The President and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society", it is the oldest national scientific institution in the world. The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation and public engagement; the society is governed by its Council, chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders. The members of Council and the President are elected from and by its Fellows, the basic members of the society, who are themselves elected by existing Fellows; as of 2016, there are about 1,600 fellows, allowed to use the postnominal title FRS, with up to 52 new fellows appointed each year.
There are royal fellows, honorary fellows and foreign members, the last of which are allowed to use the postnominal title ForMemRS. The Royal Society President is Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, who took up the post on 30 November 2015. Since 1967, the society has been based at 6–9 Carlton House Terrace, a Grade I listed building in central London, used by the Embassy of Germany, London; the Invisible College has been described as a precursor group to the Royal Society of London, consisting of a number of natural philosophers around Robert Boyle. The concept of "invisible college" is mentioned in German Rosicrucian pamphlets in the early 17th century. Ben Jonson in England referenced the idea, related in meaning to Francis Bacon's House of Solomon, in a masque The Fortunate Isles and Their Union from 1624/5; the term accrued currency for the exchanges of correspondence within the Republic of Letters. In letters in 1646 and 1647, Boyle refers to "our invisible college" or "our philosophical college".
The society's common theme was to acquire knowledge through experimental investigation. Three dated letters are the basic documentary evidence: Boyle sent them to Isaac Marcombes, Francis Tallents who at that point was a fellow of Magdalene College and London-based Samuel Hartlib; the Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at a variety of locations, including Gresham College in London. They were influenced by the "new science", as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from 1645 onwards. A group known as "The Philosophical Society of Oxford" was run under a set of rules still retained by the Bodleian Library. After the English Restoration, there were regular meetings at Gresham College, it is held that these groups were the inspiration for the foundation of the Royal Society. Another view of the founding, held at the time, was that it was due to the influence of French scientists and the Montmor Academy in 1657, reports of which were sent back to England by English scientists attending.
This view was held by Jean-Baptiste du Hamel, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle and Melchisédech Thévenot at the time and has some grounding in that Henry Oldenburg, the society's first secretary, had attended the Montmor Academy meeting. Robert Hooke, disputed this, writing that: makes Mr Oldenburg to have been the instrument, who inspired the English with a desire to imitate the French, in having Philosophical Clubs, or Meetings. I will not say, that Mr Oldenburg did rather inspire the French to follow the English, or, at least, did help them, hinder us. But'tis well known who were the principal men that began and promoted that design, both in this city and in Oxford, and not only these Philosophic Meetings were. On 28 November 1660, the 1660 committee of 12 announced the formation of a "College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning", which would meet weekly to discuss science and run experiments. At the second meeting, Sir Robert Moray announced that the King approved of the gatherings, a royal charter was signed on 15 July 1662 which created the "Royal Society of London", with Lord Brouncker serving as the first president.
A second royal charter was signed on 23 April 1663, with the king noted as the founder and with the name of "the Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge". This initial royal favour has continued and, since every monarch has been the patron of the society; the society's early meetings included experiments performed first by Hooke and by Denis Papin, appointed in 1684. These experiments varied in their subject area, were both important in some cases and trivial in others; the society published an English translation of Essays of Natural Experiments Made in the Accademia del Cimento, under the Protection of the Most Serene Prince Leopold of Tuscany in 1684, an Italian book documenting experiments at the Accademia del Cimento. Although meeting at Gresham College, the Society temporarily moved to Arundel House in 1666 after the Great Fire of London, which did not harm Gresham but did lead to its appropriation by the Lord Mayor; the Society r
Imperial College London
Imperial College London is a public research university located in London, England. In 1851, Prince Albert built his vision for a cultural area composed of the Victoria and Albert Museum, Natural History Museum, Royal Albert Hall, Royal Colleges, the Imperial Institute. In 1907, Imperial College was established by Royal Charter, bringing together the Royal College of Science, Royal School of Mines, City and Guilds College. In 1988, the Imperial College School of Medicine was formed through a merger with St Mary's Hospital Medical School. In 2004, Queen Elizabeth II opened the Imperial College Business School; the main campus is located with a new innovation campus in White City. The college has a research centre at Silwood Park, teaching hospitals throughout London. Imperial is organised through faculties of natural science, engineering and business, its emphasis is on the practical application of technology. With more than 140 countries represented on campus and 59% of students from outside the UK, the university has a international community.
