August Geiger (architect)
August Geiger was one of the most prominent American architects in South Florida from 1905 to the late 1940s. He experimented in Mission, Neo-Renaissance and Art Deco architecture, but is most noted for his works in the Mediterranean Revival style, a number of his works are listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. Geiger was born in New Haven, the son of Margaretha Geiger and Louis Geiger and he was educated at the citys public schools, and completed his studies at Boardmans Manual Training School. Showing a talent for drawing and design, he determined to be an architect, in 1905, Geiger moved to Miami, where he had vacationed with his family since around 1899, and worked at a local architectural firm for 6 years. The 10th registered architect in Florida, he opened his own firm in 1911 and he worked for Carl Fisher on various construction projects in Miami Beach, and was appointed architect for the Dade County School Board. In 1915 he married Ruth Hinson,1,1611 NW 12th Ave. Davie, Florida, NRHP-listed Hindu Temple in Miami, Florida Fire Station No. 2,1401 N.
Miami Ave. Miami, Florida, NRHP-listed St. Francis Hospital in Miami Beach, Florida
Presidio of San Francisco
It had been a fortified location since September 17,1776, when New Spain established it to gain a foothold on Alta California and the San Francisco Bay. It passed to Mexico, which in turn passed it to the United States in 1848. As part of a 1989 military reduction program under the Base Realignment, on October 1,1994, it was transferred to the National Park Service, ending 219 years of military use and beginning its next phase of mixed commercial and public use. In 1996, the United States Congress created the Presidio Trust to oversee and manage the interior 80% of the parks lands, with the National Park Service managing the coastal 20%. In a first-of-its-kind structure, Congress mandated that the Presidio Trust make the Presidio financially self-sufficient by 2013, the park is characterized by many wooded areas and scenic vistas overlooking the Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. It was recognized as a California Historical Landmark in 1933 and as a National Historic Landmark in 1962, battery Chamberlin, seacoast defense museum and artillery display at Baker Beach built in 1904.
Fort Point,1861 brick and granite fortification located under the Golden Gate Bridge, the visitor center, open on Friday and Sunday, offers video orientations, guided tours, self-guiding materials, and a bookstore. Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Visitor Center, This center offers hands-on marine-life exhibits, the building was used by the Coast Guard from 1890 to 1990. Golden Gate Bridge Pavilion, opened May 2012 for the 75th anniversary of the Golden Gate Bridge and it is located just east of the southern end of the bridge. Crissy Field Center is an environmental education center with programs for schools, public workshops, after-school programs, summer camps. The Center is operated by the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, the facilities include interactive environmental exhibits, a media lab, resource library, arts workshop, science lab, gathering room, teaching kitchen, café and bookstore. The landscape of Crissy Field was designed by George Hargreaves, the project restored a naturally functioning and sustaining tidal wetland as a habitat for flora and fauna, which were previously not in evidence on the site.
It restored a historic grass airfield that functioned as a significant military airfield between 1919 and 1936. The park at Crissy Field expanded and widened the recreational opportunities of the existing 1 1⁄2-mile San Francisco shore to a number of Presidio residents. 1776, Spanish Captain Juan Bautista de Anza led 193 soldiers, women,1794, Castillo de San Joaquin, an artillery emplacement was built above present-day Fort Point, San Francisco, complete with iron or bronze cannon. Six cannons may be seen in the Presidio today, 1776–1821, The Presidio was a simple fort made of adobe and wood. It often was damaged by earthquakes or heavy rains, in 1783, its company was only 33 men. Presidio soldiers duties were to support Mission Dolores by controlling Indian workers in the Mission, and farming, support from Spanish authorities in Mexico was very limited
Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a dense solid. It is used as coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural. Stucco may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials such as metal, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe. In English, stucco usually means a coating for the outside of a building, and plaster one for interiors, as described below, but other European languages, importantly including Italian, do not have the same distinction, stucco means plaster in Italian and serves for both. This has led to English often using stucco for interior decorative plasterwork in relief, especially in art history, the difference in nomenclature between stucco and mortar is based more on use than composition. Animal or plant fibers were often added for additional strength, in the latter nineteenth century, Portland cement was added with increasing frequency in an attempt to improve the durability of stucco.
At the same time, traditional lime plasters were being replaced by gypsum plaster, traditional stucco is made of lime and water. Modern stucco is made of Portland cement and water, lime is added to increase the permeability and workability of modern stucco. Sometimes additives such as acrylics and glass fibers are added to improve the properties of the stucco. This is usually done with what is considered a one-coat stucco system, lime stucco is a relatively hard material that can be broken or chipped by hand without too much difficulty. The lime itself is white, color comes from the aggregate or any added pigments. Lime stucco has the property of being self-healing to a degree because of the slight water solubility of lime. Portland cement stucco is very hard and brittle and can easily crack if the base on which it is applied is not stable, typically its color was gray, from the innate color of most Portland cement, but white Portland cement is used. Todays stucco manufacturers offer a wide range of colors that can be mixed integrally in the finish coat.
As a building material, stucco is a durable, attractive and it was traditionally used as both an interior and exterior finish applied in one or two thin layers directly over a solid masonry, brick or stone surface. The finish coat usually contained a color and was typically textured for appearance. The lath added support for the wet plaster and tensile strength to the brittle, cured stucco, while the increased thickness, the traditional application of stucco and lath occurs in three coats — the scratch coat, the brown coat and the finish coat
A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house. Since its origins in the Roman villa, the idea and function of a villa have evolved considerably, after the fall of the Roman Republic, villas became small farming compounds, which were increasingly fortified in Late Antiquity, sometimes transferred to the Church for reuse as a monastery. Then they gradually re-evolved through the Middle Ages into elegant upper-class country homes, in modern parlance, villa can refer to various types and sizes of residences, ranging from the suburban semi-detached double villa to residences in the wildland–urban interface. In ancient Roman architecture a villa was originally a house built for the élite. The Roman villae rusticae at the heart of latifundia were the earliest versions of what later, not included as villae were the domus, a city house for the élite and privileged classes, and insulae, blocks of apartment buildings for the rest of the population. In Satyricon, Petronius described the range of Roman dwellings.
Another type of villae is the villa marittima, a seaside villa, a concentration of Imperial villas existed on the Gulf of Naples, on the Isle of Capri, at Monte Circeo and at Antium. Examples include the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, and the Villa of the Mysteries, wealthy Romans escaped the summer heat in the hills round Rome, especially around Tibur (Tivoand Frascati, such as at Hadrians Villa. Cicero allegedly possessed no fewer than seven villas, the oldest of which was near Arpinum, pliny the Younger had three or four, of which the example near Laurentium is the best known from his descriptions. Roman writers refer with satisfaction to the self-sufficiency of their latifundium villas, archeologists have meticulously examined numerous Roman villas in England. The grand villa at Woodchester preserved its mosaic floors when the Anglo-Saxon parish church was built upon its site, grave-diggers preparing for burials in the churchyard as late as the 18th century had to punch through the intact mosaic floors.
The even more palatial villa rustica at Fishbourne near Winchester was built as an open rectangle. Villae rusticae are essential in the Empires economy, two kinds of villa-plan in Roman Britain may be characteristic of Roman villas in general. The more usual plan extended wings of all opening onto a linking portico. The other kind featured a central hall like a basilica. The villa buildings were often independent structures linked by their enclosed courtyards, timber-framed construction, carefully fitted with mortises and tenons and dowelled together, set on stone footings, were the rule, replaced by stone buildings for the important ceremonial rooms. Traces of window glass have been found, as well as ironwork window grilles, with the decline and collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the fourth and fifth centuries, the villas were more and more isolated and came to be protected by walls. In England the villas were abandoned and burned by Anglo-Saxon invaders in the fifth century, in regions on the Continent and territorial magnates donated large working villas and overgrown abandoned ones to individual monks, these might become the nuclei of monasteries
Palm Beach, Florida
The Town of Palm Beach is an incorporated town in Palm Beach County, United States. The Intracoastal Waterway separates it from the cities of West Palm Beach. In 2000, Palm Beach had a population of 10,468. Prior to Flagler, Palm Beach was sparsely populated, and was a part of Lake Worth, Palm Beach was established as a resort by Henry Morrison Flagler, who made the Atlantic coast barrier island accessible via his Florida East Coast Railway. The nucleus of the community was established by Flaglers two luxury hotels, the Royal Poinciana Hotel and The Breakers Hotel. West Palm Beach was built across Lake Worth as a town and has become a major city in its own right. The town was incorporated on 17 April 1911, an area known as the Styx housed many of the servants, most of whom were black. The workers rented their houses from the landowners. In the early 1900s the landowners agreed to all of the residents of the Styx. The houses were razed, according to the Palm Beach Daily News, the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is not native to Florida.
Its presence in Palm Beach is due to the shipwreck of the Spanish ship Providencia in 1878 and it was traveling from Havana to Cádiz, Spain with a cargo of coconuts. Since the shipwreck was near the shore, the coconuts were salvaged, a lush grove of palm trees soon grew on what was named Palm Beach. Palm Beach is the easternmost town in Florida, located on a 16-mile long barrier island, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 10.4 square miles. 3.9 square miles of it is land and 6.5 square miles of it is water, the total area is 62. 45% water. Palm Beach has a tropical rainforest climate and this is a Köppen climate classification of Af where it is tropical and there is no dry season. It is wetter in the summer, from May to October, when convective thunderstorms and tropical downpours are common, average high temperatures in Palm Beach are 86 to 90 °F with lows of 70 to 75 °F. During this period, more than half of the days bring occasional afternoon thunderstorms. The winter brings drier and much less humid weather, average high temperatures of 75 to 82 °F and lows of 57 to 66 °F
Hotel Nacional de Cuba
The Hotel Nacional de Cuba is a historic luxury hotel located on the Malecón in the middle of Vedado, Cuba. It stands on Taganana Hill a few metres from the sea, and offers a view of Havana Harbour, the seawall, the hotel was constructed in just fourteen months on the site of the Santa Clara Battery, which dates back to 1797. Part of the battery has been preserved in the hotels gardens, in 1933, after Fulgencio Batistas 4 September 1933 coup against the transitional government, it was the residence of Sumner Welles, a special envoy sent by U. S. Their eventual assault on the hotel, on October 2,1933, caused damage to the building, including shell and bullet holes. Chicago developer Arnold Kirkeby acquired the hotel in the early 1940s, francis Ford Coppola memorably dramatised the conference in his film The Godfather Part II. In the mid-1950s, Kirkeby Hotels sold the Nacional to New York developer William Zeckendorf, by 1955, Lansky had managed to persuade Batista to give him a piece of the Nacional.
That same year Pan Ams Intercontinental Hotels Corporation bought the hotel from Zeckendorf, alphons Landa, prominent Washington attorney represented Pan Am and arranged for other clients and friends to acquire pieces of the hotel ownership at the same time. Dave Beck, President of the Teamsters and Roy Fruehauf of the Fruehauf Trailer Company were silent partners for at least 2 years, Fruehauf would sell his interest in the hotel in May 1957, other investors would lose everything when Castro came to power. Lansky planned to take a wing of the 10-storey hotel and create luxury suites for high-stakes gamblers, Batista endorsed Lanskys idea even though there were objections from American expatriates such as Ernest Hemingway. Under Lanskys impetus, a wing of the entrance hall was refurbished to include a bar, a restaurant, a showroom. It was operated by Lansky and his brother Jake, with Wilbur Clark as the front man, in 1956, singer Nat King Cole was contracted to perform in Cuba and wanted to stay at the Hotel Nacional de Cuba but was not allowed to because he was black.
The hotel had earlier turned away Joe Louis, Marian Anderson, Jackie Robinson, Cole honored his contract, and the concert at the Tropicana was a huge success. The following year, he returned to Cuba for another concert, there is now a tribute to him in the form of a bust and a jukebox in the Hotel Nacional. The casino and clubs were an immediate success, according to an unpublished article sent to Cuban Information Archives around 1956-57, The bar was tended by local bartenders, and the casino managed by gentlemen from Las Vegas. By the spring of 1957 the casino, sublet by the hotel for a rent to Lansky, was bringing in as much cash as the biggest casinos in Las Vegas. In late 1958 the casino was sold to Michael McLaney and Carroll Rosenbloom, following the Cuban Revolution in January 1959, Havanas casinos were briefly shut down, but were quickly reopened after protests by casino workers left out of work. Fidel Castro nationalized the hotel on March 20,1960 and finally closed the casino in October 1960, jean-Paul Sartre visited Cuba in 1960 with his wife, the philosopher, Simone de Beauvoir staying in the hotel.
They wanted to know about the process of those mythical heroes of Cuba
Lake George (village), New York
The Village of Lake George is a village within the town of Lake George in Warren County, New York, United States, located at the southern end of its namesake lake. The population was 985 at the 2000 census and it is part of the Glens Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area. The village and the area is a famous summertime tourist region and historic summer colony. Lake George was the county seat of Warren County until 1963, the village of Lake George was originally known as Caldwell, a name preserved in the Caldwell Presbyterian Church. A reconstruction of Fort William Henry, which replaces the original burned during the French and Indian War, is within the village, in the last quarter of the 19th century the area began to become an important tourist destination. Railroad tracks ran onto the docks on the south end of Lake George. From there steamboats ran several times a day to the further north on the lake. The Lake George Steamboat Company continues to operate out of Lake George. The Village of Lake George was incorporated in 1903, the beach at one motel in the village features a plaque marking the site where the Marquis de Montcalm landed with his army preparatory to attacking the fort.
A plaque at the site of the Bloody Pond Massacre is a distance south of the village along US9. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has an area of 0.6 square miles. It is situated beside Lake George, the village is located about 50 miles north of Albany, New York and about 200 miles north of New York City and northwest of Boston, Massachusetts. As of the census of 2000, there were 985 people,448 households, the population density was 1,615.3 people per square mile. There are 579 housing units at a density of 949.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village is 97. 36% White,1. 02% Black or African American,0. 10% Native American,0. 61% Asian,0. 30% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 71% of the population. 36. 6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.90. In the village, the population was out with 22. 5% under the age of 18,8. 5% from 18 to 24,28. 4% from 25 to 44,26. 6% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 40 years, for every 100 females there were 98.2 males
Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue was an American architect celebrated for his work in Gothic Revival and Spanish Colonial Revival design. He designed notable typefaces, including Cheltenham and Merrymount for the Merrymount Press, in life, Goodhue freed his architectural style with works like El Fureidis in Montecito, one of the three estates designed by Goodhue. Goodhue was born in Pomfret, Connecticut to Charles Wells Goodhue and his second wife, due to financial constraints he was educated at home by his mother until, at age 11 years, he was sent to Russells Collegiate and Commercial Institute. Finances prevented him from attending university, but he received a degree from Trinity College in Connecticut in 1911. In lieu of formal training, in 1884 he moved to Manhattan, New York City, to apprentice at the firm of Renwick. Goodhues apprenticeship ended in 1891 when he won a competition for St. Matthews in Dallas. This circle included Charles Eliot Norton of Harvard University and Ernest Fenollosa of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and it was through this group that Goodhue met Ralph Adams Cram, who would be his business partner for almost 25 years.
Cram and Goodhue were members of societies, including the Pewter Mugs. In 1892–1893 they published an art magazine called The Knight Errant. The multitalented Goodhue was a student of design and type design. In 1896, he created the Cheltenham typeface for use by a New York printer and this typeface came to be used as the headline type for The New York Times. In 1891, Cram and Goodhue formed the firm of Cram, Wentworth. The firm was a leader in Neo-Gothic architecture, with significant commissions from ecclesiastical, the Gothic Revival Saint Thomas Church was designed by them and built in 1914 on Manhattans Fifth Avenue in New York City. In 1915, Goodhue accepted membership to what is now as the American Academy of Arts. In 1917, Goodhue was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, Goodhue, in departed into a series of radically different stylistic experiments over his independent career. His first was the Byzantine Revival style for St. Bartholomews Episcopal Church on New York Citys Park Avenue and this was for the significant commission of the El Prado Quadrangles layout and buildings at the major 1915 Panama-California Exposition, located in San Diegos Balboa Park.
