CSBP Limited is an Australian fertiliser and chemical company based in Kwinana, Western Australia. It is a subsidiary of WesCEF, which in turn is part of the industrials division of the Wesfarmers conglomerate. CSBP produces a number of products for the agricultural and industrial sectors, including fertilisers, industrial chemicals, polyvinyl chloride, wood-plastic composites, it has two subsidiaries -- ModWood Technologies. CSBP additionally holds joint ownership of Queensland Nitrate Project, a joint venture with Dyno Nobel. CSBP has its head office in Kwinana, it has a soil and plant laboratory in Bibra Lake and regional fertiliser distribution centres in Albany, Bunbury and Geraldton. There are regional fertiliser depots in Corrigin, Goomalling, Merredin and Wagin. CSBP has its origins in Cuming Smith & Co. which in 1910 began making fertilisers at Bassendean, Western Australia, under the "Florida" brand name. It was the first company in Australia to manufacture superphosphate. In 1927, Cuming Smith and two other firms – Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company and Westralian Farmers Superphosphates – established a new joint venture, Cuming Smith Mount Lyell Farmers Fertiliser Limited.
Each company held a one-third share. The establishment of CSML came at a time when the agricultural sector in Western Australia was expanding. With a capacity output of 240,000 tonnes per year, the company produced all of the superphosphate used in WA – a total of 1,925,000 tonnes in its first 20 years of operation. CSML commissioned new plants in Bunbury and Geraldton in 1930, in order to reduce the distribution distance for their products. A plant in Albany was commissioned in 1954, at the same time CSML and Cresco Fertilisers formed a new joint venture, the Albany Superphosphate Company. Albany Superphosphate operated both in Albany and in Esperance, where a plant was established in 1962. In 1963, Boral purchased Mount Lyell's share in CSML, they onsold their share to BP the following year, CSML was renamed Cuming Smith British Petroleum and Farmers Limited. CSBP commissioned superphosphate and sulphuric acid plants in Kwinana in 1967; the Kwinana Nitrogen Company was established the following year, as a joint venture between CSBP and BP.
In 1970, CSBP took over its main rival, Cresco Fertilisers. As a result of these changes, the company's plants in Bassendean and North Fremantle ceased operations in 1971. Three additional plants in Kwinana were commissioned in the 1970s. In October 1977, Westralian Farmers launched a takeover bid for CSBP, valuing the company at $60 million – three times what Westralian Farmers itself was valued at. Driven by John Bennison, the deal did not go through until September 1979, after two years of protracted negotiations. At the time, it was the largest corporate takeover in Australian history. During the 1980s, CSBP began to increase its emphasis on industrial chemicals. In 1986, Wesfarmers acquired BP's one-third shared in CSBP; the following year, they bought out BP's share in the Kwinana Nitrogen Company. In 1988, CSBP formed Australian Gold Reagents Limited as a joint venture with Coogee Chemicals and the Australian Industry Development Corporation. AIDC withdrew in 1997. CSBP began trading as Wesfarmers CSBP in 1995, but in 2003 became just CSBP Limited.
Wandi, Western Australia
Wandi is a suburb of Perth, Western Australia in the City of Kwinana at its northern border. The suburb was approved on 14 March 1978; the suburb is zoned Special Rural. The area is divided into 5 acre lots; the land of Wandi is bushland, some of it is part of the Jandakot Regional Park. The Western boundary is the Kwinana Freeway. Market gardens in the western area bounded by the freeway and Lyon Road are being developed into a residential area name Honeywood; the suburb is 27 km from Perth city. Wandi was named after a regarded Aboriginal stockman, who drove northwest cattle from Robb Jetty to nearby holding paddocks as well as driving sheep into paddocks around Cockburn Sound. For the first four decades of the twentieth century Wandi worked for Anchorage Butchers, owned by Copley and Negus. For at least some of this time, Wandi lived in the racing quarters of George Atkinson's South Fremantle home, working the many racehorses he owned. Wandi died in 1955 at the age of 76. A rare, the last, chuditch or western quoll, an endangered carnivorous marsupial not seen in the Perth area for nearly twenty years, was caught by a rabbit trap in Wandi in March 2009
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
Eucalyptus marginata known as jarrah, djarraly in Noongar language and as Swan River mahogany, is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a tree with rough, fibrous bark, leaves with a distinct midvein, white flowers and large, more or less spherical fruit, its hard, dense timber is insect resistant. The timber has been utilised for cabinet-making and railway sleepers. Jarrah is a tree. Older specimens have a lignotuber and roots, it is a stringybark with rough, greyish-brown, vertically grooved, fibrous bark which sheds in long flat strips. The leaves are arranged alternately along the branches, narrow lance-shaped curved, 8–13 cm long and 1.5–3 cm broad, shiny dark green above and paler below. There is a distinct midvein, spreading a marginal vein separated from the margin; the stalked flower buds are arranged in umbels of between 4 and 8, each bud with a narrow, conical cap 5–9 mm long. The flowers 1–2 cm in diameter, with many white stamens and bloom in spring and early summer.