In 2018–19, Imperial is ranked 8th globally in the QS World University Rankings, 9th in the THE World University Rankings, 24th in the Academic Ranking of World Universities, 8th in Reuters Top 100: World's Most Innovative Universities. Student and researcher affiliations include 14 Nobel laureates, 3 Fields Medalists, 1 Turing Award winner, 74 Fellows of the Royal Society, 87 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering, 85 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences; the college's origins can be traced back as far as the founding of the Royal College of Chemistry on Hanover Square in 1845, with the support of Prince Albert and parliament. Following some financial trouble, this was absorbed in 1853 into the newly formed Government School of Mines and Science Applied to the Arts, located on Jermyn Street; the school was renamed the Royal School of Mines a decade later. The medical school has roots in many different school across London, the oldest of which dates back to 1823, with the foundation of the teaching facilities at the West London Infirmary at Villiers Street.
Known as Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, it was designed to provide medical education for the needs of a university. This was followed in 1834 when Westminster Hospital surgeons started taking students under their care. Established on Dean Street, the school was forced to close in 1847, but was reopened in 1849 with a new specimen museum; the first teaching at St Mary's Hospital hospital in Paddington began in 1851, with St Mary's Hospital Medical School established in 1854. Proceeds from the Great Exhibition of 1851 were designated by Prince Albert to be used to develop a cultural area in South Kensington for the use and education of the public. Within the next 6 years the Victoria and Albert and Science museums had opened, joined by the Natural History Museum in 1881, in 1888 the Imperial Institute; as well as museums, new facilities for the royal colleges were constructed, with the Royal College of Chemistry and the Royal School of Mines moving to South Kensington between 1871 and 1872.
In 1881 the Normal School of Science was established in South Kensington under the leadership of Thomas Huxley, taking over responsibility for the teaching of the natural sciences and agriculture from the Royal School of Mines. The school was granted the name Royal College of Science by royal consent in 1890; as these institutions were not part of universities, they were unable to grant degrees to students, instead bestowed associateships such as the Associateship of the Royal College of Science. The Central Institution of the City and Guilds of London Institute, formed by the City of London's livery companies, was opened on Exhibition Road by the Prince of Wales, founded to focus on providing technical education, with courses starting in early 1885; the institution was renamed the Central Technical College in 1893, becoming a school of the University of London in 1900. At the start of the 20th century there was a concern that Britain was falling behind its key rivals – Germany – in scientific and technical education.
A departmental committee was set up at the Board of Education in 1904, to look into the future of the Royal College of Science. A report released in 1906 called for the establishment of an institution unifying the Royal College of Science and the Royal School of Mines, as well as – if agreement could be reached with the City and Guilds of London Institute – their Central Technical CollegeOn 8 July 1907, King Edward VII granted a Royal Charter establishing the Imperial College of Science and Technology; this incorporated the Royal College of Science. It made provisions for the Central Technical College to join once conditions regarding its governance were met, as well as for Imperial to become a college of the University of London; the college joined the University of London on 22 July 1908, with the Central Technical College joining Imperial in 1910 as the City and Guilds College. The main campus of Imperial College was constructed beside the buildings of the Imperial Institute, the new building for the Royal College of Science having opened across from it in 1906, the foundation stone for the Royal School of Mines building being laid by King Edward VII in July 1909.
As students at Imperial had to study separately for London degrees, in January 1919, students and alumni voted for a petition to make Imperial a university with its own degree awarding powers, independent of the University of London. In response, the University of London changed its regulations in 1925 so that the courses taught only at Imperial would be examined by the university, enabling students to ga
Edward Arthur Milne
Edward Arthur Milne FRS was a British astrophysicist and mathematician. Milne was born in Hull, England, he attended Hymers College and from there he won an open scholarship in mathematics and natural science to study at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1914, gaining the largest number of marks, awarded in the examination. In 1916 he joined a group of mathematicians led by A. V. Hill for the Ministry of munitions working on the ballistics of anti-aircraft gunnery, they became known as ′Hill's Brigands′. Milne became an expert on sound localisation. In 1917 he became a lieutenant in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve, he was a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1919–1925, being assistant director of the solar physics observatory, 1920–1924, mathematical lecturer at Trinity, 1924–1925, university lecturer in astrophysics, 1922–1925. He was Beyer professor of applied mathematics, Victoria University of Manchester, 1924–1928, before his appointment as Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics and to a fellowship at Wadham College, Oxford, in 1928.
