Aniak is a city in the Bethel Census Area in the U. S. state of Alaska. At the 2010 census the population was 501, down from 572 in 2000. 61°34′44″N 159°33′1″W. Aniak is located on the south bank of the Kuskokwim River at the head of Aniak Slough, 59 miles southwest of Russian Mission in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, it lies 317 miles west of Anchorage. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.8 square miles, of which, 6.5 square miles of it is land and 2.3 square miles of it is water. Climate is continental in winter. Temperatures range between -55 and 87. Average yearly precipitation is 19 inches, with snowfall of 60 inches. Aniak first appeared on the 1940 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1972. As of the census of 2000, there were 572 people, 174 households, 133 families residing in the city; the population density was 87.8 people per square mile. There were 203 housing units at an average density of 31.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 25.00% White, 0.35% Black or African American, 68.36% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 5.77% from two or more races.
1.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 174 households out of which 51.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.9% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with 0 husbands present, 23.0% were non-families. 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.29 and the average family size was 3.74. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 40.9% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 4.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $41,875, the median income for a family was $43,750. Males had a median income of $37,708 versus $34,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,550.
About 11.8% of families and 14.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.4% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those age 65 or over. Aniak was the Yup'ik name for the area around present-day Aniak; the word means "the place where it comes out". By the time Russian explorers began making contact with the native population along the mid Kuskokwim valley in the early 19th century, the native village of Aniak had been deserted, it was believed by 20th century prospectors that the early Russian traders discovered gold in a tributary to the Kuskokwim called "Yellow River" in 1832. Many think. A mercury deposit was discovered by Russian traders near the trading post called Kolmakov Redoubt 22 miles east of Aniak in 1838. Placer gold was found by Russian traders in New York Creek 30 miles east of Aniak in 1844; the Russians however did not engage in any significant mining activities and it wasn't until after the purchase of Alaska in 1867 that the American prospectors began investigating the potential for prospecting along the Kuskokwim river.
A handful of prospecting parties began venturing into the area, however they had to travel great distances to an area where trading posts were few and far between, so the activity was limited given the exposure of other late 19th century strikes in Alaska which were better served by existing infrastructure. The euphoria caused by the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897-98 would set the stage for a change however with thousands of prospectors across the territory poised to make a rush upon rumor of each potential new strike. One such rush was the Yellow River Stampede of 1900 in which many prospectors left Nome to venture into the Kuskokwim basin upon rumors that someone had found the Yellow River strike despite the fact that the location of that strike was unknown. Finding precious little gold and experiencing substantial hardship, many of these folks would return to Nome following the difficult winter of 1901, but some stayed behind to continue their search. A 1906 gold discovery at the head of the Innoko River, a tributary of the Yukon River, caused another gold rush in 1907 with many of the prospectors choosing to access the site via the Kuskokwim River instead and trading posts were established at the Takotna River which required riverboat service to travel the Kuskokwim river.
With riverboat service now available on the Kuskokwim River, prospecting activity picked up and some strikes were starting to occur in the Kuskokwim basin. Strikes were made at Crooked Creek, George River, New York Creek, Aniak River among others. Most strikes were short lived. However, the Kuskokwim River was now seeing an increase in river traffic. In 1910, a lone prospector named "Old Man" Keeler found placer gold in the Aniak River basin. In 1911, three prospectors, Harry Buhro, E. W. "Kid" Fisher, Fred Labelle, working the George River area decided to give the Aniak River basin area a try and discovered gold at Marvel and Dome creeks. These creeks feed into the Aniak River about 50 miles south of Aniak. Prospectors would reach this site by poling up the river in boats, however, a difficult journey due to the nature of the river; the trip would take 15 to 20 days from the Kuskokwim river. By 1913, a hydraulic plant had been installed at Marvel Cree
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Fort Richardson (Alaska)
Fort Richardson is a United States Army installation in the U. S. state of Alaska, adjacent to the city of Anchorage. In 2010, it was merged with nearby Elmendorf Air Force Base to form Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson. Fort Richardson was named for the military pioneer explorer, Brig. Gen. Wilds P. Richardson, who served three tours of duty in the rugged Alaska territory between 1897 and 1917. Richardson, a native Texan and an 1884 West Point graduate, commanded troops along the Yukon River and supervised construction of Fort Egbert near Eagle, Fort William H. Seward near Haines; as head of the War Department's Alaska Road Commission from 1905 to 1917, he was responsible for much of the surveying and building of early railroads and bridges that helped the state’s settlement and growth. The Valdez-Fairbanks Trail, surveyed under his direction in 1904, was named the Richardson Highway in his honor. During World War II, Fort Richardson was used as a holding center for several family members of Alaskan Japanese Americans arrested after Pearl Harbor.
