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Mehndi is a form of body art originating in ancient India, in which decorative designs are created on a person's body, using a paste, created from the powdered dry leaves of the henna plant. Dating back to ancient India, mehndi is still a popular form of body art among the women of the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East. Mehndi is derived from the Sanskrit word mendhikā. In Tamil, it is known as'maruthani'; the use of mehndi and turmeric is described in the earliest Hindu Vedic ritual books. It was used for only women's palms and sometimes for men, but as time progressed, it was more common for men to wear it. Staining oneself with turmeric paste, as well as mehndi, are Vedic customs, intended to be a symbolic representation of the outer and the inner sun. Vedic customs are centered on the idea of "awakening the inner light". Traditional Indian designs are representations of the sun on the palm, which, in this context, is intended to represent the hands and feet. Mehendi has a great significance in performing classical dance like Bharatnatyam.

There are many designs. Women apply mehndi designs to their hands and feet, though some, including cancer patients and women with alopecia decorate their scalps; the standard color of henna is brown, but other design colors such as white, red and gold are sometimes employed. Practiced in the Indian subcontinent, mehndi is the application of a temporary form of skin decoration, popularized in the West by Indian cinema and the entertainment industry, the people in Pakistan, Nepal and the Maldives use mehendi. Mehndi decorations became fashionable in the West in the late 1990s, where they are called henna tattoos. Mehndi in Indian tradition is applied during special Hindu weddings, Brahman weddings, Namboodiri weddings and Hindu festivals like Karva Chauth, Vat Purnima, Bhai Dooj, Durga Pooja and Teej. Muslims in the Indian subcontinent apply Mehndi during festivals such as Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha. In Hindu festivals, many women have Henna applied to their hands and feet and sometimes on the back of their shoulders too, as men have it applied on their arms, legs and chest.

For women, it is drawn on the palm, back of the hand and on feet, where the design will be clearest due to contrast with the lighter skin on these surfaces, which contain less of the pigment melanin. Alta, Alata, or Mahur is a red dye used to henna to paint the feet of the brides in some regions of India, for instance in Bengal. Due to the desire for a "tattoo-black" appearance, some people add the synthetic dye p-Phenylenediamine to henna to give it a black colour. PPD may cause severe allergic reactions and was voted Allergen of the Year in 2006 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society. Mehndi is a ceremonial art form, it is applied during weddings - for Muslim and Hindu brides. In Rajasthan, the grooms are given designs that are as elaborate as those for brides. In Assam, apart from marriage, it is broadly used by unmarried women during Rongali bihu. Muslims in Afghanistan started to use it as an indication of coming of age. In the Middle East and Africa, it is common for women to apply henna to their fingernails and toenails and to their hands.

Henna paste is applied to the skin using a plastic cone, a paintbrush or a stick. After about 15–20 minutes, the mud will dry and begin to crack, during this time, a mixture of lemon juice and white sugar can be applied over the henna design to remoisten the henna mud so that the henna will stain darker; the painted area is wrapped with tissue, plastic, or medical tape to lock in body heat, creating a more intense colour on the skin. The wrap, is worn for two to six hours, or sometimes overnight, removed; when first removed, the henna design is pale to dark orange in colour and darkens through oxidation, over the course of 24 to 72 hours. The final color is reddish brown and can last anywhere from one to three weeks depending on the quality and type of henna paste applied, as well as where it was applied on the body. Moisturizing with natural oils, such as olive, sesame seed, or coconut, will help extend the lifetime of the stain. Skin exfoliation causes the henna tattoo to fade. Traditional Hindu or Sikh weddings in India can be long and elaborate affairs with many pre-wedding and post-wedding ceremonies.

South Asiam Muslim weddings may have pre-wedding and post-wedding ceremonies. Different countries and regions of a country celebrate the ceremonies in different ways according to their own marriage customs and culture. A henna/mehndi party is a tradition held before a wedding in many South Asian, Middle Eastern, North African cultures. Mehndi parties were held in the house that the bride was going to live in, the guests included girls and women from the bride and groom's side of the family; the bride and all of her guests wore embroidered dresses called "bindalli". In addition to this, the bride wore a red veil that covered her face. According to Hindu tradition, the ceremony is held at the bride's house or at a banquet hall on the eve of the marriage ceremony or few days before the marriage; the bride and groom attend the event together and on the occasion, a professional mehndi artist or a relative applies mehndi to the bride's hands and feet. The designs are intricate. Hidden within the mehndi pattern, the name or initials of the groom are applied.

The event has a celebratory festival feel to it with the women dancing and singing tradi


MultiSpeak is a specification / standard that defines standardized interfaces among software applications used by electric utilities. It defines details of data that need to be exchanged between software applications in order to support different processes applied at utilities; the MultiSpeak effort is funded by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed a Smart Grid Conceptual Reference Model as part of its Smart Grid Standards Framework and Roadmap. NIST has identified 42 standards to support this vision. MultiSpeak was chosen by NIST as a key standard in the Operations area of the NIST Conceptual Model; the MultiSpeak Specification is the most applied de facto integration standard in North America pertaining to distribution utilities. It is in use in daily operations of more than 600 electric cooperatives, investor-owned utilities and public power districts in at least 15 different countries. Over 80 software vendors active in the utility industry have joined the MultiSpeak initiative and contribute their experience to refining the standard.

The MultiSpeak standard makes use of three components: Definitions of common data semantics: It contains the details of data that need to be exchanged. Data semantics are documented in the form of an extensible markup language schema. Definitions of message structure: It defines message structures to support the required data interchanges. Web services calls. Definition of messages required to support specific business process steps: This details the business process steps to accomplish the data. CIM covers transmission and distribution whereas MultiSpeak is distribution focused. MultiSpeak is focused to meet the needs of electric cooperatives in the US, while IEC 61968 / CIM is focused towards all utilities in the international marketplace. IEC 61968 is transport independent. SOAP messages using HTTP, TCP/IP sockets connections directly between applications, file-based transfers are used for transferring data in MultiSpeak. Both standards use XML Schema for definition of messages and focus on interfaces between applications, as opposed to data structures internal to applications.

Message headers can be mapped between MultiSpeak and IEC 61968 but mapping of message content between the two is more complex. In June 2008 MultiSpeak and WG14 announced an initiative to establish two sets of standards that will lead towards harmonization of their respective specifications. After completion of the same, this will provide a mapping between MultiSpeak Version 4.0, IEC 61970 Version 13, IEC 61968 Version 10. Two sets of standard work planned for the same are listed below: IEC 61968-14-1-3 to 14-1-10 — Proposed IEC Standards to Map IEC61968 and MultiSpeak Standards. IEC 61968-14-2-3 to 14-2-10 — Proposed IEC Standards to Create a CIM Profile to Implement MultiSpeak Functionality. MultiSpeak version 5.0 was first released 2/18/2015. MultiSpeak version 4.1 was first released 6/30/2010. MultiSpeak version 3.0 was first released 10/20/2005. IEC 61968 IEC 61970 CIM


A bandolier or a bandoleer is a pocketed belt for holding ammunition. It is slung sash-style over the shoulder, with the ammunition pockets across the midriff and chest. In its original form, it was common issue to soldiers from the 16th century to the 18th century, contained either pre-packed chargers, small containers of wood, metal or cloth containing the measured amount of gunpowder for a single shot with muzzle-loading muskets or other guns, it might carry grenades or other accessories for shooting. Any bag worn in the same style may be described as a bandolier bag. A somewhat different form of the bandolier came into use in the 19th century, when it held more modern metallic cartridges and hand grenades. Bandoliers are now less common due to the use of detachable magazines and belt-fed firearms, though extra ammunition belts are carried around the body like a bandolier, they are, still used with shotguns, hand grenades, grenade launchers. Shotgun shells can be stored in traditionally-designed bandoliers.

In fact, some aftermarket shotgun slings are designed in a fashion similar to traditional bandoliers, albeit with a far more limited capacity. Another modern use of a bandolier is for the automatic rifleman of a military fireteam. Since a squad automatic weapon is belt-fed, an automatic rifleman will carry an extra belt on his person; the bandolier was used to keep ammunition off a soldier's hips, as carrying too much weight on the hips can constrain movement and cause difficulty in retrieving the ammunition. In World War I and World War II, bandoliers were issued to riflemen, they were made of cloth, stitched into pockets. In civilian use, bandoliers are worn by hunters and recreational shooters using shotguns. Bandoliers made from spent or dummy rounds are sometimes used in fashion. Michael Jackson famously wore a bandolier as part of a military-inspired costume during his Dangerous World Tour in the early 1990s. Today, bandoliers see widespread use with sport shooters and hunters alike, as well as limited use in military conflicts.