Milne's earlier work was in mathematical astrophysics. Much of his research in the 1930s was concerned with the theory of cosmology, his work, concerned with the interior structure of stars, aroused controversy. Milne was President of the Royal Astronomical Society, 1943–1945. During World War II he again worked on ballistics, he died of a heart attack in Dublin, while preparing to give a set of lectures. These can be found written down in one of his last published books: Modern Cosmology and the Christian Idea of God. In the 1920s much of Milne's research was concerned with stars the outer layers known as stellar atmospheres that produce the radiation observed from the Earth, he considered a grey atmosphere, a simplifying approximation in which the strength of the absorption of light by the hot ionized gas is the same at all wavelengths. This produced predictions of how temperature varies through the atmosphere, including the mathematical expression now known as the Milne Equation, he calculated how the intensity of light from a star varies with wavelength on the basis of this model.
Milne moved on to consider the more realistic case where the strength of the absorption of light by gas within stars does vary with wavelength. Using simplifying assumptions he calculated how for the Sun the strength of the absorption depends on wavelength, his results could not be explained adequately at the time, but negatively-charged hydrogen ions were shown to be a major contributor to Milne's results. Milne, working with Ralph H. Fowler, studied how the strengths of spectral lines of stars depend on their spectral type. In doing this they applied the work of Meghnad Saha about the ionization of gases to stellar atmospheres. Milne worked on the structures and interiors of stars in early 1930s, he took opinions opposed to those of Arthur Eddington. From the early 1930s, Milne's interests focused on relativity theory and cosmology. From 1932 he worked on the problem of the "expanding universe" and in Relativity and World-Structure, proposed an alternative to Albert Einstein's general relativity theory.
With McCrea he showed that the 3 models which form the foundations of modern cosmology first proposed by Friedmann using the general theory of relativity, can be derived using only Newtonian mechanics. The main difference between the Milne model of an expanding universe, the current model of an expanding universe was that Milne did not assume a priori that the universe has a homogeneous matter distribution, he did not include the gravitation interaction into the model either. Milne argued that under the context of Einstein's special relativity, the relativity of simultaneity, that it is impossible for a nonstatic universe to be homogeneous. Namely, if the universe is spreading out, its density is decreasing over time, that if two regions appeared to be at the same density at the same time to one observer, they would not appear to be the same density at the same time to another observer. However, if each observer measures its local density at the same agreed-upon proper time, the measured density should be the same.
In Minkowskian coordinates, this constant proper time forms a hyperbolic surface which extends infinitely to the light-cone of the event of creation. This is true when proper time approaches 0, the time of the creation; the universe is infinite at the creation time! Milne's model is, that of a sphere, with an homogeneous matter distribution within several billion light years of the center which increases to an infinite density, it can be shown that this infinite density is the density of the universe when at the time of the big bang. The spherical distribution is unique in that it is the same after a Lorentz transformation, except that a different stationary particle is at the center; as it is the only distribution that has this property, it is the only distribution which could satisfy the cosmological principle of "no preferred reference frame." Based on this cosmological principle Milne created a model that can be described within Euclidean geometry. As of 1935, using this model, Milne published a prediction of the cosmic background radiation which appears to be of a much different character than that predicted by Eddington.
In fact, many passages in Relativity and World Structure are devoted to attacking Eddington's preconceptions. MBE Smith's Prize Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society Royal Society's Royal Medal Bruce Medal Milne
Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal
Keoratola crematorium or Keoratola Burning Ghat or Sahanagar Keoratola crematorium is a crematory located at Tollygunge Road, Kolkata. This is one of the largest cremation grounds in Kolkata. Before the establishment of this crematorium, there was a jungle of Caraway trees and the area was named as Keoratala; this crematorium was established in 1862 beside the bank of Adi Ganga. Keoratala crematorium was modernised by Ex-Chief minister of West Bengal. There is a park besides it with number of memorials. Jibanananda Das Satyajit Ray Shanu Lahiri Sunil Gangopadhyay Nimtala crematorium Kashi Mitra Ghat crematorium
Prafulla Chandra Ray
Acharya Sir Prafulla Chandra Ray spelled Prafulla Chandra Rây CIE, FNI, FRASB, FIAS, FCS was a Bengali chemist, historian and philanthropist. A leading Bengali nationalist, he established the first Indian research school in chemistry and is regarded as the father of chemical science in India; the Royal Society of Chemistry honoured his life and work with the first Chemical Landmark Plaque outside Europe. He was the founder of India's first pharmaceutical company, he is the author of A History of Hindu Chemistry from the Earliest Times to the Middle of Sixteenth Century. Prafulla Chandra Raychowdhury was born in the village of Raruli-Katipara in the Jessore District of the eastern Bengal Presidency of British India, he was the third child and son of Harish Chandra Raychowdhury, a moderately wealthy zamindar and his wife Bhubanmohini Devi, the daughter of a local taluqdar. Ray was one of seven siblings, having four brothers – Jnanendra Chandra, Nalini Kanta, Purna Chandra and Buddha Dev – and two sisters and Belamati, both born after their brothers.
Ray's great-grandfather Maniklal had been a dewan under the British East India Company's district collector of Krishnanagar and Jessore, had amassed considerable wealth in the service of the Company. After succeeding to his father's post, Ray's grandfather Anandlal, a progressive man, sent his son Harish Chandra to receive a modern education at Krishnagar Government College. At the college, Harish Chandra received a thorough grounding in English and Persian, though he was forced to end his studies to help support his family. Liberal and cultured, Harish Chandra pioneered English-medium education and women's education in his village, establishing both a middle school for boys and one for girls, admitting his wife and sister to the latter. Harish Chandra was associated with the Brahmo Samaj, Ray would maintain his connections with the Samaj throughout his life. In 1866, Ray began his education in the village school run by his father, studied there until he was nine. After Ray's elder brother Jnanendra Chandra completed his middle school studies, his father elected to move the family to Calcutta, where centres of higher learning were more accessible.
Thus in 1870 or 1871, when Ray was about 10, his family migrated to the city, where Harish Chandra rented a house at 132 Amherst Street. Ray was admitted to the Hare School the following year. In 1874, while Ray was in the fourth standard, he suffered a severe attack of dysentery and was forced to postpone his studies and return to his ancestral home, he considered this disruption in his studies as a blessing in disguise as it allowed him to read much more than what would have been possible within the constraints of school curricula. While convalescing, he read biographies, articles on science, Lethbridge's'Selections from Modern English Literature' and Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield, among others, he studied history, Bengali literature, Latin and Sanskrit. Although he made a full recovery, he suffered residual bouts of indigestion and insomnia for the rest of his life. After recovering from his illness, Ray returned to Calcutta in 1876 and was admitted to the Albert School, established by the Brahmo reformer Keshub Chandra Sen.
During this period, he attended Sen's Sunday evening sermons and was influenced by his Sulabha Samachar. In 1878, he passed the school's Entrance Examination with a First Division, was admitted as an FA student to the Metropolitan Institution, established by Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar; the English literature teacher at the Institution was Surendranath Banerjee, the prominent Indian nationalist and future president of the Indian National Congress, whose passionately held ideals including an emphasis on the value of service and the need to continually strive for India's rejuvenation left a definite and lasting impression on Ray, who took those values to heart. While influenced by Sen, Ray preferred a more democratic environment than the mainstream Brahmo Samaj under Sen's guidance could provide. Though Ray had focused on history and literature until this stage, chemistry was a compulsory subject in the FA degree; as the Metropolitan Institution offered no facilities for science courses at the time, Ray attended physics and chemistry lectures as an external student at the Presidency College.
He was drawn to the chemistry courses taught by Alexander Pedler, an inspiring lecturer and experimentalist, among the earliest research chemists in India. Soon captivated by experimental science, Ray decided to make chemistry his career, as he recognised that his country's future would depend on her progress in science, his passion for experimentation led him to set up a miniature chemistry laboratory at a classmate's lodgings and reproducing some of Pedler's demonstrations. He passed the FA exam in 1881 with a second division, was admitted to the BA degree of the University of Calcutta as a chemistry student, with a
Presidency University, Kolkata
Presidency University, Kolkata known as Hindu College and Presidency College, is a public state university located in College Street, Kolkata. It is considered to be one of the best liberal arts and science institutions in India; the institution was elevated to University status in 2010, before which it was functioning as a top constituent college under the University of Calcutta for a period of around 193 years. The University had its bicentenary celebrations in 2017. In its first cycle as a university, Presidency received the highest possible A rating by the NAAC. Presidency has been recognized as an "Institute of National Eminence" by the UGC, it appeared in the inaugural top 50 of NIRF rankings in 2016. However, NIRF rankings in 2017 and 2018 excluded Universities like Presidency University which taught only science and humanities but not engineering, agriculture etc. With the creation of the Supreme Court of Calcutta in 1773 many Hindus of Bengal showed eagerness to learn the English language.
