Mehmed IV

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Mehmed IV
محمد رابع
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Kayser-i Rûm
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Caliph of Islam
Sultan Mehmed IV (2).jpg
19th Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
Reign 8 August 1648 – 8 November 1687
Predecessor Ibrahim
Successor Suleiman II
Regents
Born (1642-01-02)2 January 1642
Topkapı Palace, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Died 6 January 1693(1693-01-06) (aged 51)
Edirne, Ottoman Empire
Burial New Mosque, Istanbul
Consort Gülnuş Sultan (legal wife)
Siyavuş Sultan
Afife Sultan
Rabia Sultan
Kaniya Sultan
Gülbeyaz Hatun
Rukiye Hatun
Cihanşah Hatun
Dürriye Hatun
Nevruz Hatun
Issue see below
Full name
Mehmed bin Ibrahim
Dynasty Ottoman
Father Ibrahim
Mother Turhan Hatice Sultan
Religion Sunni Islam
Tughra Mehmed IVمحمد رابع's signature

Mehmed IV (Ottoman Turkish: محمد رابع Meḥmed-i rābiʿ; Modern Turkish: IV. Mehmet; also known as Avcı Mehmed, Mehmed the Hunter; 2 January 1642 – 6 January 1693) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. He came to the throne at the age of six after his father was overthrown in a coup. Mehmed went on to become the second longest reigning sultan in Ottoman history.[1] While the first and last years of his reign were characterized by military defeat and political instability, during his middle years he oversaw the revival of the empire's fortunes associated with the Köprülü era. Mehmed IV was known by contemporaries as a particularly pious ruler, and was referred to as gazi, or "holy warrior" for his role in the many conquests carried out during his long reign.[2] Under his reign the empire reached the height of its territorial expansion in Europe, from a young age he developed a keen interest in hunting, for which he is known as avcı (translated as "the Hunter").[1] In 1687 Mehmed was overthrown by soldiers disenchanted by the course of the ongoing War of the Holy League, he subsequently retired to Edirne, where he resided until his natural death in 1693.[1]

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Young emperor Mehmed IV

Born at Topkapı Palace, Constantinople, in 1642, Mehmed was the son of Sultan Ibrahim (r. 1640–48) by Valide Sultan Turhan Hatice, a concubine of either Russian or Ukrainian origin,[3] and the grandson of Kösem Sultan of Greek origin.[4] Soon after his birth, his father and mother quarreled, and Ibrahim was so enraged that he tore Mehmed from his mother's arms and flung the infant into a cistern. Fortunately, Mehmed was rescued by the harem servants. However, this left Mehmed with a lifelong scar on his head.[5][better source needed]

Mehmed ascended to the throne in 1648 at the age of six,[nb 1] during a very volatile time for the Ottoman Dynasty, the empire faced palace intrigues as well as uprisings in Anatolia, the defeat of the Ottoman navy by the Venetians outside the Dardanelles, and food shortages leading to riots in Constantinople. It was under these circumstances that Mehmed's mother granted Köprülü Mehmed Pasha full executive powers as Grand Vizier. Köprülü took office on September 14, 1656.[7] Mehmed IV presided over the Köprülü era, an exceptionally stable period of Ottoman history. Mehmed is known as Avcı, "the Hunter", as this outdoor exercise took up much of his time.

Reign[edit]

Siege of Candia by the Ottoman army
Mehmed IV as a teenager, on procession from Istanbul to Edirne in 1657

Mehmed's reign is notable for a revival of Ottoman fortunes led by the Grand Vizier Köprülü Mehmed and his son Fazıl Ahmed, they regained the Aegean islands from Venice, and Crete, during the Cretan War (1645–1669). They also fought successful campaigns against Transylvania (1660) and Poland (1670–1674). When Mehmed IV accepted the vassalage of Petro Doroshenko, Ottoman rule extended into Podolia and Right-bank Ukraine, his next vizier, Köprülü Mehmed's adopted son Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa, led campaigns against Russia, conquering Chyhyryn in 1678. He next supported the 1683 Hungarian uprising of Imre Thököly against Austrian rule, marching a vast army through Hungary and besieged Vienna. At the Battle of Vienna on the Kahlenberg Heights, the Ottomans suffered a catastrophic rout by Polish-Lithuanian forces famously led by King John III Sobieski (1674–96), and his allies, notably the Imperial army.

Great Turkish War[edit]

On September 12, 1683, the Austrians and their Polish allies under King John III Sobieski took advantage of dissent within the Turkish military command and poor disposition of his troops, winning the Battle of Vienna with a devastating flank attack led by Sobieski's Polish cavalry, the Turks retreated into Hungary, however this was only the beginning of the Great Turkish War, as the armies of the Holy League began their successful campaign to push the Ottomans back to the Balkans.

Later life and death[edit]

The Ottoman Empire under Mehmed IV
The siege of united Christian forces in Buda, 1686

After the second Battle of Mohács (1687), the Ottoman Empire fell into deep crisis. There was a mutiny among the Ottoman troops, the commander and Grand Vizier Sarı Süleyman Pasha became frightened that he would be killed by his own troops and fled from his command, first to Belgrade and then to Istanbul. When the news of the defeat and the mutiny arrived in Istanbul in early September, Abaza Siyavuş Pasha was appointed as the commander and soon as the Grand Vizier. However, before he could take over his command, the whole Ottoman Army had disintegrated and the Ottoman household troops (Janissaries and Sipahis) started to return to their base in Istanbul under their own lower-rank officers. Sarı Suleyman Pasa was executed. Sultan Mehmed IV appointed the commander of Istanbul Straits Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha as the Grand Vizier's regent in Istanbul, he made consultations with the leaders of the army that existed and the other leading Ottoman statesmen. After these, on 8 November 1687 it was decided to depose Sultan Mehmed IV and to enthrone his brother Suleiman II as the new Sultan. Mehmed was deposed by the combined forces of Yeğen Osman and the janissaries. Mehmed was then imprisoned in Topkapı Palace. However, he was permitted to leave the Palace from time to time, as he died in Edirne Palace in 1693, he was buried in Turhan Hadice Sultan's tomb, near his mother's mosque in Constantinople. Just before he died in 1691, a plot was discovered in which the senior clerics of the empire planned to reinstate Mehmed on the throne in response to the ill health of his successor, Suleiman II.

His favourite harem girl was Emetullah Rabia Gülnûş Sultan, who was a slave girl and later his wife, was taken prisoner at Rethymnon (Turkish Resmo) in the island of Crete, their two sons, Mustafa II and Ahmed III, became Ottoman Sultans during 1695–1703 and 1703–1730 respectively.

Marriages and issue[edit]

Consorts[edit]

  • Emetullah Rabia Gülnuş Sultan, originally named Eugenia Voria and of ethnic Greek as the daughter of a Greek Orthodox priest or a member of the Venetian Verzzizi family. The Sultan's only legal wife.
  • Siyavuş Sultan, an ethnic Russian lady.
  • Afife Sultan (d. 1688)
  • Rabia Sultan
  • Kaniya Sultan
  • Gülbeyaz Hatun
  • Rukiye Hatun
  • Cihanşah Hatun
  • Dürriye Hatun
  • Nevruz Hatun

Sons[edit]

  • Şehzade Selim (1659 – 1679) – son of Siyavuş Sultan
  • Mustafa II (6 February 1664 – 29/30 December 1703) – son of Gülnuş Sultan
  • Ahmed III (30/31 December 1673 – 1 July 1736) – son of Gülnuş Sultan
  • Şehzade Ibrahim (14 December 1675 –September 1676) – son of Rabia Sultan
  • Şehzade Bayazid (31 December 1678 – January 1679) – son of Afife Sultan
  • Şehzade Sulaiman (13 February 1681 – ?; died young) – son of Kaniya Sultan

Daughters[edit]

  • Hatice Sultan (1662 – 9 May 1743) – daughter of Gülnuş Sultan. Married:
    • firstly, 9 July 1675, Admiral Damad Mustafa Pasha.
    • secondly, 1690, Damad Murali Enista Hasan Pasha, Grand Vizier.
  • Ümmügülsüm Sultan (1670 – 13 December 1722), Married:
    • firstly, 9 July 1675, Damad Kara Mustafa Pasha Maktul, Grand Vizier.
    • secondly, 13 January 1694, Damad Xerxes Kucuk Osman Pasha, 5th Vizier 1698, 4th Vizier.
  • Fatma Sultan, daughter of Gülnuş Sultan. Married:
    • firstly, 20 January 1696, Damad Xerxes Ibrahim Pasha Tirnakji.
    • secondly, 1697, Damad Topal Yusuf Pasha, Vizir 1697, and Amir-i-Haj at Damascus 1714.
  • Safiye Sultan, daughter of Gülnuş Sultan. Married:
    • after 1687 Damad Kasim Mustafa Pasha, the Pasha of Adrianople.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ He is often reported as having been seven years old upon his accession, a result of the Turkish method of calculating age.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Börekçi, Günhan (2009). "Mehmed IV". In Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. p. 370-1. 
  2. ^ Baer, Marc David (2008). Honored by the Glory of Islam: Conversion and Conquest in Ottoman Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-19-979783-7. 
  3. ^ Afyoncu; Uğur Demir, Erhan (2015). Turhan Sultan. Istanbul: Yeditepe Yayınevi. p. 27. ISBN 978-605-9787-24-6. 
    • Baer, Marc David (2008). Honored by the Glory of Islam: Conversion and Conquest in Ottoman Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-19-979783-7. 
  4. ^ Finkel, Caroline (2005). Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1923. New York: Basic Books. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-465-02396-7. 
  5. ^ John Freely - Inside the Seraglio published 1999, Chapter 9: Three Mad Sultans
  6. ^ Baer, Marc David (2008). Honored by the Glory of Islam: Conversion and Conquest in Ottoman Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-19-979783-7. 
  7. ^ Streusand, Donald E., Islamic Gunpowder Empires: Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2011), p. 57.

External links[edit]

Media related to Mehmed IV at Wikimedia Commons

Mehmed IV
Born: 2 January 1642 Died: 6 January 1693[aged 51]
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ibrahim
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
8 August 1648 – 8 November 1687
with Kösem Sultan (1648–1651)
Turhan Hatice Sultan (1651–1656)
Succeeded by
Suleiman II
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Ibrahim
Caliph of Islam
Ottoman Dynasty
8 August 1648 – 8 November 1687
Succeeded by
Suleiman II