The fruit are spherical to barrel-shaped, 9–20 mm long and broad. Eucalyptus marginata was first formally described in 1802 by James Edward Smith, whose description was published in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Smith noted that his specimens had grown from seeds brought from Port Jackson and noted a resemblance to both Eucalyptus robusta and E. pilularis. The specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "furnished with a border". Smith did not provide an etymology for the epithet but did note that, compared to E. robusta "the margin is more thickened". Eucalyptus marginata occurs in the south-west corner of Western Australia where the rainfall isohyet exceeds 600 mm, it is found inland as far as Mooliabeenee and Narrogin and in the south as far east as the Stirling Range. Its northern limit is Mount Peron near Jurien Bay but there are outliers at Kulin and Tutanning in the Pingelly Shire; the plant takes the form of a mallee in places like Mount Lesueur and in the Stirling Range but it is a tree and in southern forests sometimes reaches a height of 40 metres.
It grows in soils derived from ironstone and is found within its range, wherever ironstone is present. Jarrah is an important element in its ecosystem, providing numerous habitats for animal life – birds and bees – while it is alive, in the hollows that form as the heartwood decays; when it falls, it provides shelter to ground-dwellers such as a carnivorous marsupial. Jarrah has shown considerable adaptation to different ecologic zones – as in the Swan Coastal Plain and further north, to a different habitat of the lateritic Darling Scarp. Jarrah is vulnerable to dieback caused by the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi. In large sections of the Darling Scarp there have been various measures to reduce the spread of dieback by washing down vehicles, restricting access to areas of forest not yet infected. Jarrah produces a dark, tasty honey, but its wood is its main use, it is a heavy wood, with a specific gravity of 1.1 when green. Its long, straight trunks of richly coloured and beautifully grained termite-resistant timber make it valuable for cabinet making, flooring and outdoor furniture.
The finished lumber has an attractive grain. When fresh, jarrah is quite workable but when seasoned it becomes so hard that conventional wood-working tools are near useless on it, it is used for cabinet making and furniture although in the past it was used in general construction, railway sleepers and piles. In the 19th century, famous roads in other countries were paved with jarrah blocks covered with asphalt. Jarrah wood is similar to that of Karri, Eucalyptus diversicolor. Both trees are found in the southwest of Australia, the two woods are confused, they can be distinguished by cutting an unweathered splinter and burning it: karri burns to a white ash, whereas jarrah forms charcoal. Most of the best jarrah has been logged in southwestern Australia. A large amount was exported to the United Kingdom, where it was cut into blocks and covered with asphalt for roads. One of the large exporters in the late nineteenth century was M. C. Davies who had mills from the Margaret River to the Augusta region of the southwest, ports at Hamelin Bay and Flinders Bay.
