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Megalith

A megalith is a large stone, used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. The adjective megalithic describes structures made of such large stones without the use of mortar or concrete, as well as the periods of prehistory characterised by such constructions. There are over 35,000 megaliths in Europe alone, ranging from Sweden to the Mediterranean seaThe word was first used in 1849 by the British antiquarian Algernon Herbert in reference to Stonehenge and derives from the Ancient Greek μέγας and λίθος. Most known megaliths were erected between the Neolithic period through the Chalcolithic period and into the Bronze Age. While "megalith" is used to describe a single piece of stone, it can be used to denote one or more rocks hewn in definite shapes for special purposes, it has been used to describe structures built by people from many parts of the world living in many different periods. The most known megaliths are not tombs. Menhir - the name in Western Europe for a single upright stone erected in prehistoric times.

Sometimes called a "standing stone" Monolith - any single standing stone erected in prehistoric times.. Sometimes synonymous with "megalith" and "menhir". Capstone style - single megaliths placed horizontally over burial chambers, without the use of support stones. Alignments- multiple megaliths placed in relation to each other with intention. Placed in rows or spirals; some alignments, such as the Carnac Stones in Brittany, France consist of thousands of stones. Megalithic walls Stone circles - referred to as "cromlechs" in most languages, sometimes in English Dolmen - a Megalithic form created by placing a large capstone on two or more support stones creating a chamber below, sometimes closed in on one or more sides. Used as a tomb or burial chamber. Cist - a small stone-built coffin-like box or ossuary used to hold the bodies of the dead. Burials are megalithic forms similar to dolmens in structure; these type of burials were underground. There were single- and multiple-chambered cists. Portals and gates c. 9500 BCE: Construction in Asia Minor.

Submerged by around 7400 BCE: a 12m long monolith weighing around 15,000 kg found 40m under water in the Strait of Sicily south-west of Sicily whose function is unknown. C. 7000 BCE: Construction in proto-Canaanite Israel. First standing stones in Portugal. C. 6000 BCE: Constructions in Portugal c. 5000 BCE: Emergence of the Atlantic Neolithic period, the age of agriculture along the western shores of Europe during the sixth millennium BC pottery culture of La Almagra, Spain nearby precedent from Africa. C. 4800 BCE: Constructions in Brittany and Poitou. C. 4500 BCE: Constructions in south Egypt. C. 4300 BCE: Constructions in south Spain. C. 4000 BCE: Constructions in Brittany, France, Spain and Wales, Constructions in Andalusia, Construction in proto-Canaanite Israel c. 4000~3000 BC: Constructions in the rest of the proto-Canaanite Levant, e.g. Rujm el-Hiri and dolmens. C. 3700 BCE: Constructions in Ireland. C. 3600 BCE: Constructions in Malta. C. 3600 BCE: Constructions in England, Malta. C. 3500 BCE: Constructions in Spain, France, Malta and Germany.

C. 3400 BCE: Constructions in Sardinia, Netherlands, Germany Sweden and Denmark. C. 3300 BCE: Constructions in France c. 3200 BCE: Constructions in Malta. C. 3100 BCE: Constructions in Russia c. 3000 BCE: Constructions in Sardinia, Spain, Sicily and Orkney, as well as the first henges in Britain. C. 2500 BCE: Constructions in Brittany, Italy and Scotland, plus the climax of the megalithic Bell-beaker culture in Iberia and the British Isles. With the bell-beakers, the Neolithic period gave way to the Chalcolithic, the age of copper. C2500 BCE: Tombs at Algarve, Portugal. Additionally, a problematic dating of Quinta da Queimada Menhir in western Algarve indicates "a early period of megalithic activity in the Algarve, older than in the rest of Europe and in parallel, to some extent, with the famous Anatolian site of Göbekli Tepe" c. 2400 BCE: The Bell-beaker culture was dominant in Britain, hundreds of smaller stone circles were built in the British Isles at this time. C. 2000 BCE: Constructions in Brittany, Italy:.

The Chalcolithic period gave way to the Bronze Age in northern Europe. C. 1800 BCE: Constructions in Italy. C. 1500 BCE: Constructions in Portugal (

Compsodrillia acestra

Compsodrillia acestra is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Pseudomelatomidae, the turrids and allies. The length of the shell attains its diameter 5.5 mm. The shell is slender, it has a pale olive-color with a translucent white tip. It contains 9 whorls, with a smooth vitreous rounded two-whorled protoconch; the fasciole is wide, steep and marked with close-set fine spirals.. The whorl in front of the fasciole is covered with close-set, subequal, flattish spirals, with narrow channelled interspaces; these spirals, from two on the four apical whorls, increase to seven on the penultimate whorl, eleven on the body whorl. Here they are a little more separated, have one or two intercalary fine threads in the interspaces. On the siphonal canal there are six primary threads alternating with somewhat smaller secondary ones; the transverse sculpture consists of elevated ribs, which vary in different specimens as to elevation and strength. In the type specimen figured they fade on the base.

