Ashoka was an ancient Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from c. 268 to 232 BCE. One of Indias greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over a realm that stretched from the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan to the state of Bangladesh in the east. It covered the entire Indian subcontinent except parts of present-day Tamil Nadu, the empires capital was Pataliputra, with provincial capitals at Taxila and Ujjain. In about 260 BCE, Ashoka waged a destructive war against the state of Kalinga. He conquered Kalinga, which none of his ancestors had done and he embraced Buddhism after witnessing the mass deaths of the Kalinga War, which he himself had waged out of a desire for conquest. Ashoka reflected on the war in Kalinga, which reportedly had resulted in more than 100,000 deaths and 150,000 deportations, Ashoka converted gradually to Buddhism beginning about 263 BCE. He was dedicated to the propagation of Buddhism across Asia, Ashoka regarded Buddhism as a doctrine that could serve as a cultural foundation for political unity.
Ashoka is now remembered as a philanthropic administrator, in the Kalinga edicts, he addresses his people as his children, and mentions that as a father he desires their good. Ashokas name Aśoka means painless, without sorrow in Sanskrit, in his edicts, he is referred to as Devānāmpriya, and Priyadarśin. His fondness for his names connection to the Saraca asoca tree, along with the Edicts of Ashoka, his legend is related in the 2nd-century CE Ashokavadana, and in the Sri Lankan text Mahavamsa. The emblem of the modern Republic of India is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, Ashoka was born to the Mauryan emperor, Bindusara and a relatively lower ranked wife, Subhadrangī. Ashoka became a great emperor despite having an appearance that was unfavorable to his father. He was the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Mauryan dynasty, according to Roman historian Appian, Ashokas grandfather Chandragupta had made a marital alliance with Seleucus, there is a possibility that Ashoka had a Seleucid Greek grandmother.
The Avadana texts mention that his mother was queen Subhadrangī, according to the Ashokavadana, she was the daughter of a Brahmin from the city of Champa. Though a palace intrigue kept her away from the emperor, this eventually ended and it is from her exclamation I am now without sorrow, that Ashoka got his name. The Divyāvadāna tells a story, but gives the name of the queen as Janapadakalyānī. Ashoka had several siblings, all of whom were his half-brothers from the other wives of Bindusara. His fighting qualities were apparent from an age and he was given royal military training
Arachosia /ærəˈkoʊsiə/ is the Hellenized name of an ancient satrapy in the eastern part of the Achaemenid, Parthian, Greco-Bactrian, and Indo-Scythian empires. Arachosia was centred on the Arghandab valley in modern-day southern Afghanistan, the main river of Arachosia was called Arachōtós, now known as the Arghandab River, a tributary of the Helmand River. The Greek term Arachosia corresponds to the Aryan land of Harauti which was around modern-day Helmand, the Arachosian capital or metropolis was called Alexandria Arachosia or Alexandropolis and lay in what is today Kandahar in Afghanistan. Arachosia was a part of the region of ancient Ariana, Arachosia is the Latinized form of Greek Ἀραχωσία - Arachōsíā. The same region appears in the Avestan Vidēvdāt under the indigenous dialect form Haraxvaitī-, in Old Persian inscriptions, the region is referred to as
Pliny the Elder
In the latter number will be my uncle, by virtue of his own and of your compositions. Pliny is referring to the fact that Tacitus relied on his uncles now missing work on the History of the German Wars. The wind caused by the sixth and largest pyroclastic surge of the eruption would not allow his ship to leave the shore, and Pliny probably died during this event. Plinys dates are pinned to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD79 and a statement of his nephew that he died in his 56th year, Pliny was the son of an equestrian, Gaius Plinius Celer, and his wife, Marcella. Neither the younger nor the elder Pliny mention the names and their ultimate source is a fragmentary inscription found in a field in Verona and recorded by the 16th century Augustinian monk Onofrio Panvinio at Verona. The reading of the inscription depends on the reconstruction, but in all cases the names come through, whether he was an augur and whether she was named Grania Marcella are less certain. Jean Hardouin presents a statement from a source that he claims was ancient, that Pliny was from Verona.