Fifteen Japanese Americans and two German Americans were interned here before being transferred to other camps. Built during 1940-1941 on the site of what is now Elmendorf Air Force Base and established as the headquarters of the United States Army, Alaska in 1947, the post moved to its present location five miles northeast of Anchorage in 1950; the post had barracks for 500 soldiers, a rifle range, a few warehouses, a hospital, bachelor officer quarters. From 1986-1994 the fort was headquarters of the 6th Infantry Division. Fort Richardson is now headquarters for United States Army Alaska, a subordinate unit of United States Army Pacific Command. For more than a decade, the major combat unit at Fort Richardson was Task Force 1-501, the only airborne infantry battalion in the Pacific Theater. Task Force 1-501 deployed to Afghanistan from October 2003 through August 2004; the majority of USARAK combat forces were at Fort Wainwright, 300 miles to the north, with Fort Richardson as the primary support base.
Fort Richardson appeared once on the 1970 U. S. Census as an unincorporated military reservation; because it was located within the confines of the Anchorage Census Division, it was consolidated into the City of Anchorage in 1975. During the Army's expansion following the September 11, 2001 attacks, Task Force 1-501 was expanded into an airborne brigade. Flagged as 4th Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division, the unit is now the primary strategic response force for the Pacific Theater, it comprises two infantry battalions, an engineer battalion, one cavalry squadron, a small artillery battalion, a support battalion. A full range of family and soldier support facilities common to any small Army community are found on post, ranging from a shoppette to childcare and recreational facilities; the post has small but modern dental and medical clinics, receives major medical services from the 3rd Medical Group hospital at Elmendorf. The Joint Military Mall located on Elmendorf, provides post exchange and commissary services.
The post’s largest military tenant is the Alaska National Guard, with facilities at Camp Carroll and Camp Denali. Fort Richardson hosts several non-military activities, including a United States National Cemetery and a state-owned fish hatchery. According to the Fort's website there are 5,418 soldiers, as well as over 8,300 family members housed at the base as of June 2008; the Fort employs about 1,200 Army and DOD civilian employees. Fort Richardson's military payroll for fiscal year 2003 was $85 million; the civilian payroll was $49 million. Including other expenditures of $111 million, Fort Richardson put more than $245 million into the local economy; the fort encompasses 84,000 acres }, which includes space for offices, family housing, a heliport, a drop zone suitable for airborne and air/land operations, firing ranges and other training areas. Nearby mountain ranges offer soldiers the opportunity to learn mountain/glacier warfare and rescue techniques; the post’s largest military tenant is the Alaska National Guard, with facilities at Camp Carroll and Camp Denali.
Fort Richardson hosts several non-military activities, including a United States National Cemetery and a state-owned fish hatchery. The fort encompasses 62,000 acres, which includes space for offices, family housing, a heliport, a drop zone suitable for airborne and air/land operations, firing ranges and other training areas. Nearby mountain ranges offer soldiers the opportunity to learn mountain/glacier warfare and rescue techniques; the Buckner Fieldhouse is a 3,500 seat multi-purpose arena on Fort Richardson. From 1978 to 1982, it was home to the Great Alaska Shootout basketball tournament, it was replaced as the Shootout venue when the Sullivan Arena opened in 1983. Along with the West Anchorage High School gymnasium and the former Anchorage Sports Arena on Fireweed Lane, the Buckner Fieldhouse served as a venue for various other events which moved to the Sullivan Arena and the William A. Egan Civic and Convention Center upon those facilities' completion. Under the base unification procedure, which began finalization in the summer of 2010, Elmendorf AFB and Fort Richardson were consolidated as a result of decisions made by the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission.