He was the architect, taking over from Irving Gill, with Carleton Winslow Sr. The Panama-California Expositions style was seen by many and widely published, becoming influential in California
Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon content in contrast to cast iron. It is a mass of iron with fibrous slag inclusions which gives it a grain resembling wood. Wrought iron is tough, ductile, corrosion-resistant and easily welded, before the development of effective methods of steelmaking and the availability of large quantities of steel, wrought iron was the most common form of malleable iron. A wrought product is one that has been worked by forging, rolling, etcetera, to change its form. Wrought iron is a worked iron product that is seldom produced today as other cheaper. Historically, a modest amount of iron was refined into steel. The demand for wrought iron reached its peak in the 1860s with the adaptation of ironclad warships, however, as properties such as brittleness of mild steel improved, it became less costly and more widely available than wrought iron, whose usage declined. Wrought iron is no longer produced on a commercial scale, many products described as wrought iron, such as guard rails, garden furniture and gates, are actually made of mild steel.
They retain that description because they are made to resemble objects which in the past were wrought by hand by a blacksmith, the word wrought is an archaic past participle of the verb to work, and so wrought iron literally means worked iron. Wrought iron is a term for the commodity, but is used more specifically for finished iron goods. It was used in that sense in British Customs records. Cast iron, unlike wrought iron, is brittle and cannot be worked either hot or cold, Cast iron can break if struck with a hammer. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, wrought iron went by a variety of terms according to its form, origin. While the bloomery process produced wrought iron directly from ore, cast iron or pig iron were the materials used in the finery forge. Pig iron and cast iron have higher content than wrought iron. Cast and especially pig iron have excess slag which must be at least partially removed to produce quality wrought iron, at foundries it was common to blend scrap wrought iron with cast iron to improve the physical properties of castings.
Fusion eventually became accepted as relatively more important than composition below a given low carbon concentration. Another difference is that steel can be hardened by heat treating, wrought iron was known as commercially pure iron, however, it no longer qualifies because current standards for commercially pure iron require a carbon content of less than 0.008 wt%
A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop. The word is derived from the Latin name Palātium, for Palatine Hill in Rome which housed the Imperial residences, in many parts of Europe, the term is applied to ambitious private mansions of the aristocracy. Many historic palaces are now put to uses such as parliaments, hotels. The word is sometimes used to describe a lavishly ornate building used for public entertainment or exhibitions. The word palace comes from Old French palais, from Latin Palātium, the original palaces on the Palatine Hill were the seat of the imperial power while the capitol on the Capitoline Hill was the religious nucleus of Rome. Long after the city grew to the seven hills the Palatine remained a residential area. Emperor Caesar Augustus lived there in a purposely modest house only set apart from his neighbours by the two trees planted to flank the front door as a sign of triumph granted by the Senate.
His descendants, especially Nero, with his Golden House, enlarged the house, the word Palātium came to mean the residence of the emperor rather than the neighbourhood on top of the hill. Palace meaning government can be recognized in a remark of Paul the Deacon, AD790 and describing events of the 660s, When Grimuald set out for Beneventum, he entrusted his palace to Lupus. At the same time, Charlemagne was consciously reviving the Roman expression in his palace at Aachen, in the 9th century, the palace indicated the housing of the government too, and the constantly travelling Charlemagne built fourteen. In the Holy Roman Empire the powerful independent Electors came to be housed in palaces and this has been used as evidence that power was widely distributed in the Empire, as in more centralized monarchies, only the monarchs residence would be a palace. In modern times, the term has been applied by archaeologists and historians to large structures that housed combined ruler, court, in informal usage, a palace can be extended to a grand residence of any kind.