The local poet Dryblower Murphy wrote a poem, "Comeanavajarrah", published in The Sunday Times of May 1904, about the potential to extract alcohol from jarrah timber. Jarrah has become more prized, supports an industry that recycles it from demolished houses. So, in 2004, old 4-by-2-inch recycled jarrah was advertised in Perth papers for under $1.50 per metre. Larger pieces of the timber were produced in the early history of the industry, from trees of great age, these are recovered from the demolition of older buildings. Offcuts and millends and fire-affected jarrah sell as firewood for those using wood for heating in Perth, 1-tonne loads can exceed $160 per load. Jarrah tends to work well in slow combustion stoves and closed fires and generates a greater heat than most other available woods. Jarrah is used for percussion instruments and guitar inlays; because of its remarkable resistance to rot, jarrah is used to make hot tubs. Eucalyptus margina
Swan River Colony
The Swan River Colony was a British colony established in 1829 on the Swan River, in Western Australia. The name was a pars pro toto for Western Australia. In 1832 the colony was renamed the Colony of Western Australia, when the colony's founding lieutenant-governor, Captain James Stirling, belatedly received his commission. However, the name "Swan River Colony" remained in informal use for many years afterwards; the first recorded Europeans to sight land where the city of Perth is now located were Dutch sailors. Most the first visitor to the Swan River area was Frederick de Houtman on 19 July 1619, travelling on the ships Dordrecht and Amsterdam, his records indicate he first reached the Western Australian coast at latitude 32°20' which would equate to Rottnest or just south of there. He did not land because of heavy surf, so proceeded northwards without much investigation. On 28 April 1656, Vergulde Draeck en route to Batavia was shipwrecked 107 km north of the Swan River near Ledge Point. Of the 193 on board, only 75 made it to shore.
A small boat that survived the wreckage sailed to Batavia for help, but a subsequent search party found none of the survivors. The wreck was rediscovered in 1963. In 1658, three Dutch Republic ships partially searching for Vergulde Draeck visited the area. Waekende Boey under Captain S. Volckertszoon, Elburg under Captain J. Peereboom and Emeloort under Captain A. Joncke sighted Rottnest but did not proceed any closer to the mainland because of the many reefs, they travelled north and subsequently found the wreck of Vergulde Draeck. They gave an unfavourable opinion of the area due to the dangerous reefs; the Dutch captain Willem de Vlamingh was the next European in the area. Commanding three ships, Geelvink and Wezeltje, he arrived at and named Rottnest on 29 December 1696, on 10 January 1697 discovered and named the Swan River, his ships could not sail up the river because of a sand bar at its mouth, so he sent out a sloop which then required some dragging over the sand bar. They sailed until reaching mud flats near Heirisson Island.
They were not able to meet any close up. Vlamingh was not impressed with the area, this was the reason for a lack of Dutch exploration from on. In 1801, the French ships Géographe captained by Nicolas Baudin and Naturaliste captained by Emmanuel Hamelin visited the area from the south. While Géographe continued northwards, Naturaliste remained for a few weeks. A small expedition explored the Swan River, they gave unfavourable descriptions regarding any potential settlement due to many mud flats upstream and the sand bar. In March 1803, Géographe with another ship Casuarina passed by Rottnest on their way back to France, but did not stop longer than a day or two; the next visit to the area was the first Australian-born maritime explorer, Phillip Parker King in 1822 on Bathurst. King was the son of former Governor Philip Gidley King of New South Wales. However, King was not impressed with the area; the founding father of Western Australia was Captain James Stirling who, in 1827, explored the Swan River area in HMS Success which first anchored off Rottnest, in Cockburn Sound.
He was accompanied by the New South Wales botanist. Their initial exploration began on 8 March in a cutter and gig with parties continuing on foot from 13 March. In late March, HMS Success moved to Sydney. Stirling arrived back in England in July 1828, promoting in glowing terms the agricultural potential of the area, his lobbying was for the establishment of a "free" settlement in the Swan River area with himself as its governor. As a result of these reports, a rumour in London that the French were about to establish a penal colony in the western part of Australia at Shark Bay, the Colonial Office assented to the proposal in mid-October 1828. In December 1828 a Secretary of State for Colonies despatch reserved land for the Crown, as well as for the clergy, for education, specified that water frontage was to be rationed; the most cursory exploration had preceded the British decision to found a settlement at the Swan River. A set of regulations were worked out for distributing land to settlers on the basis of land grants.