The varix is protrudes. There is a touch of livid color in front of it, seen nowhere else on the shell; the aperture is whitish. The throat is livid, not lirate; the notch is strong. The outer lip is thin, contracted for the siphonal canal; the inner lip shows a thin elevated callus. The columella is straight; the siphonal canal is rather short, recurved. C. acestra can be found off the Florida Keys, in the Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Eastern Brazil. Absalão, R. S.. Turridae coletados no litoral sudeste do Programa REVIZEE "Score" Central. Biociências 13: 19-47 Tucker, J. K.. "Catalog of recent and fossil turrids". Zootaxa. 682: 1–1295. Rosenberg, G.. Gastropoda of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 579–699 in: Felder, D. L. and D. K. Camp, Gulf of Mexico–Origins and Biota. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas

Leslie A. Lyons

Leslie A. Lyons is an associate professor at University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine. In 2002, Lyons made international headlines by analyzing the DNA of the world's first cloned cat, a kitten named Cc:, confirming that it was indeed a true clone, a genetic copy of its mother. Lyons has helped develop DNA tests for polycystic kidney disease, an inherited condition that shortens the life of cats by causing them to suffer kidney cysts. Previous tests for this condition involved ultrasound and were not accurate, unlike the DNA test devised by Lyons. One third of all Persian cats carried the PKD gene at one time, but because of ultrasound testing and the newer, more accurate DNA tests, these PKD-carrier cats are being identified and removed from the feline gene pool by spaying and neutering. A DNA test for feline coat color carriers and feline parentage has been developed by Lyons, is being offered to cat breeders, like the PKD test, so that they can determine whether cats they have bred have correct pedigrees, whether these cats carry colorpoints, Burmese Colour Restriction, long hair, colour dilution or rare coat colors, such as chocolate and cinnamon.

One of Lyons' current projects is identification of the genes that cause head defect, a lethal deformity in American Burmese cats. She is working on identifying genes that cause Progressive Retinal Atrophy, which causes affected kittens to become blind at the age of two months. Although much of Lyons' research has dealt with cats, she works on resources for gene mapping of other companion animals, such as dogs and horses, she has a partial appointment with the California National Primate Research Center and is developing new genetic research for the rhesus macaque. 1. Wright, Sylvia, "A PERFECT MATCH: UC Davis geneticists confirm cloning of first cat at Texas A&M", Dateline: News for Faculty and Staff of the University of California, The Regents of the University of California, retrieved 6 February 2014 2. Lyons' Den Homepage at http://felinegenetics.missouri.edu/

I Was Wrong, I'm Sorry & I Love You

I Was Wrong, I'm Sorry & I Love You is the eighth studio album from American singer and songwriter Derek Webb, released on September 3, 2013. The album is a return to his more acoustic guitar-driven earlier work. Webb was the producer and nearly sole musician on the album, made in his home studio in Nashville, Tennessee; the themes on the album include battling cynicism, coming to terms with who God makes us to be, Jesus' nearness to the disenfranchised, unity among the divisions of the church, the hard work of marriage, God's great love. He has called it "easily the most confessional and autobiographical work of my career." The album came under scrutiny after it was reported that Webb was involved in an extramarital affair at the time of its release and promotion. Regarding the multi-faceted meaning of the album title, Webb explains that he grew up hearing that they were the three things we must learn to say in order to sustain every relationship -a friendship, marriage, or a church community.

Webb stated in an interview that "if I am consciously, deliberately making a record about the church again, I thought I should start with those three statements."His intentions throughout his solo career are expressed by lyrics in the title track, "over all these years, there's just three things I've tried to say." The title expresses a need for Christians to sincerely and earnestly say these things to the world around them and to each other. Webb says, "above all is an album about looking beyond our disagreements to the things we have in common within the church."This album is a follow-up to his first solo album, 2003's She Must and Shall Go Free. As Webb approached its 10-year anniversary, he began to reflect on how that album would have looked if written today, still exploring the relationships between the church, the culture and himself; the observations, encouragements and confessions he discovered—while asking the same questions 10 years later—resulted in the songs comprising I Was Wrong, I'm Sorry & I Love You.

He has called the album "a return to strength, a rest from running, an encouraging start to what I hope to be 10 more years of'afflicting the comfortable and comforting the afflicted,' starting, as always, with myself."The first video from the album, for the title track, was released to the Internet on July 30, 2013. The video featured Webb with clips of his fans singing along to the lyrics and holding up various signs with the chorus lyrics on them. RELEVANT magazine featured the title track, "I Was Wrong, I'm Sorry and I Love You" on their website as well as premiering its video. I Was Wrong, I'm Sorry & I Love You garnered critical acclaim from music critics to critique the album. Matt Conner of CCM Magazine wrote that the release comes "Now that he's come full circle, he's given us his masterwork—an album armed with the wisdom that only comes from such travels." At AbsolutePunk, Gregory Robson felt that "Being that Webb's material is pensive and takes many repeated listens to sink in, there's a chance that months down the line I Was Wrong will make more sense", that "Given that I Was Wrong was self-produced and that Webb played every instrument on the album, there's little reason to dismiss it as unauthentic and/or uninspired."

Sean Huncherick of HM stated that "listening to the album feels like walking through the last 20 years of one of the industry’s most talented artists. It’s not a bad way to celebrate two decades of work." At Indie Vision Music, Ian Zandi stated that in "Taking on a fresh perspective on some of his previous topics, Derek Webb is at the top of his game."Jen Rose of Jesus Freak Hideout wrote that affirmed that "I Was Wrong... is a worthy contribution, multilayered with much to say, yet a musically rewarding listen on its own", wrote that "Though the artist's personal journey is far from done, this chapter makes for a grace-filled homecoming." Jesus Freak Hideout's Mark Rice evoked that "Without a doubt, I Was Wrong… is Webb's musically most accessible album he's put out as he masters the type of sound that everyone can appreciate." At New Release Tuesday, Mary Nikkel highlighted that "I Was Wrong, I'm Sorry & I Love You is a culmination, not a contradiction, of Webb's previous body of work, reflecting past themes while recasting them with humility."

Scott S. Mertens at The Phantom Tollbooth told that the release was "Somewhat tuned down, both lyrically and musically, this album is a collection of solid songs of faith." Derek Walker stated that "Early listenings made this sound like a pastiche of previous work, with several generic Webb tunes".

Forgery Act 1861

The Forgery Act 1861 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It consolidated provisions related to forgery from a number of earlier statutes into a single Act. For the most part these provisions were, according to the draftsman of the Act, incorporated with little or no variation in their phraseology, it is one of a group of Acts sometimes referred to as the criminal law consolidation Acts 1861. It was passed with the object of simplifying the law, it is a revised version of an earlier consolidation Act, the Forgery Act 1830, incorporating subsequent statutes. Most of it was repealed by the Forgery Act 1913, today forgery is covered by the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981 and the Identity Documents Act 2010; however three offences under the 1861 Act remain in force today. These deal with forgery of registers of births and deaths, with impersonation of a surety; this Act was repealed for England and Wales and Northern Ireland by the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981, s.30 & Sch.

Pt. I, so far as unrepealed, except ss. 34, 36, 37 & 55. It was repealed for the Republic of Ireland by section 3 of, Schedule 1 to, the Criminal Justice Act, 2001. Certain kinds of forgery used to be high treason; the Act does not apply to Scotland. Section 1 - Forging the Great Seal, Privy Seal, etc; this section made it a felony to forge the great seal, privy seal, the Royal sign manual etc.. This had been high treason under the Forgery Act 1830; the 1861 Act reduced the penalty from death to penal servitude for life. This section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913, it was however replaced with section 5 of that Act. Section 2 - Forging transfer of certain stock, power of attorney relating thereto This section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913. Section 3 - Personating the owner of certain stock, transferring or receiving or endeavouring to transfer or receive the dividends This section was repealed by section 33 of, Part I of the Schedule 3 to, the Theft Act 1968.

Section 4 - Forging attestation to power of attorney for transfer of stock etc. This section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913. Section 5 - Making false entries in the books of the public funds This section was repealed by the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981. Section 6 - Clerks of the Bank making out false dividend warrants This section was repealed by the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981. Section 7 - Forging an East India Bond This section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913. Section 8 - Forging exchequer bills and debentures etc; this section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913. Section 9 - Making plates etc. in imitation of those used for exchequer bills etc. This section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913. Section 10 - Making paper in imitation of that used for exchequer bills etc.

This section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913. Section 11 - Having in possession paper, plates or dies to be used for exchequer bills This section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913. Section 12 - Forging a bank note etc; this section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913. Section 13 - Purchasing or receiving or having forged bank notes This section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913. Section 14 - Making or having mould for making paper with the words "Bank of England" or "Bank of Ireland" or with curved bar lines etc. or selling such paper This section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913. Section 15 - Proviso as to paper used for bills of exchange etc.

This section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913. Section 16 - Engraving or having any plate etc. for making notes of Bank of England or Ireland or other banks, or having such plate etc. or uttering or having paper upon which a blank bank note etc. shall be printed This section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913. Section 17 - Engraving on a plate etc. any word, number or device resembling part of a bank note or bill, or having any such plate etc. or uttering or having any paper on which any such word etc. is impressed This section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913. Section 18 - Making or having mould for making paper with the name of any banker or making or having such paper This section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913.

Section 19 - Engraving plates for foreign bills or notes, or using or having such plates, or uttering paper on which any part of any such bill or note is printed This section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 20 of, Part I of the Schedule to, the Forgery Act 1913. Section 20 - Forging deeds, etc; this section was repealed as to England and I

History of the Patriot Act

The history of the USA PATRIOT Act involved many parties who opposed and supported the legislation, proposed and signed into law 45 days after the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001. The USA PATRIOT Act, though approved by large majorities in the U. S. Senate and House of Representative, was controversial, parts of the law were invalidated or modified by successful legal challenges over constitutional infringements to civil liberties; the Act had several sunset provisions, most reauthorized by the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 and the USA PATRIOT Act Additional Reauthorizing Amendments Act. Both reauthorizations incorporated amendments to the original USA PATRIOT Act, other federal laws; the catalyst for the USA PATRIOT Act occurred on September 11, 2001 when terrorists attacked and destroyed the World Trade Center in New York City and the western side of the Pentagon near Washington D. C. Within a few weeks of the September 11 attacks, a number of bills attempting to make changes to anti-terrorism laws were introduced into Congress.

After the USA PATRIOT Act was passed it remained controversial, began to be questioned by some members of Congress. A number of sections were struck by the courts; some provisions were challenged by the ACLU, who filed a lawsuit on April 9, 2004. In April 2005, a Senate Judicial Hearing on the Patriot Act was held; the Act was as controversial as and more than a few groups were campaigning against it. Aside from the EFF, the ACLU, the CDT and the EPIC, the Act had raised the ire of the American Library Association and the American Booksellers Foundation for Freedom of Expression, who were all concerned about the provisions of the Patriot Act. In June, the Select Committee on Intelligence proposed legislation to the House on July 21 as the USA PATRIOT and Terrorism Prevention Reauthorization Act of 2005, it repealed the sunset date for surveillance provisions of the Patriot Act — in other words, it would have made those sections permanent. A number of amendments were proposed and passed; the House responded on September 11 that they unanimously disagreed with the Senate amendment, agreed to a conference.

One provision struck down was the so-called "peek" provisions of the Patriot Act. These were struck down after the FBI wrongfully used the provision to arrest Portland attorney Brandon Mayfield on suspicions that he had been involved in the 2004 Madrid train bombings; the Patriot Act made a number of changes to U. S. law. Key acts changed were the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, the Money Laundering Control Act of 1986 and Bank Secrecy Act, as well as the Immigration and Nationality Act. Title II of the Patriot Act made a number of significant changes to the laws relating to foreign intelligence surveillance, of which the main two Acts that were affected were FISA and the ECPA. FISA came about after the Watergate scandal and subsequent investigations by the Church Committee, which discovered and criticized abuses of domestic spying by the National Security Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation and Central Intelligence Agency.

This led to widespread congressional and public outcry, resulting in Congress passing FISA in 1978. FISA governs the way in which U. S. intelligence agencies may conduct wiretaps and the interception of communications in order to gather foreign intelligence. FISA established the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and a FISC Court of Review which administer foreign intelligence related applications for access to business records, microphone "bugging," physical searches and the use of pen registers and trap and trace devices; the Act does not apply to U. S. is limited to dealings with foreign powers and nationals. The ECPA was an amendment to Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, sometimes known as the "Wiretap Statute." The Wiretap Statute was the result of two Supreme Court cases — Katz v. United States and Berger v. New York — and from criticism by the Church Committee of the actions of COINTELPRO; the Supreme Court found in both Katz v. U. S. and Berger v. New York that Fourth Amendment search and seizure protections prohibited warrantless wiretaps.

COINTELPRO was a program of the FBI, aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. COINTELPRO's operations during 1956 to 1971 were broadly targeted against organizations that were considered to have politically radical elements; these included those whose stated goal was the violent overthrow of the U. S. government, non-violent civil rights groups such as Martin Luther King Jr.'s Southern Christian Leadership Conference and violent groups like the Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party. The Church Committee found. Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, though noting that wiretaps and interception of communications are a vital part of the law enforcement, found that wiretapping had been undertaken without legal sanction and were being used to overhear the private conversations of U. S. citizens without their consent. These conversations were often being used as evidence in court proceedings. Therefore, in order to protect the integrity of the courts while ensuring the privacy of citizens was not violated, the Act provided a legal framework within which wiretaps and interceptions of communications could be used.

The Act requires a court order authorizing the use of such measures against U. S. citizens, with penalties for those who do not get such authorization. The notable exception to these ord