David Hare, in collaboration with Raja Radhakanta Deb had taken steps to introduce English education in Bengal. Babu Buddinath Mukherjee advanced the introduction of English as a medium of instruction further by enlisting the support of Sir Edward Hyde East, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Fort William who called a meeting of'European and Hindu Gentlemen' in his house in May 1816; the purpose of the meeting was to "discuss the proposal to establish an institution for giving a liberal education to the children of the members of the Hindu Community". The proposal was received with a donation of over Rs. 100, 000 was promised for the setting up of the new college. Raja Ram Mohan Roy showed full sympathy for the scheme but chose not to come out in support of the proposal publicly for fear of "alarming the prejudices of his orthodox countrymen and thus marring the whole idea"; the College was formally opened on Monday, 20 January 1817 with 20'scholars'. The foundation committee of the college, which oversaw its establishment, was headed by Raja Rammohan Roy.
The control of the institution was vested in a body of four Directors. The first Governors of the college were Maharaja Tejchandra Bahadur of Burdwan and Gopee Mohan Thakoor; the first Directors were Gopi Mohun Deb of Sobhabazar, Joykissen Sinha, Radha Madhab Banerjee and Gunganarain Doss. Buddinath Mukherjee was appointed as the first Secretary of the college; the newly established college admitted Hindu students from affluent and progressive families, but admitted non-Hindu students such as Muslims, Jews and Buddhists. At first the classes were held in a house belonging to Gorachand Bysack of Garanhatta, rented by the college. In January 1818 the college moved to'Feringhi Kamal Bose's house', located nearby in Chitpore. From Chitpore, the college moved to Bowbazar and to the building that now houses the Sanskrit College on College Street. In 1972, an unsigned article was released by the faculty members of the college demanding that the college be given full university status, it is an open secret that the author of the article was Dipak Banerjee, the legendary economics professor of the college.
The state government under the chief ministership of Siddhartha Shankar Ray, showed the willingness to listen to the demands of the faculty members, but it was still too early to grant full autonomy to the college. In 2007, the state government, under the chief ministership of Buddhadeb Bhattacharya and Higher Education ministership of Sudarshan Raychaudhuri, appointed a seven-member committee, under the leadership of Chittotosh Mookerjee; the other members of the committee included Ashes Prasad Mitra, Barun De, Bimal Jalan and Subimal Sen, to look into the possibility of upgrading the status of the college. The report of the committee suggested that the state government, while granting the college partial autonomy, should create more prfessorships and scholarships for meritorious students, thus making it possible for the grant of full autonomy to the college in future. In 2009, the Governing Body of the college unanimously adopted the proposal that the college should be given full university status.
On 16 December 2009, the Government of West Bengal tabled a bill in Bidhansabha titled the Presidency University Act, 2009, in which the West Bengal Legislative Assembly granted full university status to the college. The bill stated that once the college becomes a full state-aided university it will be renamed Presidency University; the new logo of the Presidency University has been created by Sabyasachi Dutta as reported in a letter to the Editor of Anandabazar Patrika on 1 April 2013. On 19 March 2010, the West Bengal Government passed the Presidency University Bill, 2009 in the State Legislative Assembly. On 7 July 2010, the governor of West Bengal, M K Narayanan gave his assent to the Presidency University Bill. On 23 July 2010, the Government of West Bengal published the gazette notification completing all the legal formalities for Presidency to become a full university. Amiya Bagchi was given the responsibility of chairing a committee set up to select and appoint the first vice chancellor of the university.
Amita Chatterjee, a retired professor of philosophy at Jadavpur University, was appointed as the first vice-chancellor of Presidency University on 5 October 2010. In 2011, Higher Education Minister Bratya Basu suggested that a mentor group, along the lines of the Nalanda mentor group, would be formed to oversee the work of the university. At the beginning of June 2011, the chief minister of West Bengal, Mamata Banerjee, announced that a committee would be formed with Amartya Sen as its chief mentor and Harvard-based Sugata Bose as its chairman to oversee the runnin