Hardouin cites the conterraneity of Catullus, additional efforts to connect Celer and Marcella with other gentes are highly speculative. Hardouin is the scholar to use his unknown source. He kept statues of his ancestors there, a statue of Pliny on the facade of the Duomo of Como celebrates him as a native son. He had a sister, who married into the Caecilii and was the mother of his nephew, Pliny the Younger, whose letters describe his work and study regimen in detail. In one of his letters to Tacitus, Pliny the Younger details how his uncles breakfasts would be light and simple following the customs of our forefathers. This shows that Pliny the Younger wanted it to be conveyed that Pliny the Elder was a good Roman and this statement would have pleased Tacitus. Two inscriptions identifying the hometown of Pliny the Younger as Como take precedence over the Verona theory, one commemorates the youngers career as imperial magistrate and details his considerable charitable and municipal expenses on behalf of the people of Como.
Another identifies his father Lucius village as Fecchio near Como and it is likely therefore that Plinia was a local girl and Pliny the Elder, her brother, was from Como. Gaius was a member of the Plinii gens and he did not take his fathers cognomen, but assumed his own, Secundus. As his adopted son took the same cognomen, Pliny founded a branch, no earlier instances of the Plinii are known. In 59 BC, only about 82 years before Plinys birth, Julius Caesar founded Novum Comum as a colonia to secure the region against the Alpine tribes, whom he had been unable to defeat
Pataliputra, adjacent to modern-day Patna, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Magadha ruler Ajatashatru in 490 BCE as a small fort near the Ganges river. Extensive archaeological excavations have been made in the vicinity of modern Patna, excavations early in the 20th century around Patna revealed clear evidence of large fortification walls, including reinforcing wooden trusses. The etymology of Pataliputra is unclear, putra means son, and pāţali is a species of rice or the plant Bignonia suaveolens. One traditional etymology holds that the city was named after the plant, another tradition says that Pāṭaliputra means the son of Pāṭali, who was the daughter of Raja Sudarshan. As it was known as Pāṭali-grāma originally, some believe that Pāṭaliputra is a transformation of Pāṭalipura. There is no mention of Pataliputra in written sources prior to the early Buddhist texts, in 303 BCE, Greek historian and ambassador Megasthenes mentioned Pataliputra as a city in his work Indika. The city of Pataliputra was formed by fortification of a village by Haryanka ruler Bimbisara and its central location in north eastern India led rulers of successive dynasties to base their administrative capital here, from the Nandas, Mauryans and the Guptas down to the Palas.
Situated at the confluence of the Ganges and Son rivers, Pataliputra formed a water fort and its position helped it dominate the riverine trade of the Indo-Gangetic plains during Magadhas early imperial period. It was a centre of trade and commerce and attracted merchants and intellectuals, such as the famed Chanakya. Jain and Brahmanical sources identify Udayabhadra, son of Ajatashatru, as the king who first established Pataliputra as the capital of Magadha. During the reign of Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE, it was one of the worlds largest cities, with a population of 150, 000–400,000. The city is estimated to have had a surface of 25.5 square kilometers, and a circumference of 33.8 kilometers, Pataliputra reached the pinnacle of prosperity when it was the capital of the great Mauryan Emperors, Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka. Arrian, The Indica Strabo in his Geographia adds that the city walls were made of wood and these are thought to be the wooden palisades identified during the excavation of Patna.
At the confluence of the Ganges and of another river is situated Palibothra, in length 80 and it is in the shape of a parallelogram, surrounded by a wooden wall pierced with openings through which arrows may be discharged. In front is a ditch, which serves the purpose of defence, in the parks, tame peacocks and pheasants are kept. Aelian, Characteristics of animals Ashokas Palace in Pataliputra and the monument columns everywhere in India were built to imitate the Achaemenid palaces, the architecture of Pataliputras enclosures and the monumental columns of Ashoka had been affected by Persian Achaemenid architecture. The design of the Pataliputra palace capital has been described as Perso-Iionic, with a strong late-archaic Greek stylistic influence, including volute and reel, the city became a flourishing Buddhist centre boasting a number of important monasteries. It remained the capital of the Gupta dynasty and the Pala Dynasty, the city was largely in ruins when visited by Xuanzang, and suffered further damage at the hands of Muslim raiders in the 12th century
Porus or Poros, was a king of the Pauravas whose territory in Ancient Punjab spanned the region between the Hydaspes and Acesines rivers in what is now the Punjab. Porus fought against Alexander the Great in the Battle of the Hydaspes, thought to be fought at the site of modern-day Mong, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, Porus was assassinated by one of Alexanders generals named Eudemus sometime between 321 and 315 BC. Porus or Poros, was a king of the Pauravas whose territory spanned the region between the Hydaspes and Acesines rivers in what is now Punjab, Porus fought with Alexander the Great in the Battle of the Hydaspes. After Alexanders death in 323 BC, Porus was assassinated by one of Alexanders generals named Eudemus sometime between 321 and 315 BC, the only information available on Porus is from Greek sources. Historians however have reasoned that based on his name and the location of his domain, the historian, Ishwari Prasad, noted that Porus might have been a Yaduvanshi Shoorsaini.
This Herakles of Megasthenes and Arrian has been identified by scholars as Krishna and by others as his elder brother Baladeva. The Battle of the Hydaspes was fought in 326 BC by Alexander the Great against King Porus of the Paurava kingdom on the banks of the river Hydaspes, the battle resulted in a Macedonian victory. After Alexanders death in 323 BC, Porus was assassinated by one of Alexanders generals, History of Porus, Patiala, Dr. Buddha Parkash. Alexander de Grote - De ondergang van het Perzische rijk, Amsterdam, ISBN 90-253-3144-0 Holt, Frank L. Alexander the Great and the Mystery of the Elephant Medallions, University of California Press,2003, 217pgs. ISBN 0-520-24483-4 History of India, Dr. Ishwari Prashad King Porus - A Legend of Old, glorifying poem, describes a legendary victory of Porus over Alexander. Media related to Porus at Wikimedia Commons Porus at Livius, by Jona Lendering Chisholm, Hugh, ed. King Porus
Onesicritus, a Greek historical writer, who accompanied Alexander on his campaigns in Asia. He claimed to have been the commander of Alexanders fleet but was only a helmsman, Arrian. When he returned home, he wrote a history of Alexanders campaigns and he is frequently cited by authors, who criticize him for his inaccuracies. He was a native of Astypalaia, and it was probably to this origin that he owed the nautical skills which would prove so advantageous to him. He was a disciple of Diogenes of Sinope, the Cynic philosopher, if so, he must have been already advanced in years when he joined the expedition of Alexander. It was Onesicritus, whom Alexander first sent to summon Dandamis to his court, when Onesicritus returned empty-handed with the reply of Dandamis, the King went to forest to visit Dandamis. When Alexander constructed his fleet on the Hydaspes, he appointed Onesicritus to the important position of pilot of the kings ship, Onesicritus held this position not only during the descent of the Indus, but throughout the long and perilous voyage from the river to the Persian gulf.
Alexander was so satisfied with his work that, on his arrival at Susa, Onesicritus was rewarded with a crown of gold, at the same time as Nearchus. Yet Arrian blames him for lack of judgment, and on one occasion expressly ascribes the safety of the fleet to the firmness of Nearchus in overruling his advice. It is most frequently cited in regard to the campaigns of Alexander in Asia, though an eye-witness of much that he described, it appears that he intermixed many fables and falsehoods with his narrative, so that he early fell into discredit as an authority. Strabo is especially severe upon him, aulus Gellius even associates him with Aristeas of Proconnesus, and other purely fabulous writers. In particular he was the first author mentioned the island of Taprobane. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
Megasthenes Herakles is the conventional name of reference of an ancient Indian deity. Herakles was originally a classical Greek divinity, upon visiting Mathurai of the Early Pandyan Kingdom, he described the kingdom as being named after Pandaea, Herakles only daughter. Many scholars have suggested that the deity identified as Herakles was Krishna and they may have derived their name from the god Siva. According to Dr. Schwanbeck and J. W. McCrindle, Megasthenes meant Siva when he mentioned Herakles in his book Indika
Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of the Maurya Empire and the first emperor to unify north and south west of present-day India into one state. He ruled from 324 BCE until his retirement and abdication in favour of his son, Bindusara. Chandragupta Maurya was a figure in the history of India. Prior to his consolidation of power, most of the Indian subcontinent was divided into mahajanapadas, Chandragupta succeeded in conquering and subjugating almost all of the Indian subcontinent by the end of his reign, except Tamil Nadu and modern-day Odisha. His empire extended from Bengal in the east to Aria or Herat in the west, to the Himalayas and Kashmir in the north and it was the largest empire yet seen in Indian history. In Greek and Latin accounts, Chandragupta is known as Sandrokottos and he became well known in the Hellenistic world for conquering Alexander the Greats easternmost satrapies, and for defeating the most powerful of Alexanders successors, Seleucus I Nicator, in battle. By 323 BC he freed the piece of territory of India that was controlled by Seleuces, the Greek diplomat Megasthenes, who visited the Maurya capital Pataliputra, is an important source of Maurya history.
After unifying much of India and his chief advisor Chanakya passed a series of major economic and he established a strong central administration patterned after Chanakyas text on politics, the Arthashastra. Chandraguptas India was characterised by an efficient and highly organised bureaucratic structure with a civil service. Due to its structure, the empire developed a strong economy, with internal and external trade thriving. In both art and architecture, the Maurya Empire made important contributions, deriving some of its inspiration from the culture of the Achaemenid Empire, Chandraguptas reign was a time of great social and religious reform in India. Buddhism and Jainism became increasingly prominent, according to Jain accounts, Chandragupta abdicated his throne in favour of his son Bindusara, embraced Jainism, and followed Bhadrabahu and other monks to South India. He is said to have ended his life at Shravanabelagola through Sallekhana, the sources which describe the life of Chandragupta Maurya includes Jain, Brahmanical and Greek sources.
Jain sources are Bhadrabahus Kalpasutra and Hemachandras Parisishtaparvan, Brahmanical sources are Puranas, Chanakyas Arthashastra, Vishakhadattas Mudrarakshasa, Somadevas Kathasaritsagara and Kshemendras Brihatkathamanjari. Buddhist sources are Dipavamsa, Mahavamsa tika and Mahabodhivamsa, very little is known about Chandraguptas youth and ancestry. What is known is gathered from classical Sanskrit literature, as well as classical Greek, many Indian literary traditions connect him with the Nanda Dynasty in modern-day Bihar in eastern India. More than half a millennium later, the Sanskrit drama Mudrarakshasa calls him a Nandanvaya, Chandragupta was born into a family left destitute by the death of his father, chief of the migrant Mauryas, in a border fray. Mudrarakshasa uses terms like kula-hina and Vrishala for Chandraguptas lineage, according to Bharatendu Harishchandras translation of the play, his father was the Nanda king Mahananda and his mother was a barbers wife named Mora, hence the surname Maurya
Dionysus is the god of the grape harvest and wine, of ritual madness, fertility and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth. Wine played an important role in Greek culture, and the cult of Dionysus was the religious focus for its unrestrained consumption. He may have been worshipped as early as c, 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks, traces of Dionysian-type cult have been found in ancient Minoan Crete. His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms, some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, in some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner, in others, from Ethiopia in the South. He is a god of epiphany, the god that comes and his festivals were the driving force behind the development of Greek theatre. The earliest cult images of Dionysus show a male and robed. He holds a staff, tipped with a pine-cone and known as a thyrsus. Later images show him as a beardless, naked or half-naked androgynous youth, in its fully developed form, his central cult imagery shows his triumphant, disorderly arrival or return, as if from some place beyond the borders of the known and civilized.
His procession is made up of female followers and bearded satyrs with erect penises, some are armed with the thyrsus. The god himself is drawn in a chariot, usually by exotic beasts such as lions or tigers and this procession is presumed to be the cult model for the followers of his Dionysian Mysteries. He is known as Bacchus, the adopted by the Romans. His thyrsus, sometimes wound with ivy and dripping with honey, is both a beneficent wand and a used to destroy those who oppose his cult and the freedoms he represents. As Eleutherios, his wine and ecstatic dance free his followers from self-conscious fear and care and those who partake of his mysteries are possessed and empowered by the god himself. The cult of Dionysus is a cult of the souls, his maenads feed the dead through blood-offerings and he is sometimes categorised as a dying-and-rising god. Some scholars believe that Dionysus is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity, Dionysus had a strange birth that evokes the difficulty in fitting him into the Olympian pantheon.
His mother was a woman, the daughter of king Cadmus of Thebes, and his father was Zeus. Zeus wife, discovered the affair while Semele was pregnant, appearing as an old crone, Hera befriended Semele, who confided in her that Zeus was the actual father of the baby in her womb. Hera pretended not to believe her, and planted seeds of doubt in Semeles mind, Semele demanded of Zeus that he reveal himself in all his glory as proof of his godhood
The Afridi is a Karlani Pashtun tribe present in Pakistan, with substantial numbers in Afghanistan. Their territory includes the Khyber Pass and Maidan in Tirah, Afridi migrants are found in India, mostly in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. The Afridis are historically known for the location they inhabit and their belligerence against outside forces. The clashes against British expeditions comprised the most savage fighting of the Anglo-Afghan Wars, after the independence of Pakistan, Afridi tribesmen helped attack Jammu and Kashmir for Pakistan during the Indo-Pakistani war of 1947. Today, Afridis make use of their dominant social position in FATA and areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by controlling transport and various businesses, including trade in arms and other goods. The Afridi are Pashtuns, part of the Karlani tribal confederacy, the British frequently classified the peoples that they conquered with fixed personality or “racial” traits and regarded the Pashtun Afridi tribesmen as “warlike” peoples and one of the Martial Race.
Different Afridi clans cooperated with the British forces in exchange for subsidies, and some served with the Khyber Rifles. The Afridis, classically called the Abaörteans, have their homeland in the Spin Ghar. According to Pashtun folklore, the Afridi tribe traces its origin back to the ancestor of all Pashtuns, Qais Abdur Rashid, through his youngest son. Thus, the Afridi tribe are one of the Karlani tribes, in fact, the great Pushtun tribe Burki is the sub-caste of it. Herodotus mentions a tribe of the Pactyans as Aparytai, scholars Grierson and Olaf Caroe equate these with modern Afridis on the basis of linguistic and geographic analysis. The Afridis and other Pashtuns of Afghanistan and Pakistan have alleged to be the descendants of the lost Jewish tribes such as the Efraim. However, DNA and other research towards validating such claims has been inconclusive, the Malikdin Khel live in the centre of the Tirah and hold Bagh, the traditional meeting place of Afridi jirgas or assemblies. The Aka Khel are scattered in the south of Jamrud.
All of this area is included in the Khyber Agency, the Adam Khel live in the hills between Peshawar and Kohat. The Burki live in Kanigoram Valley and Peshawar and their preserve is the Kohat Pass in which several of the most important Afridi gun factories are located. Their conversion to Islam is attributed to Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni by sources such as Ibbetson and Haroon Rashid, the Afridis and their allies Khalils were first mentioned in the memoirs of Mughal Emperor Babar as violent tribes in need of subduing. The Afridi tribes controlled the Khyber Pass, which has served as a corridor connecting the Indian subcontinent with Afghanistan and its strategic value was not lost on the Mughals to whom the Afridis were implacably hostile
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