Hondo is a city in and the county seat of Medina County, United States. According to the 2010 Census, the population was 8,803, it is part of the San Antonio Metropolitan Statistical Area. Hondo is located at 29°20′49″N 99°8′44″W 40 miles west of Downtown San Antonio. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.6 square miles, of which, 9.6 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is covered with water. Hondo was mentioned in Season 2 Episode 13 of The Night Shift and described as " a two stoplight town down I-90". Original inhabitants of the area, now Medina County, were the Coahuiltecan people. Non-indigenous settlers to the area came from Alsace-Lorraine, Germany and Mexico. Many family-owned businesses and ranches are still owned by descendants of the non-indigenous families; the first Spaniard to explore the area was Cabeza de Vaca in the early 1530s, some 40 years after Columbus arrived in the New World. The city of Hondo was first settled in 1881 and incorporated in 1942.
Hondo was the scene of two bank robberies in the early 1920s. The crooks were the famed Newton Gang, the most successful outlaws in U. S. history. Both bank heists occurred the same night. In 1930, the local Hondo Lions Club erected the now somewhat famous sign reading "This is God's Country, Don't Drive Thru It Like Hell" at the city limits with the intention of slowing down those speeding while traveling through town. In the 1940s the sign was changed to "This is God's Country, Please Don't Drive Through It Like Hell" to satisfy those in the town who were displeased with the tone of the old sign; the sign has been in news and print in many magazines, including on the cover of National Geographic, in the music video of Little Texas' song "God Blessed Texas." The U. S. Army built an air field in the town in 1942 to train new pilots; as of the census of 2000, there were 7,897 people, 2,207 households, 1,664 families residing in the city. The population density was 823.8 people per square mile. There were 2,474 housing units at an average density of 258.1 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 73.33% White, 8.33% African American, 0.47% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 15.23% from other races, 2.38% from two or more races. There were 2,207 households, of which 39.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.1% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.6% were not families. About 21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.38. In the city, the population was distributed as 26.0% under the age of 18, 12.0% from 18 to 24, 33.1% from 25 to 44, 16.6% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 132.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 145.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,917, the median income for a family was $34,856. Males had a median income of $21,639 versus $17,868 for females.
The per capita income for the city was $12,635. About 18.9% of families and 22.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.8% of those under age 18 and 17.1% of those age 65 or over. The City of Hondo is served by the Hondo Independent School District and home to the Hondo High School Owls; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Hondo has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Hondo is the home of the 38th Judicial District of Texas. Clint Hartung, baseball pitcher/outfielder, born in Hondo. George C. Windrow, member of the Wisconsin State Assembly, was born in Hondo. Hondo Area Chamber of Commerce Official website History of Hondo's famous welcome sign
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Interstate 35 in Texas
Interstate 35 in Texas is a major north–south Interstate Highway running from Laredo near the United States-Mexico border to the Red River north of Gainesville where it crosses into Oklahoma. Along its route, it passes through the cities of San Antonio and Waco before it splits into two auxiliary routes just north of Hillsboro. Interstate 35E heads northeast. Interstate 35W turns northwest to run through Fort Worth; the two branches meet up in Denton to again form Interstate 35, where it continues to the Oklahoma border. The exit numbers for Interstate 35E maintain the sequence of exit numbers from the southern segment of Interstate 35, the northern segment of Interstate 35 follows on from the sequence of exit numbers from Interstate 35E. Interstate 35W maintains its own sequence of exit numbers. In Texas, Interstate 35 runs for just over 407 miles, which does not include either the 85-mile segment of Interstate 35W or the 97-mile segment of Interstate 35E. Texas contains more miles of the overall length of Interstate 35 than any other state one-third of the entire length.
The Interstate is undergoing an extensive renovation and expansion project, known as'My35.' The project includes work on portions of the interstate from Dallas south to Laredo. Interstate 35 has been designated the Texas portion of the Purple Heart Trail. Signage noting this designation is being added along the route. In Laredo, Interstate 35 is between 6 and 8 main lanes in each direction, dropping to 4 near mile marker 13. After running concurrently with US 83 for 20 miles, the highway continues north-northeast across the South Texas Plains; the highway passes through the towns of Cotulla, Pearsall and Lytle before reaching San Antonio. In San Antonio, I-35 is listed as the PanAm Expressway, it starts out as four lanes from the south until it reaches the Poteet-Jourdanton Freeway, expanding to six to eight mainlanes of travel. Its southern point begins in the southwest corner of town and travels northeast, crossing I-410 near its southwest point. At the southwest corner of Downtown, it reaches an intersection with I-10, US 87 and US 90.
US 90 continues east and west from this junction, while I-10 westbound/US 87 northbound joins with I-35 northbound along the western side of Downtown. In this section, it splits lanes to form two levels, a lower one for local traffic and a higher one for express traffic, they rejoin near the northwest corner of Downtown to allow I-10/US 87 to split off and go northwest. I-35 continues, resplitting lanes again as it curves around the northwest corner of Downtown and turns east, it rejoins the lanes as it goes through an intersection at the northeast corner of Downtown, where I-37's northern terminus is located, while US 281 will continue on the north–south freeway. I-35 continues east for, it merges with I-410 on its eastern north–south leg from its northbound direction in a triangular interchange and continues north concurrently from there. A few miles I-410 will split off onto its northern west–east leg, while I-35 resumes its north-northeast course past the northeast corner of the city. Trucks are restricted from travel in the far left lane of I-35 in either direction throughout the San Antonio area.
The restriction covers Bexar and Comal Counties. In Austin, Interstate 35 is named Interregional Highway. Through most of the greater Austin area, I-35 is three to four lanes in each direction, dropping to three lanes north of Williamson County, it forms the eastern boundary of Downtown Austin and passes through the eastern side of the University of Texas campus. I-35 is co-located with U. S. Highway 290 through central Austin. Trucks are restricted from travel in the far left lane of I-35 in either direction throughout the Austin area; the restriction covers Hays and Travis counties and most of Williamson county and ends north of Jarrell, Texas where I-35 is reduced to three lanes in each direction. I-35 is split into two decks between Martin Luther King Boulevard and Airport Boulevard, north of Downtown Austin. Both the upper and lower decks are signed as I-35 and US 290, they use a common set of exit numbers, with some exit numbers duplicated between the two decks; the upper deck lanes are express lanes, with off-ramps.
Drivers wishing to exit between Martin Luther King Boulevard and Airport Boulevard must use the lower deck. The I-35 corridor between San Antonio and Austin is considered one of the most congested stretches of highway in the Interstate System. Much of this traffic is due to I-35 being considered one of the primary NAFTA corridors. Efforts to alleviate the congestion include State Highway 130, which forms an I-35 bypass loop to the east of Austin. Many local and regional governance organizations have on-going studies on other methods to improve mobility on I-35, which include such features as commuter rail lines and additional managed lanes. In Waco, Interstate 35 is known as the Jack Kultgen Freeway. I-35 has six to eight lanes through the city of Waco, it passes just to the west of the Baylor University campus and crosses the Brazos River adjacent to McLane Stadium, the new home of Baylor Bears football. Beginning in Waco and continuing up until just before the I-35E/I-35W split north of Hillsboro, I-35 is co-located with U.
S. Highway 77. Interstate 35 through Central Texas is undergoing major renovation; the project is known as'Main Street Texas', part of the larger scale'My35' expansion plan. The'Main Street' project focuses on expanding the number of main lanes from four to six through McLennan and Bell counties, it calls for complete replacement of the main lane bridges o
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Castroville is a city in Medina County, United States. The population was 2,680 at the 2010 census. Prior to 1893, Castroville was the first county seat of Medina County. Castroville is part of the San Antonio Metropolitan Statistical Area. Castroville was established in 1844 by Henri Castro, an empresario of the Republic of Texas, who brought several dozen European families to the area from Alsace and adjoining Baden to populate his land grant along the Medina River 20 miles west of San Antonio; the first colonists disembarked at Galveston on January 9, 1843. They were taken by ship to Lavaca Bay and traveled overland to San Antonio, where they took shelter in abandoned buildings until the Texas Rangers were prepared to escort them to their land and protect them from hostile Indians. On September 2, 1844, the first colonists arrived at Castro's land grant on the Medina River. From 1849, Castroville, on the Medina River was a water stop on the San Antonio-El Paso Road and a stagecoach station on the San Antonio-El Paso Mail Line and San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line.
After a few hard years, the town and surrounding farms flourished. In Castroville's first century, a visitor would be more to hear Alsatian — a dialect spoken in Europe before Standard German was prevalent — than English spoken in the town's homes and taverns. Modern Alsatian travelers noted that the dialect spoken in Castroville was more like that, spoken in the 1840s; the descendants of the original settlers worked diligently to preserve their language, whose usage in Europe has been diminished by political actions of France and Germany since World War II. Today, native speakers of Alsatian are dying out, fewer of the town's residents can trace their ancestry back to the original Castro Colonists; the suburbs of nearby San Antonio are encroaching, much of the town has been designated as the Castroville Historic District to preserve the unique, sloped-roof architecture of dozens of original Alsatian homes and shops. The Steinbach Haus was dismantled and reconstructed in Castroville in 1998.
It was opened to the public in 2002. Castroville is a sister city of Ensisheim in France. Castroville is located at 29°21′N 98°53′W; this is 20 miles west of Downtown San Antonio. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.5 square miles, of which, 2.5 square miles of it is land and 0.39% is covered with water. As of the census of 2010, 3,053 people resided in the city; the population density was 1,045.4 people per square mile. There were 1,025 housing units at an average density of 402.2 per square mile. Of the 941 households, 37.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.5% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.5% were not families. About 20.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.17. In the city, the population was distributed as 28.0% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $42,308, for a family was $51,007. Males had a median income of $35,625 versus $27,228 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,615. About 5.4% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.9% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over. The City of Castroville is served by the Medina Valley Independent School District and Saint Louis Catholic School. Castroville, Texas official Page Castroville Chamber of Commerce https://web.archive.org/web/20110128123337/http://preservecastroville.com/ https://web.archive.org/web/20090902091004/http://www.castrovilletx.com/castroville-texas-history.htm Castroville Texas City History Handbook of Texas Online: Castroville, Texas
Uvalde County, Texas
Uvalde County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 26,405, its county seat is Uvalde. The county was created in 1850 and organized in 1856, it is named for the Spanish governor of Coahuila. Uvalde County was founded by Reading Wood Black who founded the city of Uvalde, Texas. Uvalde County comprises TX Micropolitan Statistical Area. Artifacts establish human habitation dating back to 7000 B. C. Evidence of a permanent Indian village on the Leona River at a place south of the Fort Inge site is indicated in the written accounts of Fernando del Bosque's exploration in 1675. Comanche, Tonkawa and Lipan Apache continued hunting and raiding settlers into the 19th Century. On January 9, 1790, Juan de Ugalde, governor of Coahuila and commandant of the Provincias Internas, led 600 men to a decisive victory over the Apaches near the site of modern Utopia at a place known as Arroyo de la Soledad. In honor of his victory, the canyon area was thereafter called Cañon de Ugalde.
