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Meiji Restoration

The Meiji Restoration, referred to at the time as the Honorable Restoration, known as the Meiji Renovation, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although there were ruling Emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan; the goals of the restored government were expressed by the new Emperor in the Charter Oath. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure and spanned both the late Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji period. During the Restoration, Japan industrialized and adopted western ideas and production methods; the Japanese knew they were behind the Western world when US Commodore Matthew C. Perry came to Japan in 1853 in large warships with armaments and technology that far outclassed those of Japan with the intent to conclude a treaty that would open up Japanese ports to trade.

Figures like Shimazu Nariakira concluded. Observing Japan's response to the Western powers, Chinese general Li Hongzhang considered Japan to be China's "principal security threat" as early as 1863, five years before the Meiji Restoration; the leaders of the Meiji Restoration, as this revolution came to be known, acted in the name of restoring imperial rule to strengthen Japan against the threat represented by the colonial powers of the day, bringing to an end the era known as sakoku. The word "Meiji" means "enlightened rule" and the goal was to combine "modern advances" with traditional "eastern" values; the main leaders of this were Itō Hirobumi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kido Takayoshi, Itagaki Taisuke, Yamagata Aritomo, Mori Arinori, Ōkubo Toshimichi, Yamaguchi Naoyoshi. The foundation of the Meiji Restoration was the 1866 Satsuma-Chōshū Alliance between Saigō Takamori and Kido Takayoshi, leaders of the reformist elements in the Satsuma Domain and Chōshū Domain; these two leaders supported the Emperor Kōmei and were brought together by Sakamoto Ryōma for the purpose of challenging the ruling Tokugawa shogunate and restoring the Emperor to power.

After Kōmei's death on January 30, 1867, Meiji ascended the throne on February 3. This period saw Japan change from being a feudal society to having a market economy and left the Japanese with a lingering influence of Modernity. In the same year, the koban was discontinued; the Tokugawa government had been founded in the 17th century and focused on reestablishing order in social and international affairs after a century of warfare. The political structure, established by Ieyasu and solidified under his two immediate successors, his son Hidetada and grandson Iemitsu, bound all daimyōs to the shogunate and limited any individual daimyō from acquiring too much land or power; the Tokugawa shogunate came to its official end on November 9, 1867, when Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the 15th Tokugawa shōgun, "put his prerogatives at the Emperor's disposal" and resigned 10 days later. This was the "restoration" of imperial rule – although Yoshinobu still had significant influence and it was not until January 3, the following year, with the young Emperor's edict, that the restoration occurred.

Shortly thereafter in January 1868, the Boshin War started with the Battle of Toba–Fushimi in which Chōshū and Satsuma's forces defeated the ex-shōgun's army. This forced the Emperor to strip Yoshinobu of all power. On January 3, 1868, the Emperor made a formal declaration of the restoration of his power: The Emperor of Japan announces to the sovereigns of all foreign countries and to their subjects that permission has been granted to the Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu to return the governing power in accordance with his own request. We shall henceforward exercise supreme authority in all the internal and external affairs of the country; the title of Emperor must be substituted for that of Taikun, in which the treaties have been made. Officers are being appointed by us to the conduct of foreign affairs, it is desirable. All Tokugawa lands were seized and placed under "imperial control", thus placing them under the prerogative of the new Meiji government. With Fuhanken sanchisei, the areas were split into three types: urban prefectures, rural prefectures and the existing domains.

In 1869, the daimyōs of the Tosa, Satsuma and Chōshū Domains, who were pushing most fiercely against the shogunate, were persuaded to "return their domains to the Emperor". Other daimyō were subsequently persuaded to do so, thus creating, arguably for the first time, a central government in Japan which exercised direct power through the entire "realm"; some shogunate forces escaped to Hokkaidō, where they attempted to set up a breakaway Republic of Ezo. The defeat of the armies of the former shōgun marked the final end of the Tokugawa shogunate, with the Emperor's power restored. By 1872, the daimyōs, past and present, were summoned before the Emperor, where it was declared that all domains were now to be returned to

Nurettin Canikli

Nurettin Canikli is a Turkish politician, the former Minister of National Defence of Turkey and a Member of Parliament for Giresun under the ruling Justice and Development Party. He also served as the Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey and the Minister of Customs and Trade of Turkey. After finishing the İmam Hatip school in Giresun, Canikli studied Economics at Ankara University graduating with a Bachelors's degree. Canikli obtained a Master's degree in Finance from University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom. Canikli worked in various positions in the Ministry of Finance, and worked as a columnist on a daily basis at the Turkish daily newspaper Yeni Şafak between 1997 and 2002. Canikli is a member of the founders’ council of the Justice and Development Party and was elected as Member of Parliament for the Giresun province at the Turkish general election on 3 November 2002, he served as the MP of Giresun province during the 23rd and 24th terms. In the 2007 and 2011 elections, he secured his seat in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.

On August 29, 2014, he was appointed Minister of Customs and Trade in the Cabinet of Ahmet Davutoğlu. Canikli is father of four children, he speaks English

List of schools in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans

This is a list of schools in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans. They are not all operated by the archdiocese. There are over 20 high schools within the archdiocese. Loyola University New Orleans Notre Dame Seminary Our Lady of Holy Cross College Xavier University of Louisiana Saint Joseph Seminary College Marrero The Academy of Our Lady - all-female Archbishop Shaw High School - all-maleMetairie Archbishop Chapelle High School - all-female Archbishop Rummel High School - all-male Laplace St. Charles Catholic High School - co-ed Covington Archbishop Hannan High School - co-ed St. Paul's School - all-male St. Scholastica Academy - all-femaleSlidell Pope John Paul II Catholic High School - co-ed Christian Brothers School Harvey St. Rosalie Middle SchoolMarrero Visitation of Our Lady School Belle Chasse Our Lady of Perpetual Help School Arabi St. Louise de Marillac School St. Robert Bellarmine School Chalmette Our Lady Of Prompt Succor School St. Mark School Destrehan St. Charles Borromeo SchoolNorco Sacred Heart of Jesus School Laplace Ascension of Our Lord School St. Joan of Arc SchoolReserve Our Lady of Grace School St. Peter School Covington St. Peter Catholic SchoolMandeville Mary Queen of Peace School Our Lady of the Lake SchoolSlidell Our Lady of Lourdes School St. Margaret Mary School Bogalusa Annunciation School St. Rosalie School St. Michael's Special School Hope Haven Special School St. Charles College - closed in 1922 Archbishop Blenk High School - merged in 2007 into The Academy of Our Lady Immaculata High School - merged in 2007 into The Academy of Our Lady Redeemer-Seton High School - closed in 2006 St. Agnes - closed in 2015 St. Anthony of Padua School - merging with Christian Brothers in the 2016-2017 school year Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans