In Greek mythology, Medusa was a monster, a Gorgon described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair. Those who gazed upon her face would turn to stone. Most sources describe her as the daughter of Phorcys and Ceto, though the author Hyginus makes her the daughter of Gorgon and Ceto. According to Hesiod and Aeschylus, she lived and died on an island named Sarpedon, somewhere near Cisthene; the 2nd-century BCE novelist Dionysios Skytobrachion puts her somewhere in Libya, where Herodotus had said the Berbers originated her myth, as part of their religion. Medusa was beheaded by the hero Perseus, who thereafter used her head, which retained its ability to turn onlookers to stone, as a weapon until he gave it to the goddess Athena to place on her shield. In classical antiquity the image of the head of Medusa appeared in the evil-averting device known as the Gorgoneion; the three Gorgon sisters—Medusa and Euryale—were all children of the ancient marine deities Phorcys and his sister Ceto, chthonic monsters from an archaic world.
Their genealogy is shared with other sisters, the Graeae, as in Aeschylus's Prometheus Bound, which places both trinities of sisters far off "on Kisthene's dreadful plain": Near them their sisters three, the Gorgons, winged With snakes for hair— hatred of mortal man— While ancient Greek vase-painters and relief carvers imagined Medusa and her sisters as having monstrous form and vase-painters of the fifth century began to envisage her as being beautiful as well as terrifying. In an ode written in 490 BC Pindar speaks of "fair-cheeked Medusa". In a late version of the Medusa myth, related by the Roman poet Ovid, Medusa was a ravishingly beautiful maiden, "the jealous aspiration of many suitors," but because Poseidon had raped her in Athena's temple, the enraged Athena transformed Medusa's beautiful hair to serpents and made her face so terrible to behold that the mere sight of it would turn onlookers to stone. In Ovid's telling, Perseus describes Medusa's punishment by Minerva as just and well earned.
In most versions of the story, she was beheaded by the hero Perseus, sent to fetch her head by King Polydectes of Seriphus because Polydectes wanted to marry Perseus's mother. The gods were well aware of this, Perseus received help, he received a mirrored shield from Athena, winged sandals from Hermes, a sword from Hephaestus and Hades's helm of invisibility. Since Medusa was the only one of the three Gorgons, mortal, Perseus was able to slay her while looking at the reflection from the mirrored shield he received from Athena. During that time, Medusa was pregnant by Poseidon; when Perseus beheaded her, Pegasus, a winged horse, Chrysaor, a giant wielding a golden sword, sprang from her body. Jane Ellen Harrison argues that "her potency only begins when her head is severed, that potency resides in the head. Harrison's translation states "the Gorgon was made out of the terror, not the terror out of the Gorgon."According to Ovid, in northwest Africa, Perseus flew past the Titan Atlas, who stood holding the sky aloft, transformed him into stone when he tried to attack him.
In a similar manner, the corals of the Red Sea were said to have been formed of Medusa's blood spilled onto seaweed when Perseus laid down the petrifying head beside the shore during his short stay in Ethiopia where he saved and wed his future wife, the lovely princess Andromeda. Furthermore, the poisonous vipers of the Sahara, in the Argonautica 4.1515, Ovid's Metamorphoses 4.770 and Lucan's Pharsalia 9.820, were said to have grown from spilt drops of her blood. The blood of Medusa spawned the Amphisbaena. Perseus flew to Seriphos, where his mother was being forced into marriage with the king, turned into stone by the head. Perseus gave the Gorgon's head to Athena, who placed it on her shield, the Aegis; some classical references refer to three Gorgons. It is obvious that the Gorgons are not three but one + two; the two unslain sisters are mere appendages due to custom. A number of early classics scholars interpreted the myth of Medusa as a quasi-historical – "based on or reconstructed from an event, style, etc. in the past", or "sublimated" memory of an actual invasion.
According to Joseph Campbell: The legend of Perseus beheading Medusa means that "the Hellenes overran the goddess's chief shrines" and "stripped her priestesses of their Gorgon masks", the latter being apotropaic faces worn to frighten away the profane. That is to say, there occurred in the early thirteenth century B. C. an actual historic rupture, a sort of sociological trauma, registered in this myth, much as what Freud terms the latent content of a neurosis is registered in the manifest content of a dream: registered yet hidden, registered in the unconscious yet unknown or misconstrued by the conscious mind. In 1940, Sigmund Freud's "Das Medusenhaupt". In Freud's interpretation: "To decapitate = to
Leo Katz is the Frank Carano Professor of Law at the University of Pennsylvania Law School. Katz earned his B. A. from the University of Chicago in 1979. He earned both a master's degree in economics from the University of Chicago and a J. D. from the University of Chicago Law School in 1982. He earned the Order of the Coif, he was a law clerk to the Hon. Anthony M. Kennedy on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, he joined Mayer and Platt as an associate. In 1987, he joined the faculty of the University of Michigan Law School. Four years he joined the faculty of Penn Law as a professor, in 2004 was named the Frank Carano Professor of Law. Katz's work focuses on criminal law, his explorations of the paradoxes of criminal law and deontological theory help facilitate a deeper understanding of philosophical and legal issues. For example, by investigating crimes of coercion and deception, economic crimes like tax evasion, crimes without apparent victims, he tries to shed light more on problems of consent, the use and abuse of legal stratagems, the nature of harm throughout the law.
Katz was awarded a Guggenheim fellowship for his on-going book project, The Perverse Logic of Law and Morality. Katz has authored numerous articles for law journals, as well as for the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, National Law Journal, The American Lawyer, he has two daughters. Why the Law Is So Perverse Foundations of the Criminal Law, ed. with Michael Moore and Stephen Morse Ill-gotten Gains: Evasion, Blackmail and Kindred Puzzles of the Law Bad Acts and Guilty Minds: Conundrums of the Criminal Law University of Pennsylvania Law School bio CV at Penn Law SSRN Author's Page
John William Haigis, Sr. was an American newspaper publisher and politician. Haigis was the publisher of the Greenfield Recorder. Haigis was the founder of WHAI radio. On December 3, 1913, Haigis married Rose Grace Luippold, daughter of Johann Martin Luippold and Elizabeth E. Jacobus, in Montague, Massachusetts, they had three children John William Haigis Jr. and Rose Margaret Haigis. From 1903 to 1908 Haigis served in various town offices in the Town of Massachusetts, he successively served in the capacities as the town's Treasurer, Tax Collector, Auditor and Water Commissioner. Haigis served as a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives, Massachusetts State Senate, the Treasurer and Receiver-General of Massachusetts and as Lieutenant Governor for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts from 1929 to 1933. In 1934 Haigis was the Republican party nominee for Lieutenant Governor, in 1936 for the Republican nominee for Governor, he lost both elections. Haigis served as a trustee of the University of Massachusetts Amherst from 1940-1956.
Haigis Mall on the campus is named for him. On March 1, 1937, Haigis applied to the FCC for a permit to construct a radio station, the application was to construct a radio station in Greenfield that would operate on 1210 kHz, 250 watts power daytime. Haigis was granted a license for a radio station call sign WHAI. According to the Springfield Republican, the station made its debut on March 16, 1938. In 1938 it was recommended that WHAI be allowed to broadcast on unlimited basis, instead of being restricted to daytime broadcast. Haigis died in 1960, was buried in Green River Cemetery, Massachusetts. Haigis papers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Includes a biographical note. A Souvenir of Massachusetts legislators, page 94. Who's who in New England By Albert Nelson Marquis, page 494. Who's who in state politics, page 170. Who's who in state politics page 75