Many fictional characters wore or wear bandoliers including The Doctor played by John Hurt in Doctor Who, Chewbacca the Wookiee hero from the Star Wars franchise, Sir Roxton on The Lost World franchise based on a novel by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, some of Long John Silver's followers on Treasure Island, the Transformer with a Velociraptor form, on Beast Wars: Transformers episodes "Coming of the Fuzors" Part 1 and Part 2, Bebop and Rocksteady, the human/warthog mutant and the human/rhinoceros-mutant on the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles franchise, Gargomon on the Digimon franchise, more. Baldric

Stephen Williams (bowler)

Stephen Williams is a Welsh short mat bowls player, four time singles world champion. Williams won the championship in consecutive tournaments in 2002, 2004, again in 2010 and 2012. Williams has won the world triples championship in 1994. Williams is a multiple time national champion. Williams is a three-time singles winner of events at the Short mat players tour, first winning the 2015 English Masters, defeating Paul Bax 12-7 in the final and winning the 2019 British Open, defeating Devon's Benny Bass in the final 10-9. Williams would win the next event, the 2019 English Masters, with a 12-10 win in the final over Sean Hughes. Williams has won the Welsh Grand Prix 2 Bowl Pairs, in 2018, with partner Johnathan Payne, having been runner up the year before. In 2012, Williams defeated Alex Marshall in the "champion of champion" series, as the reigning world champion, he defeated Marshall in a 7 end match, 6-4. Stephen Williams statistics profile at Short mat players tour Stephen Williams bio at short mat players tour

Angophora Reserve

Angophora Reserve is a 18.5-hectare nature preserve located in the Northern Beaches region of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales. It was once two adjacent reserves formally known as Hudson Park and Angophora Reserve, however the two were merged and are now referred together under the one title of Angophora Reserve, it borders the suburbs of Avalon and Taylors Point and provides a refuge for native fauna and flora and serves as a wildlife corridor. The reserve contains an Aboriginal shelter site that holds both archaeological and cultural significance and is one of the most important of such sites in the Sydney region. Angophora Reserve was purchased as a bushland sanctuary by the Wildlife Preservation Society in 1937; the reserve's original purpose was to preserve a giant Angophora Red Gum tree, estimated to be 1,000 years old. The tree still is now dead. Sir Philip Whistler Street opened the reserve on 19 March 1938 during an opening ceremony that took place under the giant Angophora tree.

The adjoining Hudson Park was established as a public reserve in 1957. The Angophora Reserve and Hudson Park Management Committee was formed in 1976 to aid in the management of the neighbouring reserves, it remained active until it was disbanded after the Council elections in September 1991 and was succeeded by the Pittwater Reserves and Bushland Management Committee following the creation of the Pittwater Council. In 1989 Angophora Reserve and Hudson Park were registered on the now defunct Register of the National Estate in 1987 due to it being a bushland sanctuary of significant social and educational value to the Northern Beaches region. List of parks in Sydney

Phoenix breakwaters

The Phoenix breakwaters were a set of reinforced concrete caissons built as part of the artificial Mulberry harbours that were assembled as part of the follow-up to the Normandy landings during World War II. They were constructed by civil engineering contractors around the coast of Britain, they were collected at Dungeness and Selsey, towed by tugboats across the English Channel and sunk to form the Mulberry harbour breakwaters replacing the initial "Gooseberry" block ships. Further caisson were added in the autumn of 1944 to reinforce the existing structure to cope with the harbour continuing in use longer than planned. Several Phoenix breakwaters still exist in Britain: two are part of the harbour off Castletown at Portland Harbour and two can be dived in less than 10 metres of water off Pagham. There is a smaller Phoenix Caisson in Langstone Harbour. A wrecked Phoenix breakwater is to be seen, broken in two, in the Thames estuary off Shoeburyness in Essex, it broke while being towed from Harwich in June 1944.

To avoid it causing a hazard to shipping in the Thames estuary, it was beached on the mud on the northern edge of the Thames dredged shipping channel. It is about a mile from the beach, it is not quite covered at high tide. Four Phoenix breakwaters were used in the Netherlands to plug a gap in the dyke at Ouwerkerk after the North Sea Flood of 1 February 1953, they have now been converted into a museum for the floods called the Watersnoodmuseum. One can walk through the four caissons. Mulberry harbour The Mulberry Harbour Units, Dorset; the Watersnoodmuseum, The Netherlands