The State Legislative Assembly is the lower house of a state legislature in the States and Union Territories of India. In the 29 states and 2 union territories with unicameral state legislature it is the sole legislative house. In 7 states it is the lowest house of their bicameral state legislatures with the upper house being Vidhan Parishad or the State Legislative Council. 5 Union Territories have no legislative body. Each Member of the Legislative Assembly is directly elected to serve 5 year terms by single-member constituencies. In 14 states the Governor of a state may appoint one Anglo-Indian MLA to their respective states Assemblies, in accordance with the 23rd Amendment of the Constitution of India; the Constitution of India states that a State Legislative Assembly must have no less than 60 and no more than 500 members however an exception may be granted via an Act of Parliament as is the case in the states of Goa, Sikkim and the union territory of Puducherry which have fewer than 60 members.
A Vidhan Sabha may be dissolved in a state of emergency, by the Governor on request of the Chief Minister, or if a motion of no confidence is passed against the majority coalition. To become a member of a State Legislative Assembly, a person must be a citizen of India, not less than 25 years of age, he or she should not be bankrupt. He or she should state an affidavit that there are no criminal procedures against him or her. Speaker of State Legislative Assembly, responsible for the conduct of business of the body, a Deputy Speaker to preside during the Speaker's absence; the Speaker manages all debates and discussions in the house. He or she is a member of the stronger political party A State Legislative Assembly holds equal legislative power with the upper house of state legislature, the State Legislative Council, except in the area of money bills in which case the State Legislative Assembly has the ultimate authority. A motion of no confidence against the government in the state can only be introduced in the State Legislative Assembly.
If it is passed by a majority vote the Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers must collectively resign. A money bill can only be introduced in State Legislative Assembly. In bicameral jurisdictions, after it is passed in the State Legislative Assembly, it is sent to the Vidhan Parishad, where it can be kept for a maximum time of 14 days. In matters related to ordinary bills, the will of Legislative Assembly prevails and there is no provision of joint sitting. In such cases, Legislative council can delay the legislation by maximum 4 months. † – In these fourteen legislative assemblies, one seat is reserved for the nominated Anglo-Indian member. ‡ – In Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly, two seats are reserved for the nominated women members. # – In Puducherry Legislative Assembly, three seats are reserved for the nominated members by the Union Government of India. Legislative assembly Legislative council State governments of India State Assembly elections in India Politics of India Legislative Bodies in India website Assembly constituency level publications website Laws of India website to download laws made by different states Punjab State Legislative Assembly Election Results 2012
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
Gaekwar's Baroda State Railway
Gaekwar's Baroda State Railway was a narrow gauge railway line owned by the Princely State of Baroda, ruled by the Gaekwar dynasty. The railway track has the distinction of being the first narrow-gauge line to be laid in British India, the first railway to be owned by any Princely State of India. In 1862, Maharaja Khanderao Gaekwad, the Maharaja of Baroda, inaugurated 8 miles of a 2 ft 6 in railway line from Dabhoi to Miyagam. Oxen were used to haul the train, although in 1863, Nielson & Co. built a locomotive to be operated on the line from Dabhoi to Miyagram, as the 6.5 km/m rails were not suited for the regular use of an engine. During the rule of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III, the railway's network was further expanded. In 1873, the Dabhoi-Miyagam line was re-laid with stronger rails to allow locomotives to be used, rather than oxen. However, locomotives were not used on the line until 1880. During the Maharaja's reign, railway network extended to Goyagate, Chandod and Samalaya Jn with Dabhoi as its focal point.
In 1949, the Gaikwad Baroda State Railway was merged with the Bombay and Central India Railway, subsequently merged in 1951 with other adjacent zones to form Western Railway. The Baroda State Railway is under conversion to broad gauge
New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah and Arizona. With a population around two million, New Mexico is the 36th state by population. With a total area of 121,592 sq mi, it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate; the economy of New Mexico is dependent on oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, lumber milling, retail trade. As of 2016–2017, its total gross domestic product was $95 billion with a GDP per capita of $45,465. New Mexico's status as a tax haven yields low to moderate personal income taxes on residents and military personnel, gives tax credits and exemptions to favorable industries; because of this, its film industry contributed $1.23 billion to its overall economy.
Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a large U. S. military presence marked notably with the White Sands Missile Range. Various U. S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in New Mexico such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. During the 1940s, Project Y of the Manhattan Project developed and built the country's first atomic bomb and nuclear test, Trinity. Inhabited by Native Americans for many thousands of years before European exploration, it was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 as part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1563, it was named Nuevo México after the Aztec Valley of Mexico by Spanish settlers, more than 250 years before the establishment and naming of the present-day country of Mexico. After Mexican independence in 1824, New Mexico became a Mexican territory with considerable autonomy; this autonomy was threatened, however, by the centralizing tendencies of the Mexican government from the 1830s onward, with rising tensions leading to the Revolt of 1837.
At the same time, the region became more economically dependent on the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, the United States annexed New Mexico as the U. S. New Mexico Territory, it was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. Its history has given New Mexico the highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans, the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a population proportion. New Mexico is home to part of the Navajo Nation, 19 federally recognized Pueblo communities of Puebloan peoples, three different federally recognized Apache tribes. In prehistoric times, the area was home to Ancestral Puebloans and the modern extant Comanche and Utes inhabited the state; the largest Hispanic and Latino groups represented include the Hispanos of New Mexico and Mexican Americans. The flag of New Mexico features the state's Spanish origins with the same scarlet and gold coloration as Spain's Cross of Burgundy, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Puebloan tribe.
These indigenous, Mexican and American frontier roots are reflected in the eponymous New Mexican cuisine and the New Mexico music genre. New Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. Though the name “Mexico” itself derives from Nahuatl, in that language it referred to the heartland of the Empire of the Mexicas in the Valley of Mexico far from the area of New Mexico, Spanish explorers used the term “Mexico” to name the region of New Mexico in 1563. In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande "San Felipe del Nuevo México"; the Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous Mexica cultures there similar to those of the Aztec Empire of the Valley of Mexico. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, proved to be unrelated to the Mexicas, they were not wealthy, but the name persisted. Before statehood, the name "New Mexico" was applied to various configurations of the U.
S. territory, to a Mexican state, to a province of New Spain, all in the same general area, but of varying extensions. With a total area of 121,699 square miles, the state is the fifth-largest state of the US, larger than British Isles. New Mexico's eastern border lies along 103°W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, 2.2 miles west of 103°W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that; the western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03'W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel; the 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in New Mexico's northwestern corner. New Mexico has no natural water sources
Kalol is a city in Gandhinagar district in the Indian state of Gujarat. Kalol is known as Industry City & Kalol is India's 34th Cleanest City as per 2017 Swachh Survey! As of 2011 India census, Kalol had a population of 133,737 with 63,839 females. Kalol is divided into four major areas: Kalol East Kalol center Kalol West New PanchvatiIn East side there are industries like Sintex,Bharat Vijay Mill among others and includes residential area, and in Center and West side, these both are residential areas. Center and West area is most developed area of Kalol. In Center, Shreenagar area and near Garden area, Vardhmannagar area is developed area of Kalol. West Panchwati area is developing area; the Cost of residence area is high in Center area and in West area of Kalol. Malls are situated in center area. New panchvati area is most developing area. Shree Sardar Patel Garden is well known garden of Kalol. Kalol has an average elevation of 81 metres; the city is situated between three major cities like Gandhinagar & Mehsana.
SH41 Highway passing through kalol. The city sits in north-central-East Gujarat. Kalol has a monsoon climate with three main seasons: summer and winter; the climate is dry and hot outside of the monsoon season. The weather is hot to hot from March to June when the maximum temperature stays in the range of 36 to 47 °C, the minimum in the range of 19 to 27 °C. Highest temperature of Kalol was 48.8 c in May 2016. It is warm from December to February, the average maximum temperature is around 29 °C, the average minimum is 14 °C, the climate is dry; the southwest monsoon brings a humid climate from mid-June to mid-September. The average annual rainfall is around 803.4 mm. Hindus are the largest religious community of the city. Other religious communities include Muslims, Christians and Jains; as per census of 2011 Kalol religion is like Hindu:- 81.5% Muslim:- 8.5% Christian:-2.9% Sikh:-3.1% Jain:-1.8% Others:-3.2% There are many Mosques and Temples spread around the town of Kalol. Major Hindu temples are situated in city area which includes: Satayanarayan Temple, Kapileshwar Mahadev Temple, Ambaji Temple, Bharat Sevashram Sangha and Gayatri Temples, whilst the famous Jamiyatpura Hanuman Temple in Jamiyatpura, is 10 km from Kalol and Tri-Mandir and Adalaj step well, at Adalaj cross road is 10 km from Kalol.
Other religious places like Gurudwara and Derasar are situated in different areas of Kalol. Near Tower, Ghanchiwad Mosque is Well known while in Kasba region, Shahi Jama Masjid is well known. Kalol lies between three cities: Ahmedabad and Mehsana making it an important city for transportation. Nearest Domestic & International Airport is Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport in nearby Ahmedabad is 30 km away from Kalol and provides connectivity with domestic flights to the Metropolitan and other major cities of India, it provides many International flights from Ahmedabad to across the world. 2nd nearest airport will become Mehsana but it is under construction! In short time it will operate by Authorities of India. Kalol Junction lies on the main railway line connecting Ahmedabad to Jaipur, Aburoad, New Delhi, Jodhpur and other North Indian states. Kalol Railway Station is on the Western Railways:Ahmedabad-Mehsana line; the main train connections include Ranakpur Express, Ahmedabad-Haridwar Yoga Express, Aravalli Express and Ahmedabad-Patan Passenger, Ahmedabad-Jaipur Passenger, Ahmedabad-Jodhpur Passenger,Ahmedabad-Aburoad Passenger etc.
Kalol junction is under construction of doubling line. Major road of Kalol is SH41, it has connect to major cities Ahmedabad & Mehsana and connected with Palanpur, Aburoad. Kalol is connected to Surat and Navi Mumbai through National Highway 8A, it is connected to Ahmedabad, Udaipur, New Delhi & Chandigarh through the National Highway 8C. Highway connecting to Mount Abu-Ambaji passes through the town; the Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation buses are available for all major cities of Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation facility is available at three bus stands in Kalol. 1) City Depot Bus Stand, 2) Ambica Nagar stand, 3) Work shop bus stand at Kalol is convenient to get transport for anywhere in Gujarat. By the GSRTC bus services Kalol is connected well north gujarat cities like Palanpur, Unjha, Himmatnagar, Radhanpur & Kadi. CNG auto-rickshaws are available for local transport. Ahmedabad to Kalol By Road Distance: 30 Kilometer and Gandhinagar to Kalol By Road Distance: 20 Kilometer, Mehsana to Kalol By Road Distance: 45 Kilometers, Palanpur to Kalol By Road Distance: 165 Kilometers IFFCO Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative is Gujarat's biggest industry, located at Kasturinagar Kalol.
An ONGC oil station is situated at Saij, Kalol. The town is an important industrial center with many industries near town of Chhatral. Sintex and Bharat Vijay Mill are situated in Kalol. Sintex is the largest manufacturer of plastic tanks in Asia, performs business all over Europe and America through its foreign acquisitions. Asahi Songwon Colors Limited leading Pigment Manufacturer of India has its head office at Chhatral besides its another manufactur
Chamunda known as Chagundi, Chamundeshwari and Rakta Kali is a fearsome form of Chandi, the Hindu Divine Mother and one of the seven Matrikas. She is one of the chief Yoginis, a group of sixty-six or eighty-six Tantric goddesses, who are attendants of the warrior goddess Durga; the name is two monsters whom Chamunda killed. She was invoked by Goddess Chandi to kill demons Munda. Though she is similar to Kali in appearance, she is not associated with Kali. Chamunda is an esoteric aspect of Durga in her Gandi form; the goddess is portrayed as haunting cremation grounds or fig trees. The goddess is worshipped by ritual animal sacrifices along with offerings of wine and in the ancient times, human sacrifices were offered too. A tribal goddess, Chamunda was assimilated in Hinduism and entered the Jain pantheon too. Though in Jainism, the rites of her worship include vegetarian offerings, not the meat and liquor offerings. Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar says that Chamunda was a tribal goddess, worshipped by the tribals of the Vindhya mountains in central India.
These tribes were known to offer goddesses animal as well as human sacrifices along with ritual offerings of liquor. These methods of worship were retained in Tantric worship of Chamunda, after assimilation in Hinduism, he proposes the fierce nature of this goddess is due of her association with Vedic Rudra, identified with fire god Agni at times. Wangu backs the theory of the tribal origins of the goddess. Apart from her popular names like Chamunda, Chamundeshwari and Rakta Kali she is known as Rudira Kali, Chanda Kali, Rudira Mala devi, Rudireshwari, Rakta Chamundi, Vir Kali, Ghalurika, Ugra Chandi, Kalari Devi and Ati bhaya Kali regionally in India and Nepal, she is popularly worshipped as the goddess of patron of martial arts like Kalaripayattu. The black or red coloured Chamunda is described as wearing a garland of severed skulls, she is described as having four, ten or twelve arms, holding a Damaru, sword, a snake, skull-mace, thunderbolt, a severed head and panapatra or skull-cup, filled with blood.
Standing on a corpse of a man or seated on a defeated demon or corpse. Chamunda is depicted adorned by ornaments of bones and serpents, she wears a Yajnopavita of skulls. She wears a jata mukuta, that is, headdress formed of piled, matted hair tied with snakes or skull ornaments. Sometimes, a crescent moon is seen on her head, her eye sockets are described as burning the world with flames. She is accompanied by evil spirits, she is shown to be surrounded by skeletons or ghosts and beasts like jackals, who are shown eating the flesh of the corpse which the goddess sits or stands on. The jackals and her fearsome companions are sometimes depicted as drinking blood from the skull-cup or blood dripping from the severed head, implying that Chamunda drinks the blood of the defeated enemies; this quality of drinking blood is a usual characteristic of all Matrikas, Chamunda in particular. At times, she is depicted seated on her vahana, her banner figures an eagle. These characteristics, a contrast to usual Hindu goddess depiction with full breasts and a beautiful face, are symbols of old age, death and destruction.
Chamunda is said as a form of Kali, representing old age and death. She appears as a frightening old woman, projecting horror. In Hindu scripture Devi Mahatmya, Chamunda emerged as Chandika Jayasundara from an eyebrow of goddess Kaushiki, a goddess created from "sheath" of Durga and was assigned the task of eliminating the demons Chanda and Munda, generals of demon kings Shumbha-Nishumbha, she fought a fierce battle with the demons killing them. According to a episode of the Devi Mahatmya, Durga created Matrikas from herself and with their help slaughtered the demon army of Shumbha-Nisumha. In this version, Kali is described as a Matrika who sucked all the blood of the demon Raktabija, from whose blood drop rose another demon. Kali is given the epithet Chamunda in the text. Thus, the Devi Mahatmya identifies Chamunda with Kali. In the Varaha Purana, the story of Raktabija is retold, but here each of Matrikas appears from the body of another Matrika. Chamunda appears from the foot of the lion-headed goddess Narasimhi.
Here, Chamunda is considered a representation of the vice of tale-telling. The Varaha Purana text mentions two separate goddesses Chamunda and Kali, unlike Devi Mahatmya. According to another legend, Chamunda appeared from the frown of the benign goddess Parvati to kill demons Chanda and Munda. Here, Chamunda is viewed as a form of Parvati; the Matsya Purana tells a different story of Chamunda's origins. She with other matrikas was created by Shiva to help him kill the demon Andhakasura, who has an ability - like Raktabija - to generate from his dripping blood. Chamunda with the other matrikas drinks the blood of the demon helping Shiva kill him. Ratnakara, in his text Haravijaya describes this feat of Chamunda, but credits Chamunda, not the other matrikas of sipping the blood of Andhaka. Having drunk the blood, Chamunda's complexion changed to blood-red; the text further says that Chamunda does a dance of destruction, playing a musical instrument whose shaft is Mount Meru, the spring is the cosmic snake Shesha and gourd is the crescent moon.
She plays the instrument during the deluge. Chamunda is one of the saptamatrika
Slovenia the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, it has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, of NATO; the capital and largest city is Ljubljana. Slovenia has a mountainous terrain with a continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate. Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia; the country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, significant karst underground watercourses.
Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Slovenia has been the crossroads of Slavic and Romance languages and cultures. Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority; the South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a secularized country, but Catholicism and Lutheranism have influenced its culture and identity; the economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has been influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009; the main economic field is services, followed by construction. The current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes and Serbs.
In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state. In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia became the first republic that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. In 2004, it entered the European Union. Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages; the etymology of Slav itself remains uncertain. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is derived from the word slovo denoting "people who speak," i. e. people who understand each other.
This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud; the modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee held on 19 February 1944. They named the state as Federal Slovenia, a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia, it retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia. On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is considered a kind of flute, the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.
In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon, such as pierced bones, bone points, a needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world, it shows that wooden wheels appeared simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situl