of the senior family branch. After 1202, Altena Castle was only one of several Stronghold of the family of Altena-Mark. During a feud in 1323 between the Prince-Bishop of Münster and the Count of Mark, the Bishop was captured and held for ransom in Altena. In 1367 the settlement below the castle received limited town rights through Engelbert III. Count de la Mark. Since 1392 Altena remained only the seat of the bailiff for bailiwick Altena; the castle was used as an archive for documents and patents for the county. In 1609 the last count died childless, his realm, the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg were divided into a Catholic and a Protestant part.

The Duchy of Cleves and the counties of Mark and Ravensberg, the Dominion of Ravenstein were inherited by the Protestant Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, Margrave of Brandenburg, Duke of Prussia Johann Sigismund of Hohenzollern. The catholic Duchy of Jülich-Berg were inherited by the Count Palatine Wolfgang Wilhelm of Neuburg. During the Napoleonic occupation of the Rhineland and Westphalia, Altena was re-joined with the now elevated Grand Duchy of Berg. After the Congress of Vienna the County of Mark was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia and reorganized as a district and government district. Altena was seat of the Kreis Altena. Within the year 1815 the Government moved the quarters from Hamm to Arnsberg, changed the name into Regierungsbezirk Arnsberg. With the start of the year 1969 the Kreis Altena and the town Lüdenscheid were merged to form the new Kreis Lüdenscheid. Lüdenscheid became the new administrative center of the district. Only six years the Kreis Lüdenscheid was reformed and enlarged.

In reminiscence of the County of Mark it was renamed as Märkischer Kreis. In May 2017 Chancellor Merkel awarded Altena Mayor Andreas Hollstein the "National Prize for Integration" for taking in 370 refugees, i.e. 100 more than the mandatory quota. Six months even though Mayor Hollstein had been stabbed by a man with a knife, upset over his immigration policy, he remained determined to promote policies aimed at helping refugees assimilate into the town. April 1945-August 1945 Fritz Berg August 1945-March 1946 Friedrich Heyne September 1946-November 1952 Hermann Voß November 1952-October 1956 Gustav Trappe November 1956-January 1957 Hermann Voß January 1957-March 1961 Heinrich Malkus March1961-March 1969 Gustav Trappe April 1969-April 1970 Friedhelm Halfmeier April 1970-September 1999 Günter Topmann since September 1999 Andreas Hollstein Number of inhabitants The town's biggest attraction is the castle: Burg Altena. After being un-used for centuries it was in ruins, although part of the buildings was used as a hospital.

A complete restoration was undertaken in 1909 to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Prussian incorporation of the county of Mark into Prussia. However, most of the work did not finish before 1914.