Negotiations for a run settlement were started with a consortium of four gentlemen headed by Potter McQueen, a member of Parliament who had acquired a large tract of land in New South Wales. The consortium withdrew after the Colonial Office refused to give it preference over independent settlers in selecting land, but one member, Thomas Peel, accepted the terms and proceeded alone. Peel was allocated 500,000 acres, conditional on his arrival at the settlement before 1 November 1829 with 400 settlers. Peel was still granted 250,000 acres; the first ship to reach the Swan River was HMS Challenger. After she anchored off Garden Island on 25 April 1829, Captain Charles Fremantle declared the Swan River Colony for Britain on 2 May 1829. Parmelia arrived on 31 May carrying Stirling and his party and HMS Sulphur arrived on 8 June carrying members of the 63rd Regiment and families. Three merchant ships arrived shortly after: Calista on 5 August, St Leonard on 6 August and Marquis of Anglesea o
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is named after the city of Perth, Scotland and is the fourth-most populous city in Australia, with a population of 2.04 million living in Greater Perth. Perth is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with the majority of the metropolitan area located on the Swan Coastal Plain, a narrow strip between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp; the first areas settled were on the Swan River at Guildford, with the city's central business district and port both founded downriver. Perth was founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony, it gained city status in 1856 and was promoted to the status of a Lord Mayorality in 1929. The city inherited its name due to the influence of Sir George Murray Member of Parliament for Perthshire and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies; the city's population increased as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes in the late 19th century.
During Australia's involvement in World War II, Fremantle served as a base for submarines operating in the Pacific Theatre, a US Navy Catalina flying boat fleet was based at Matilda Bay. An influx of immigrants after the war, predominantly from Britain, Greece and Yugoslavia, led to rapid population growth; this was followed by a surge in economic activity flowing from several mining booms in the late 20th and early 21st centuries that saw Perth become the regional headquarters for several large mining operations located around the state. As part of Perth's role as the capital of Western Australia, the state's Parliament and Supreme Court are located within the city, as is Government House, the residence of the Governor of Western Australia. Perth came seventh in the Economist Intelligence Unit's August 2016 list of the world's most liveable cities and was classified by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2010 as a Beta world city; the city hosted the 1962 Commonwealth Games.
Perth is divided into 30 local government areas and 250 suburbs, stretching from Two Rocks in the north to Singleton in the south, east inland to The Lakes. Outside of the main CBD, important urban centres within Perth include Joondalup. Most of those were established as separate settlements and retained a distinct identity after being subsumed into the wider metropolitan area. Mandurah, Western Australia's second-largest city, has in recent years formed a conurbation with Perth along the coast, though for most purposes it is still considered a separate city. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Perth area for at least 38,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological remains at Upper Swan; the Noongar people lived as hunter-gatherers. The wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain were important to them, both spiritually and as a source of food; the Noongar people know the area. Boorloo formed part of the territory of the Mooro, a Noongar clan, which at the time of British settlement had Yellagonga as their leader.
The Mooro was one of several Noongar Indigenous clans based around the Swan River known collectively as the Whadjuk. The Whadjuk themselves were one of a larger group of fourteen tribes that formed the south-west socio-linguistic block known as the Noongar sometimes called the Bibbulmun. On 19 September 2006, the Federal Court of Australia brought down a judgment recognising Noongar native title over the Perth metropolitan area in the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia FCA 1243; the judgment was overturned on appeal. The first documented sighting of the region was made by the Dutch Captain Willem de Vlamingh and his crew on 10 January 1697. Subsequent sightings between this date and 1829 were made by other Europeans, but as in the case of the sighting and observations made by Vlamingh, the area was considered to be inhospitable and unsuitable for the agriculture that would be needed to sustain a settlement. Although the Colony of New South Wales had established a convict-supported settlement at King George's Sound on the south coast of Western Australia in 1826 in response to rumours that the area would be annexed by France, Perth was the first full-scale settlement by Europeans in the western third of the continent.
The British colony would be designated Western Australia in 1832 but was known informally for many years as the Swan River Colony after the area's major watercourse. On 4 June 1829, newly arriving British colonists had their first view of the mainland, Western Australia's founding has since been recognised by a public holiday on the first Monday in June each year. Captain James Stirling, aboard Parmelia, said that Perth was "as beautiful as anything of this kind I had witnessed". On 12 August that year, Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the second ship, cut down a tree to mark the founding of the town, it is clear that Stirling had selected the name Perth for the capital well before the town was proclaimed, as his proclamation of the colony, read in Fremantle on 18 June 1829, ended "given under my hand and Seal at Perth this 18th Day of June 1829. James Stirling Lieutenant Governor"; the only contemporary information on the source of the name comes from Fremantle's diary entry for 12 August, which records that they "named the town Perth according to the wishes of Sir George Murray".
Murray was born in Perth and was in 1829 Secretary of State for the Colonies and Member for Perthshire in the British House of Commons. The town was named after the Scottish Pert
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful