SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Letur

Letur is a municipality in the province of Albacete, in the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha, Spain. To the south, it borders the Murcia Region, it has a population of 1,285, according to INE. The municipality of Letur is made up of the following districts: Abejuela La Dehesa La Sierra Holy Thursday - Procession of Our Father Jesus of Nazareth and Holy Mary of Sorrows. Holy Friday in the afternoon - The "Funeral" procession. Holy Friday in the night - The "Silence" procession. Holy Friday at 6:00 am - Our Lord leaves from the Church of Our Lady of the Assumption of Letur and walks through the streets of the old town, afterwards Our Lady leaves, to cross the path of our Lord in the Plaza Mayor, where the "encounter" takes place. Resurrection Sunday - Letur's "Las Cortesias" Procession; this famous celebration is held in Plaza Mayor and white doves are released. The procession starts at around 11:30 a.m. first Our Lady of Sorrows leaves dressed in mourning, she passes behind the Town Hall and the Arc of Moreras and climbs up to the Plaza Mayor.

At the same time Our Father comes from this church to the Plaza Mayor where the meeting takes place, followed by the anthem of Spain. Auto

History of radiation therapy

The history of radiation therapy or radiotherapy can be traced back to experiments made soon after the discovery of x-rays, when it was shown that exposure to radiation produced cutaneous burns. Influenced by electrotherapy and escharotics — the medical application of caustic substances — doctors began using radiation to treat growths and lesions produced by diseases such as lupus, basal cell carcinoma, epithelioma. Radiation was believed to have bactericidal properties, so when radium was discovered, in addition to treatments similar to those used with x-rays, it was used as an additive to medical treatments for diseases such as tuberculosis where there were resistant bacilli. Additionally, because radiation was found to exist in hot spring waters which were reputed for their curative powers, it was marketed as a wonder cure for all sorts of ailments in patent medicine and quack cures, it was believed by medical science that small doses of radiation would cause no harm and the harmful effects of large doses were temporary.

The widespread use of radium in medicine ended when it was discovered that physical tolerance was lower than expected and exposure caused long term cell damage that could appear in carcinoma up to 40 years after treatment. The use of radiation continues today as a treatment for cancer in radiation therapy; the imaging properties of x-rays were discovered, their practical uses for research and diagnostics were apparent, soon their use spread in the medical field. X-rays were used to diagnose bone fractures, heart disease, phthisis. Inventive procedures for different diagnostic purposes were created, such as filling digestive cavities with bismuth, which allowed them to be seen through tissue and bone. During early practical work and scientific investigation, experimenters noticed that prolonged exposure to x-rays created inflammation and, more tissue damage on the skin; the biological effect attracted the interest of Léopold Freund and Eduard Schiff, only a month or two after Röntgen's announcement, suggested they be used in the treatment of disease.

At the same time, Emil Grubbe, of Chicago was the first American physician to use x-rays to treat cancer, beginning in 1896, began experimenting in Chicago with medical uses of x-rays. Escharotics by this time had been used to treat skin malignancies through caustic burns, electrotherapy had been experimented with, in the aim to stimulate the skin tissue; the first attempted x-ray treatment was by Victor Despeignes, a French physician who used them on a patient with stomach cancer. In 1896, he published a paper with the results: a week-long treatment was followed by a diminution of pain and reduction in the size of the tumor, though the case was fatal; the results were inconclusive. Freund's first experiment was a tragic failure; the first successful treatment was by Schiff, working in a case of lupus vulgaris. A year in 1897, the two published a report of their success and this provoked further experimentation in x-ray therapies. Thereafter they did a successful treatment of lupus erythematosus in 1898.

The lesion took a common form of a'butterfly-patch' which appeared on both sides of the face, Schiff applied the irradiation to one side only, in order to compare the effects. Within a few months, scientific journals were swamped with accounts of the successful treatment of different types of skin tissue malignancies with x-rays. In Sweden, Thor Stenbeck published results of the first successful treatments of rodent ulcer and epithelioma in 1899 that year confirmed by Tage Sjögren. Soon afterwards, their findings were confirmed by a number of other physicians; the nature of the active agent in therapeutic treatment was still unknown, subject to wide dispute. Freund and Schiff believed it to because of electrical discharge, Nikola Tesla argued they were because of the ozone generated by the x-rays, while others argued that it was the x-rays themselves. Tesla's position was soon refuted, only the other two theories remained. In 1900, Robert Kienböck produced a study based on a series of experiments that demonstrated that it was the x-rays themselves.

Studies published in 1899 and 1900 suggested that the rays varied in penetration according to the degree of vacuum in the tube. Niels Finsen, a Faroese-Danish physician, had by that time pursued interest in the biological effects of light, he published a paper, Om Lysets Indvirkninger paa Huden in 1893. Inspired by the discovery that x-rays could have therapeutic effects, he extended his research to examine directed light rays. In 1896, he published a paper on his findings, Om Anvendelse i Medicinen af koncentrerede kemiske Lysstraaler. Finsen discovered that lupus was amenable to treatment by ultraviolet rays when separated out by a system of quartz crystals, thereafter created a lamp to sift out the rays; the so-called Finsen lamp became used in for phototherapy, derivatives of it became used when experimenting with other types of radiotherapy. Modifications were made to Finsen's original design, it found its most common forms in the Finsen-Reyn lamp and Finsen-Lomholt lamp. By 1905, it was estimated that 50 percent of the cases of lupus were healed by Finsen's methods.

Finsen was soon awarded a Nobel prize for his research. From initial therapeutic experiments, a new field of x-ray therapy was born, referred to as röntgenotherapy after Wilhelm Röntgen, the discoverer of x-rays, it was still u