French botanist Jean-Louis Berlandier visited the area in the late 1820s. James Bowie guided a group of silver prospectors into the area of north central Uvalde County in the 1830s. A trail used by General Adrián Woll's Mexican Army on its way to attack San Antonio in 1842 crossed the territory of Uvalde County and became the main highway to San Antonio. Fort Inge was established in 1849 to repress Indian depredations on the international border with Mexico, was served by the Overland Southern Mail. One of the first settlers to the environs was William Washington Arnett, who arrived in the winter of 1852; the Canyon de Ugalde Land Company, formed by land speculators in San Antonio in 1837, began purchasing headright grants in Uvalde County in the late 1830s. Reading Wood Black, who with a partner, Nathan L. Stratton, purchased an undivided league and labor on the Leona River in 1853 at the future site of Uvalde. May 2, 1855, Black hired San Antonio lithographer Wilhelm Carl August Thielepape, laid out Encina, the town known as Uvalde.
Waresville settlement by Capt. William Ware in the upper Sabinal Canyon and Patterson Settlement by George W. Patterson, John Leakey, A. B. Dillard on the Sabinal River coincided with Reading Black's development of the Leona River at Encina. In November 1855, Reading Wood Black lobbied the Texas legislature to organize Uvalde County. On May 12, the county was formally organized. On June 14, Encina was named county seat; the second floor of the courthouse was made into a school, six school districts were organized for the county in 1858. The San Antonio-El Paso Mail route was extended along the county's main road with a stop at Fort Inge in 1857. Conflict between Mexicans and Anglos during and after the Mexican War continued in Uvalde County, with the reported lynching of eleven Mexicans near the Nueces River in 1855. Laws passed in 1857 prohibited Mexicans from traveling through the county. Residents of Uvalde County voted 76–16 against secession from the Union; the abandonment of Fort Inge after secession was followed by renewed Indian attacks.
Many men in Uvalde County fought for the Confederacy, while some Unionists fled to Mexico to avoid persecution. Uvalde County endured three decades of unrelenting lawlessness after the Civil War. Violence and Confederate-Union conflicts among citizens were so pervasive that armed guards were employed to assist the county tax assessor and collector, the county had no sheriff for nearly two years; the years following the Civil War were marked by conflicts between Confederates and Unionists returning to live in Uvalde County. Smugglers and horse rustlers, numerous other desperadoes saturated the area, including notorious cattle rustler, J. King Fisher, appointed Uvalde sheriff in 1881. Willis Newton of The Newton Gang robbed his first train near Uvalde. Jess and Joe Newton retired to Uvalde; the Uvalde Umpire began publication in 1878 and the Hesparian in 1879. The Galveston and San Antonio Railway was built through the county, passing through Sabinal and Uvalde City, in 1881. William M. Landrum introduced Angora goats to the area in the 1880s.
By the turn of the century goats outnumbered cattle. Pat Garrett lived in the county 1891–1900By 1905 the Southern Pacific had established railheads in Uvalde and Sabinal; the local bee industry developed a product. Garner State Park built by the Civilian Conservation Corps and opened in 1941. Garner Army Air Field the same year; the National Fish Hatchery, completed in 1937, produced a million catfish, largemouth bass and sunfish in the 1970s. $45 million was generated by farming in Uvalde County in 1974. In January 1989 Uvalde County withdrew from the Edwards Underground Water District. In 1990 Uvalde County had a population of 23,340, with 60 percent identified as Hispanic. From the Mexican Revolution in 1910, immigrant labor force cleared large tracts of land and digging ditches, as irrigation spread throughout the county; the Uvalde and Northern Railway to Camp Wood, the Asphalt Beltway Railway in 1921, the expansion of the asphalt mines in far southwestern Uvalde County at Blewett and Dabney were completed with the help of Mexican labor.
By 1960 Mexican Americans made up one half of Uvalde County's 16,015 population. Seasonal migrant workers continued to move to Uvalde and Sabinal during the 1960s.. The Alien Land Laws of 1891, 1892 and 1921 prohibited ownership of Texas land by non-citizen residents; the laws were repealed in 1965 by the Fifty-ninth Texas Legislature. These and other discriminatory deed restrictions had limited Tejanos in the purchase of town lots in the county. Efforts to gain civil rights for
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western