The earliest known palaces were the residences of the Egyptian Pharaohs at Thebes, featuring an outer wall enclosing labyrinthine buildings. Other ancient palaces include the Assyrian palaces at Nimrud and Nineveh, the Minoan palace at Knossos, the Brazilian new capital, Brasília, hosts modern palaces, most designed by the citys architect Oscar Niemeyer. The Alvorada Palace is the residence of the Brazils president. The Planalto Palace is the official workplace, the Jaburu Palace is the official residence of Brazils vice-president. In Canada, Government House is a given to the official residences of the Canadian monarchy. The use of the term Government House is a custom from the British Empire
Madison is the capital of the U. S. state of Wisconsin and the county seat of Dane County. As of July 1,2015, Madisons estimated population of 248,951 made it the second largest city in Wisconsin, after Milwaukee, and the 84th largest in the United States. The city forms the core of the United States Census Bureaus Madison Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Dane County and neighboring Iowa, the Madison Metropolitan Statistical Areas 2010 population was 568,593. When the Wisconsin Territory was created in 1836 the territorial legislature convened in Belmont, One of the legislatures tasks was to select a permanent location for the territorys capital. Doty lobbied aggressively for Madison as the new capital, offering buffalo robes to the freezing legislators and he had James Slaughter plat two cities in the area and The City of Four Lakes, near present-day Middleton. Doty named the city Madison for James Madison, the fourth President of the U. S. who had died on June 28,1836 and he named the streets for the other 39 signers of the U. S.
Constitution. Being named for the founding father James Madison, who had just died. The cornerstone for the Wisconsin capitol was laid in 1837, on October 9,1839, Kintzing Prichett registered the plat of Madison at the registrars office of the then-territorial Dane County. Madison was incorporated as a village in 1846, with a population of 626, when Wisconsin became a state in 1848, Madison remained the capital, and the following year it became the site of the University of Wisconsin. The Milwaukee & Mississippi Railroad connected to Madison in 1854, Madison incorporated as a city in 1856, with a population of 6,863, leaving the unincorporated remainder as a separate Town of Madison. The original capitol was replaced in 1863 and the capitol burned in 1904. The current capitol was built between 1906 and 1917, during the Civil War, Madison served as a center of the Union Army in Wisconsin. Camp Randall, on the west side of Madison, was built and used as a camp, a military hospital. After the war ended, the Camp Randall site was absorbed into the University of Wisconsin, in 2004 the last vestige of active military training on the site was removed when the stadium renovation replaced a firing range used for ROTC training.
The City of Madison continued annexations from the Town of Madison almost from the date of the citys incorporation, Madison is located in the center of Dane County in south-central Wisconsin,77 miles west of Milwaukee and 122 miles northwest of Chicago. The city completely surrounds the smaller Town of Madison, the City of Monona, Madison shares borders with its largest suburb, Sun Prairie, and three other suburbs, Middleton, McFarland and Fitchburg. The citys boundaries approach the city of Verona, and the villages of Cottage Grove, DeForest, and Waunakee. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 94.03 square miles
Havana is the capital city, largest city, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. The city extends mostly westward and southward from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet, the sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City in 1592, walls as well as forts were built to protect the old city. The sinking of the U. S. battleship Maine in Havanas harbor in 1898 was the cause of the Spanish–American War. Contemporary Havana can essentially be described as three cities in one, Old Havana and the suburban districts. The city is the center of the Cuban government, and home to various ministries, headquarters of businesses, the current mayor is Marta Hernández of the Communist Party of Cuba. In 2009, the city/province had the third highest income in the country, the city attracts over a million tourists annually, the Official Census for Havana reports that in 2010 the city was visited by 1,176,627 international tourists, a 20% increase from 2005.
Old Havana was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982, the city is noted for its history, culture and monuments. As typical of Cuba, Havana features a tropical climate, in May 2015, Havana was officially recognized as one of the New7Wonders Cities together with Vigan, Doha, La Paz, Durban and Kuala Lumpur. Most native settlements became the site of Spanish colonial cities retaining their original Taíno names, an alternate theory is that Habana is derived from the Middle Dutch word havene, referring to a harbour, etymologically related to the English word haven. All attempts to found a city on Cubas south coast failed, however, an early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of this river. The town that became Havana finally originated adjacent to what was called Puerto de Carenas, the quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havanas harbor, warranted this change of location. Pánfilo de Narváez gave Havana – the sixth town founded by the Spanish on Cuba – its name, the name combines San Cristóbal, patron saint of Havana.
Shortly after the founding of Cubas first cities, the served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. Havana began as a port, and suffered regular attacks by buccaneers, pirates. The first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555, ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the bay fueled Havanas agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food, water. On December 20,1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City, on, the city would be officially designated as Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies by the Spanish Crown