An elevated passenger ropeway, or chairlift, is a type of aerial lift, which consists of a continuously circulating steel cable loop strung between two end terminals and over intermediate towers, carrying a series of chairs. They are the primary onhill transport at most ski areas, but are found at amusement parks, various tourist attractions, in urban transport. Depending on carrier size and loading efficiency, a passenger ropeway can move up to 4000 people per hour, the fastest lifts achieve operating speeds of up to 12 m/s or 43.2 km/h. The two-person double chair, which for many years was the workhorse of the ski industry, can move 1200 people per hour at rope speeds of up to 2.5 m/s. The four person detachable chairlift can transport 2400 people per hour with an average rope speed of 5 m/s; some bi and tri cable elevated ropeways and reversible tramways achieve much greater operating speeds. A chairlift consists of numerous components to provide safe efficient transport. At American ski areas, chairlifts are referred to with a ski industry vernacular.
A one-person lift is a "single", a two-person lift is a "double", a three-person lift a “triple”, four-person lifts are “quads”, a six-person lift is a "six pack". If the lift is a detachable chairlift, it is referred to as a “high-speed” lift, which results in a “high-speed quad” or “high-speed six pack”. Rope speed the speed in feet per minute or meters per second at which the rope moves interval the spacing between carriers, measured either by distance or time capacity the number of passengers the lift transports per hour efficiency the ratio of loaded carriers during peak operation expressed as a percentage of capacity; because fixed grip lifts move faster than detachables at load and unload, misloads are more frequent on fixed grips, can reduce the efficiency as low as 80%. Fixed grip each carrier is fastened to a fixed point on the rope detachable grip each carrier's grip opens and closes during regular operation allowing detachment from the rope and travel for load and unload. Detachable grips allow a greater rope speed to be used twice that of a fixed grip chair, while having slower loading and unloading sections.
See detachable chairlift. The capacity of a lift is constrained by the motive power, the rope speed, the carrier spacing, the vertical displacement, the number of carriers on the rope. Human passengers can load only so until loading efficiency decreases; the rope is the defining characteristic of an elevated passenger ropeway. The rope stretches and contracts as the tension exerted upon it increases and decreases, it bends and flexes as it passes over sheaves and around the bullwheels; the fibre core contains a lubricant which protects the rope from corrosion and allows for smooth flexing operation. The rope must be lubricated to ensure safe operation and long life. Various techniques are used for constructing the rope. Dozens of wires are wound into a strand. Several strands are wound around a textile core, their twist is oriented in the same or opposite direction as the individual wires. Rope is constructed in a linear fashion, must be spliced together before carriers are affixed. Splicing involves unwinding long sections of either end of the rope, winding each strand from opposing ends around the core.
Sections of rope must be removed. Every lift involves at least two terminals and may have intermediate supporting towers. A bullwheel in each terminal redirects the rope, while sheaves on the towers support the rope well above the ground; the number of towers is engineered based on the length and strength of the rope, worst case environmental conditions, the type of terrain traversed. The bullwheel with the prime mover is called the drive bullwheel. Chairlifts are electrically powered with Diesel or gasoline engine backup, sometimes a hand crank tertiary backup. Drive terminals can be located either at the bottom of an installation; the drive terminal is the location of a lift's primary braking system. The service brake is located on the drive shaft before the gearbox; the emergency brake acts directly on the bullwheel. While not technically a brake, an anti-rollback device acts on the bullwheel; this prevents the disastrous situation of runaway reverse operation. The rope must be tensioned to compensate for sag caused by wind load and passenger weight, variations in rope length due to temperature and to maintain friction between the rope and the drive bullwheel.
Tension is provided either by a counterweight system or by hydraulic or pneumatic rams, which adjust the position of the bullwheel carriage to maintain design tension. For most chairlifts, the tension is measured in tons. Either Diesel engines or electric motors can function as prime movers; the power can range from under 7.5 kW for the smallest of lifts, to more than 750 kW for a long, detachable eight-seat up a steep slope. DC electric motors and DC drives are the most common, though AC motors and AC drives are becoming economically competitive for certain smaller chairlift installations. DC drives are less expensive than AC variable-frequency drives and were used
Kajkavian is a South Slavic regiolect or language spoken by Croats in much of Central Croatia, Gorski Kotar and northern Istria. There are differing opinions over whether Kajkavian is best considered a dialect of Serbo-Croatian or a fully-fledged language of its own, as it is only mutually intelligible with other dialects and bears more similarities to Slovene than to the prestige Shtokavian dialect in terms of phonology and vocabulary. Notable Croatian linguists consider Kajkavian to be a language in its own right, with its own established dialects and documented literature. Croatian linguist Stjepan Ivšić has used Kajkavian vocabulary and accentuation, which differs from that of Shtokavian, as evidence. Furthermore, there is no clear demarcation between Slovene Kajkavian. Thus, it has low mutual intelligibility with Shtokavian, on which Croatia's standard language is based. Linguist Josip Silić, one of the main initiators behind the standardisation of the Croatian language regards Kajkavian as a distinct language by dint of its having different morphology and phonology from the official Shtokavian-based standard.
As of 2015, historic Literary Kajkavian has a separate language ISO 639-3 code – kjv. Active attempts are being made by some organizations to widen its recognition and status, which has thus far included introduction of elective school subjects in Kajkavian in some parts of Croatia; the term Kajkavian stems from the interrogative pronoun kaj. The other main dialects of Serbo-Croatian derive their name from their reflex of the interrogative pronoun. However, the pronouns are only general pointers and do not serve as actual identifiers of the respective dialects. Certain Kajkavian dialects use the interrogative pronoun ča, the one, used in Chakavian; the pronouns these dialects are named after are the most common one in that dialect. Outside Croatia's northernmost regions, Kajkavian is spoken in Austrian Burgenland and a number of enclaves in Hungary along the Austrian and Croatian border and in Romania. Although speakers of Kajkavian are Croats, Kajkavian is considered a dialect of Serbo-Croatian, its closest relative is the Slovene language, followed by Chakavian and Shtokavian.
Kajkavian is part of a dialect continuum with Chakavian. The classification of Kajkavian has been a subject of much debate regarding both the question of whether it ought to be considered a dialect or a language, as well as the question of what its relation is to neighboring vernaculars. Autonyms used throughout history by various Kajkavian writers have been manifold, ranging from Slavic to Croatian or Illyrian; the naming went through several phases, with the Slavic-based name being dominant. Over time, the name Croatian started gaining ground during the 17th century, by the beginning of the 18th century, it had supplanted the older name Slavic; the name followed the same evolution in neighboring Slovene Prekmurje, although there the name Slovene-Croatian existed as well. The actual term Kajkavian is today accepted by its speakers in Croatia; the problem with classifying Kajkavian within South Slavic stems in part from its structural differences from neighboring Shtokavian speeches as well as its historical closeness to Slovene speeches.
Some Slavists maintain that when the separation of Western South Slavic speeches happened, they separated into four divergent groups — Shtokavian, Chakavian and Slovene. As a result of this, throughout history Kajkavian has been categorized differently than today, it was considered by many to be either a separate node altogether or a node categorized together with Slovene. Furthermore, no isoglosses exist that would separate all Slovene speeches from all Serbo-Croatian speeches. Nor do innovations exist common to Kajkavian and Shtokavian that would separate them from Slovene; the Kajkavian speech area borders in the northwest on the Slovene language and in the northeast on the Hungarian language. In the east and southeast it is bordered by Shtokavian dialects along a line that used to serve as the border between Civil Croatia and the Habsburg Military Frontier. In the southwest it borders Chakavian along the Kupa and Dobra rivers, it is thought that these borders extended further to the south and east.
For example, the eastern border is thought to have extended at least well into modern-day Slavonia to the area around the town of Pakrac. Some historical toponyms suggest a larger extent; the Croatian capital, has been a Kajkavian-speaking area, Kajkavian is still in use by its older and by its younger population. Modern Zagreb speech has come under considerable influence from Shtokavian; the vast intermingling of Kajkavian and standard Shtokavian in Zagreb and its surroundings has led to problems in defining the underlying structure of those speech-groups. As a result, many of the urban speeches have been labelled either Kajkavian koine or Kajkavian–Shtokavian rather than Kajkavian or Shtokavian. Additionally, the forms of speech in use exhibit significant sociolinguistic variation. Research suggests that younger Zagreb-born speakers of the Kajkavian koine tend to consciously use more Kajkavian features when speaking to older people, showing that such features are still in their linguist
Mljet is the southernmost and easternmost of the larger Adriatic islands of the Dalmatia region of Croatia. The National Park includes the western part of the island, Veliko jezero, Malo jezero, Soline Bay and a sea belt 500 m wide from the most prominent cape of Mljet covering an area of 54 km2; the central parts of the park are Veliko jezero with the Isle of St. Mary, Malo jezero and the villages of Goveđari, Polače and Pomena. According to the 2011 census, Mljet has population of 1,088. Ethnic Croats make up 97.93% of the population. Mljet was discovered by ancient Greco-Roman geographers, who wrote the first records and descriptions; the island was first described by Scylax of Caryanda in the 6th century BC. In both texts, it is supported by Apollonius of Rhodes. Agathemerus and Pliny the Elder call the island Melita. Agesilaus of Anaxarba in Cilicia, the father of Oppian, was banished to Mljet by the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus. Mljet is mentioned around 950 by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos in his Of Ruling an Empire as one of the islands held by the Narentines.
The island was a controversy of ownership between them and Zachlumia until the stronger unifications of the Serbian realm in the 12th century. Ancient Greeks called the island "Melita" or "honey" which over the centuries evolved to become the Slavic name, Mljet. Mljet has been regarded as the "Melita" on which Saint Paul was shipwrecked, this view being first expounded in the 10th century, by Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus. Saint Paul's shipwreck is placed on the Mediterranean island of Malta. Mljet and Malta had the same name in the Greek and Roman sources. A harbour named; the Benedictines from Pulsano in Apulia became the feudal lords of the island in 1151, having come from Monte Gargano in Italy. They came ashore in the Sutmiholjska cove and in 1187–1198 the Serbian Prince Desa of the House of Vojislavljević built and donated to them the Church and Monastery of Saint Mary on the islet in the Big Lake towards the north-west end of the island. Pope Innocent III issued a document consecrating the church in 1198.
The Benedictines renounced their rule over Mljet in 1345. The island got a municipality in Babino Polje, it was formally annexed by the Republic of Ragusa in 1410. According to the Contract with the Benedictines, the municipality had to pay 300 perpers each year. In the 16th century, the monastery was the center of the Mljet Congregation, gathering all the monasteries of Benedictine monks in the area of the Republic of Ragusa; the first president of the Congregation was Mavro Vetranović, the abbot of the Mljet monastery and the famous poet. Another great poet was abbot there—Ignjat Đurđević in the 18th century; as time went by, the Benedictine monastery on Mljet lost its importance, while the seat of the Mljet Congregation moved to Sveti Jakov near Ragusa. In 1809, during the rule of Napoleon, the Mljet monastery was disbanded; when Austria took over the island, it placed the forestry office in the building. Between the world wars, the building was owned by the Ragusa Bishopric. In 1960 it became a hotel, in 1998 it was returned to the bishopric.
The island has a long history of eco-damage. In order to ease their transport problems, the monks dug a channel to the south coast, from the lake Veliko Jezero, thus turning both fresh-water lakes into seawater-based ones; the second incident involves mongooses. Small Asian mongooses were introduced onto the island in the early 20th century in order to reduce the venomous snake population. Whilst the mongooses completed this task, they disposed of pretty much all the birdlife of the island. To this day, the island is notably short such as sparrows. Mongooses are a hazard for domestic poultry, are known to cause damage in vineyards and orchards. Mljet lies south of the Pelješac peninsula, its length is 37 kilometres. It is of volcanic origin, with numerous chasms and gorges, of which the longest, the Babino Polje, connects the north and south of the island. Port Polače, the principal harbour in the north, is a port of call for tourist ferries. Mljet contains one hotel—The Odisej in the north-west corner of the island.
The northwestern part of the island includes an inland lake as well as a small island within it. It has been a national park since November 12, 1960. Over 84% of the island of 98.01 square kilometres is forest. The island's geological structure consists of limestone and dolomite forming ridges and slopes. A few depressions on the island of Mljet are below sea level and form non-permanent brackish lakes known as blatine or slatine; the climate is Mediterranean. Precipitation averages between 35 and 45 inches annually, with the hills receiving the highest amounts. According to the 2011 census, the settlements of Mljet have the following population: Babino Polje: largest settlement, police station, school Goveđari Babine Kuće Pristanište Soline Pomena Polače
Snowmaking is the production of snow by forcing water and pressurized air through a "snow gun," known as a "snow cannon." Snowmaking is used at ski resorts to supplement natural snow. This allows ski resorts to improve the reliability of their snow cover and to extend their ski seasons from late autumn to early spring. Indoor ski slopes use snowmaking, they can do so year-round as they have a climate-controlled environment. The use of snowmaking machines is becoming common as changing weather patterns and the rising popularity of indoor ski resorts create a demand for snow beyond that, provided by nature. Snowmaking machines have addressed the shortage in the supply of snow, there are significant environmental and cultural costs associated with the artificial production of snow. According to the European Environment Agency, the length of snow seasons in the northern hemisphere has decreased by five days each decade since the 1970s, thus increasing the demand for the production of artificial snow.
Some ski resorts use artificial snow to extend their ski seasons and augment natural snowfall, however there are some resorts that rely entirely upon artificial snow production. Furthermore, artificial snow was used extensively at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang to supplement natural snowfall, provide the best possible conditions for competition; the production of snow requires low temperatures. The threshold temperature for snowmaking increases as humidity decreases. Wet bulb temperature is used as a metric since it takes air temperature and relative humidity into account. Snowmaking is a expensive process in its energy use, thereby limiting its use. Art Hunt, Dave Richey, Wayne Pierce invented the snow cannon in 1950, but secured a patent sometime later. In 1952, Grossinger's Catskill Resort Hotel became the first in the world to use artificial snow. Snowmaking began to be used extensively in the early 1970s. Many ski resorts depend upon snowmaking. Snowmaking has achieved greater efficiency with increasing complexity.
Traditionally, snowmaking quality depended upon the skill of the equipment operator. Computer control supplements that skill with greater precision, such that a snow gun operates only when snowmaking is optimal. All-weather snowmakers have been developed by IDE; the key considerations in snow production are increasing water and energy efficiency and increasing the environmental window in which snow can be made. Snowmaking plants require water pumps and sometimes air compressors when using lances, that are both large and expensive; the energy required to make artificial snow is about 0.6 - 0.7 kW h/m³ for lances and 1 - 2 kW h/m³ for fan guns. The density of artificial snow is between 400 and 500 kg/m³ and the water consumption for producing snow is equal to that number. Snowmaking begins with a water supply such as reservoir. Water is pushed up a pipeline on the mountain using large electric pumps in a pump house; this water is distributed through an intricate series of valves and pipes to any trails that require snowmaking.
Many resorts add a nucleating agent to ensure that as much water as possible freezes and turns into snow. These products are organic or inorganic materials that facilitate the water molecules to form the proper shape to freeze into ice crystals; the products are biodegradable. The next step in the snowmaking process is to add air using an air plant; this plant is a building which contains electric or diesel industrial air compressors the size of a van or truck. However, in some instances air compression is provided using diesel-powered, portable trailer-mounted compressors which can be added to the system. Many fan-type snow guns have on-board electric air compressors, which allows for cheaper, more compact operation. A ski area may have the required high-output water pumps, but not an air pump. Onboard compressors are easier than having a dedicated pumping house; the air is cooled and excess moisture is removed before it is sent out of the plant. Some systems cool the water before it enters the system.
This improves the snowmaking process as the less heat in the air and water, the less heat must be dissipated to the atmosphere to freeze the water. From this plant the air travels up a separate pipeline following the same path as the water pipeline; the water is sometimes mixed with ina proteins from the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. These proteins serve as effective nuclei to initiate the formation of ice crystals at high temperatures, so that the droplets will turn into ice before falling to the ground; the bacterium itself uses these ina proteins. The pipes following the trails are equipped with shelters containing hydrants, electrical power and, communication lines mounted. Whereas shelters for fan guns require only water and maybe communication, lance-shelters need air hydrants as well. Hybrid shelters allow maximum flexibility to connect each snow machine type as they have all supplies available; the typical distance for lance shelters is 100–150 feet, for fan guns 250–300 feet. From these hydrants 1 1⁄2"–2" pressure resistant hoses are connected similar to fire hoses with camlocks to the snow machine.
The infrastructure to support snowmaking may have a negative environmental impact, altering water tables near reservoirs and mineral and nutrient content of the soil under the snow itself. There are many forms of snowmaking guns. For most guns the type or "quality" of snow can be changed by regulating the amount of water in the mixture. For
Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on the pressure of the system of interest; the same amount of water vapor results in higher relative humidity in cool air than warm air. A related parameter is that of dewpoint; the relative humidity of an air–water mixture is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over a flat surface of pure water at a given temperature: ϕ = p H 2 O p H 2 O ∗. Relative humidity is expressed as a percentage. At 100 % relative humidity, the air is at its dewpoint. Climate control refers to the control of temperature and relative humidity in buildings and other enclosed spaces for the purpose of providing for human comfort and safety, of meeting environmental requirements of machines, sensitive materials and technical processes. Along with air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air speed, metabolic rate, clothing level, relative humidity plays a role in human thermal comfort.
According to ASHRAE Standard 55-2017: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, indoor thermal comfort can be achieved through the PMV method with relative humidities ranging from 0% to 100%, depending on the levels of the other factors contributing to thermal comfort. However, the recommended range of indoor relative humidity in air conditioned buildings is 30-60%. In general, higher temperatures will require lower relative humidities to achieve thermal comfort compared to lower temperatures, with all other factors held constant. For example, with clothing level = 1, Metabolic rate = 1.1, air speed 0.1 m/s, a change in air temperature and mean radiant temperature from 20 degrees C to 24 degrees C would lower the maximum acceptable relative humidity from 100% to 65% to maintain thermal comfort conditions. The CBE Thermal Comfort Tool can be used to demonstrate the effect of relative humidity for specific thermal comfort conditions and it can be used to demonstrate compliance with ASHRAE Standard 55-2017.
When using the adaptive model to predict thermal comfort indoors, relative humidity is not taken into account. Although relative humidity is an important factor for thermal comfort, humans are more sensitive to variations in temperature than they are to changes in relative humidity. Relative humidity has a small effect on thermal comfort outdoors when air temperatures are low, a more pronounced effect at moderate air temperatures, a much stronger influence at higher air temperatures. In cold climates, the outdoor temperature causes lower capacity for water vapor to flow about, thus although it may be snowing and the relative humidity outdoors is high, once that air comes into a building and heats up, its new relative humidity is low, making the air dry, which can cause discomfort. Dry cracked. Low humidity causes tissue lining nasal passages to dry and become more susceptible to penetration of Rhinovirus cold viruses. Low humidity is a common cause of nosebleeds; the use of a humidifier in homes bedrooms, can help with these symptoms.
Indoor relative humidities should be kept above 30% to reduce the likelihood of the occupant's nasal passages drying out. Humans can be comfortable within a wide range of humidities depending on the temperature—from 30% to 70%—but ideally between 50% and 60%. Low humidity can create discomfort, respiratory problems, aggravate allergies in some individuals. In the winter, it is advisable to maintain relative humidity above. Low relative humidities may cause eye irritation. For climate control in buildings using HVAC systems, the key is to maintain the relative humidity at a comfortable range—low enough to be comfortable but high enough to avoid problems associated with dry air; when the temperature is high and the relative humidity is low, evaporation of water is rapid. Wooden furniture can shrink; when the temperature is low and the relative humidity is high, evaporation of water is slow. When relative humidity approaches 100 percent, condensation can occur on surfaces, leading to problems with mold, corrosion and other moisture-related deterioration.
Condensation can pose a safety risk as it can promote the growth of mold and wood rot as well as freezing emergency exits shut. Certain production and technical processes and treatments in factories, laboratories and other facilities require specific relative humidity levels to be maintained using humidifiers and associated control systems; the basic principles for buildings, above apply to vehicles. In addition, there may be safety considerations. For instance, high humidity inside a vehicle can lead to problems of condensation, such
The Kornati archipelago of Croatia known as the Stomorski islands, is located in the northern part of Dalmatia, south from Zadar and west from Šibenik, in the Šibenik-Knin county. With 35 kilometres length and 89 islands, some large, some small, in a sea area of about 320 square kilometres, the Kornati are the densest archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. From northwest to southeast, from northeast to southwest they stretch for 13 km; the name of the archipelago is the plural form of the name of the largest island, called Kornat. There are no permanent settlements in Kornati. Simple houses in well-protected coves such as Vrulje, Kravjačica and others are used by mainland landowners as temporary shelters. Most of the land owners are from the island of Dugi Otok; the average monthly temperature for January is 7.3 °C, in July it is 23.9 °C. Geographically the Kornati islands can be divided into two main groups - the Gornji Kornati or Upper Kornati, closer to the mainland, the Donji Kornati or Lower Kornati, which are facing the open sea in the southwest.
The islands known as Gornji Kornati include the northernmost island of Sit and the surrounding islets, divided by a channel from Žut and its surrounding islets to the south. Žut is the most indented of these islands. In 1980, the eighty-nine southernmost of the 140-odd islands and reefs of the Kornati archipelago were declared a national park, Nacionalni Park Kornati, protecting the islands and their marine surroundings; the area covered by the National Park coincides with the Donji Kornati, which includes the island of Kornat and the surrounding islets, separated with a channel from the island of Piškera and the surrounding islets. The national park includes 109 islands. Of the total land surface area of Kornati, 85% is stony, only 5% has been cultivated; the most important places on the Kornati islands are: the shallow channel Mala Proversa, the oval-shaped Taljurič island, Špinuta Bay, Stivina Bay, the fourth largest island Levrnaka, the second largest karst rock-area Tarac, Svršata Vela island, Mana island, Piškera island, Panitula Vela island, the picturesque Lavsa Bay, the resort island Ravni Žakan, Smokvica Vela island, the Opat peninsula, Samograd island, the Purara reserve for marine life and Gangarol islands.
The names of the islands Babina Guzica and Kurba Vela, which in Croatian refer to buttocks and prostitution, offer an opportunity to explain the many vulgar names given to many places in the Kornati archipelago. When Austrian surveyors came to record the archipelago at the end of the 19th century, their local guides mocked them by making up vulgar names for the various locations. Kornat, the biggest of the islands with a total area of 32.44 square kilometres, comprises two-thirds of the park's land area. Although the island is 25.2 kilometres long, it is no wider than 2.5 km. The park is managed from the town of Murter, on the island of Murter, connected to the mainland by a drawbridge in the town of Tisno. Most of the terrain in the Kornati islands is karst-limestone which, in the distant geological past, arose from sediment from the sea. In the stone on the islands there are numerous fossils of crustaceans and fish. In the area there examples of all the typical forms of karst: bizarre shapes formed by the atmosphere, unexplored caves, areas of flat rock and, above all, cliffs.
Karst rock is porous draining and dry, so therefore are the Kornati islands. Numerous cisterns supply water for animals. Human presence on the Kornati islands appear to extend back to the Neolithic Age, the remains of Illyrian settlements were found on the island of Kornat; the presence of wealthy Romans is attested by the mosaic floors of Roman villas, Kornat island has a small tower, built in the 6th century AD. The island of Piškera was inhabited during the Middle Ages and served as a storage point for fish. Archeological sites in Stražišče and Tarac, on Levrnaka and Lavsa provide evidence that during the Roman era life on Kornati was active. There are many buildings and it is known that there were stone quarries. During the long period of Venetian occupation, the islands were used for resupplying the Venetian fleet. Deforestation and subsequent erosion, overgrazing by sheep and goats, for whose benefit the scrub was periodically burnt over, impoverished the fauna and depopulated the islands, which were purchased by citizens of Murter during the late 19th century.
Apart from sea-gulls, which are the most numerous animals, there are some lizards and ring-snakes, 69 varieties of butterfly, some amphibians and rodents. The local ichthyological fauna is sparse; as regards marine life, the Kornati islands are typical of the Adriatic and the Mediterranean, due to the underwater relief and special characteristics of the sea in this labyrinth, there are some peculiarities: algae and sponges. At one time the sea was the richest in the Adriatic for sponge hunters; the rare mollusc Pinna nobilis is protected by law. Not only the land but the sea is within the protection of the National Park. Fishing is limited in order to allow the regeneration of fish shoals, over-fished. According to tradition, the Mediterranean monk seal once lived among these islands; the name of the southernmost point on Vela Kurka is connected with this exti
An aerial lift known as a cable car, is a means of cable transport in which cabins, gondolas or open chairs are hauled above the ground by means of one or more cables. Aerial lift systems are employed in mountainous territory where roads are difficult to build and use, have seen extensive use in mining. Aerial lift systems are easy to move, are and have been used to cross rivers and ravines. In more recent times, the cost-effectiveness and flexibility of aerial lifts has seen an increase of gondola lift being integrated into urban public transport systems; the following abbreviations are used in the trade and in the industry: A cable car or an aerial tramway, aerial tram is a type of cable car which uses one or two stationary ropes for support while a third moving rope provides propulsion. The grip of an aerial tramway can not be decoupled. Aerial trams used for urban transport include Portland Aerial Tram. A gondola lift is a type of cable car, supported and propelled by cables from above, it consists of a loop of steel cable, strung between two stations, sometimes over intermediate supporting towers.
The cable is driven by a bullwheel in a terminal, connected to an engine or electric motor. They are considered continuous systems since they feature a haul rope which continuously moves and circulates around two terminal stations. Depending on the combination of cables used for support and/or haulage and the type of grip, the capacity and functionality of a gondola lift will differ dramatically; because of the proliferation of such systems in the Alpine regions of Europe, the French language name of Télécabine is used in an English language context. Gondola lifts are used for urban transportation. Examples include the Singapore Cable Car, Ngong Ping Skyrail, Metrocable, Mi Teleférico, Emirates Air Line. Gondola lifts should not be confused with aerial tramways as the latter operates with fixed grips and shuttles back and forth between two end terminals. A ropeway conveyor or material ropeway is a subtype of gondola lift, from which containers for goods rather than passenger cars are suspended.
Ropeway conveyors are found around large mining concerns, can be of considerable length. The COMILOG Cableway, which ran from Moanda in Gabon to Mbinda in the Republic of the Congo, was over 75 km in length; the Norsjö aerial tramway in Sweden had a length of 96 kilometers. A funitel is a type of cable car used to transport skiers, although at least one is used to transport finished cars between different areas of a factory, it differs from a standard gondola through the use of two overhead arms, attached to two parallel overhead cables, providing more stability in high winds. The name funitel is a blend of the French words telepherique; when used to transport skiers, funitels are a fast way to get to a higher altitude. However, because skis or snowboard have to be taken off and held during the trip, because of the absence of seats, funitels can sometimes be uncomfortable for long trips, in the same way other large gondolas can be. Funitels combine a short time between successive cabins with a high capacity per cabin.
A Funifor is a type of a haul rope loop per cabin. The Funifor design is patented by Doppelmayr Garaventa Group. Two reversible cabins run on parallel tracks; the drives of the two cabins are not interconnected. At the top of each track, the haul rope for that track loops back to the bottom instead of looping over to serve the other track as occurs with a normal aerial tramway; this feature allows for single cabin operation. The independent drive allows for evacuations to occur by means of a bridge connected between the two adjacent cabins; the main advantage of the Funifor system is its stability in high wind conditions owing to the horizontal distance between the two guide ropes comprising each track. In developing countries with rough terrain, simple hand-powered cable-cars may be used for crossing rivers. Examples include the tuin used in Nepal. An elevated passenger ropeway, or chairlift, is a type of cable car, which consists of a continuously circulating steel cable loop strung between two end terminals and over intermediate towers, carrying a series of chairs.
They are the primary onhill transport at most ski areas, but are found at amusement parks, various tourist attractions, in urban transport. Depending on carrier size and loading efficiency, a passenger ropeway can move up 4000 people per hour, the fastest lifts achieve operating speeds of up to 12 m/s; the two-person double chair, which for many years was the workhorse of the ski industry, can move 1200 people per hour at rope speeds of up to 2.5 m/s. The four person detachable chairlift can transport 2400 people per hour with an average rope speed of 5 m/s; some bi and tri cable elevated-ropeways and reversible tramways achieve much greater operating speeds. Fixed-grip lifts are shorter than detachable-grip lifts due to rope load. A detachable chairlift or high-speed chairlift is a type of passenger cable car