The combined base is known as Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson. Most of the current civilian base employees became Air Force employees as a result. Official website
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
United States Census
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States... according to their respective Numbers.... The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, within every subsequent Term of ten Years." Section 2 of the 14th Amendment states: "Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed." The United States Census Bureau is responsible for the United States Census. The Bureau of the Census is part of the United States Department of Commerce; the first census after the American Revolution was taken in 1790, under Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. The current national census was held in 2010. For years between the decennial censuses, the Census Bureau issues estimates made using surveys and statistical models, in particular, the American Community Survey.
Title 13 of the United States Code governs how its data is handled. Information is confidential as per 13 U. S. C. § 9. Refusing or neglecting to answer the census is punishable by fines of $100, for a property or business agent to fail to provide correct names for the census is punishable by fines of $500, for a business agent to provide false answers for the census is punishable by fines of $10,000, pursuant to 13 U. S. C. § 221-224. The United States Census is a population census, distinct from the U. S. Census of Agriculture, no longer the responsibility of the Census Bureau, it is distinct from local censuses conducted by some states or local jurisdictions. Decennial U. S. Census figures are based on actual counts of persons dwelling in U. S. residential structures. They include citizens, non-citizen legal residents, non-citizen long-term visitors and undocumented immigrants; the Census Bureau bases its decision about. Usual residence, a principle established by the Census Act of 1790, is defined as the place a person lives and sleeps most of the time.
The Census Bureau uses special procedures to ensure that those without conventional housing are counted. The Census uses hot deck imputation to assign data to housing units where occupation status is unknown; this practice is seen by some as controversial. However, the practice was ruled constitutional by the U. S. Supreme Court in Utah v. Evans. Certain American citizens living overseas are excluded from being counted in the census though they may vote. Only Americans living abroad who are "Federal employees and their dependents living overseas with them" are counted. "Private U. S. citizens living abroad who are not affiliated with the Federal government will not be included in the overseas counts. These overseas counts are used for reapportioning seats in the U. S. House of Representatives."According to the Census Bureau, "Census Day" has been April 1 since 1930. From 1790 to 1820, the census counted the population as of the first Monday in August, it moved to June in 1830, April 15 in 1910, January 1 in 1920.
The Census Bureau estimates that in 1970 over six percent of blacks went uncounted, whereas only around two percent of whites went uncounted. Democrats argue that modern sampling techniques should be used so that more accurate and complete data can be inferred. Republicans argue against such sampling techniques, stating the U. S. Constitution requires an "actual enumeration" for apportionment of House seats, that political appointees would be tempted to manipulate the sampling formulas. Groups like the Prison Policy Initiative assert that the census practice of counting prisoners as residents of prisons, not their pre-incarceration addresses, leads to misleading information about racial demographics and population numbers. In 2010 Jaime Grant director of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force's Policy Institute, thought of the idea of a bright pink sticker for people to stick on their census envelope which had a form for them to check a box for either "lesbian, bisexual, transgender or straight ally," which her group called "queering the census."
Although the sticker was unofficial and the results were not added to the census and others hope the 2020 census will include such statistics. In 2015 Laverne Cox called for transgender people to be counted in the census. On March 26, 2018 the U. S. Dept of Commerce announced plans to re-include a citizenship question in the 2020 census questionnaire which has not been included on the long form since 1950 but was part of the short form starting in 1910 until its removal in 2010; the citizenship question will be the same as the one, asked on the yearly American Community Survey. Proponents of including the question claimed it is necessary to gather an accurate statistical count, while opponents claimed it might suppress responses and therefore lead to an inaccurate count. Multiple states have sued the Trump administration arguing that the proposed citizenship question is unconstitutional and will intimidate immigrants, resulting in inaccurate data on minority communities. In January 2019 a federal judge in New York ruled against the proposal.
The Russian-American Company Under the Supreme Patronage of His Imperial Majesty was a state-sponsored chartered company formed on the basis of the United American Company. The company was chartered by Tsar Paul I in the Ukase of 1799, its mission was to establish new settlements in Russian America, conduct trade with natives, carry out an expanded colonization program. This was Russia's first joint-stock company, it came under the direct authority of the Ministry of Commerce of Imperial Russia; the Minister of Commerce Nikolai Petrovich Rumyantsev was a pivotal influence upon the early Company's affairs. In 1801, the company's headquarters were moved from Irkutsk to Saint Petersburg, the merchants who were the major stockholders were soon replaced by Russia's nobility and aristocracy. Count Rumyantsev funded Russia's first naval circumnavigation under the joint command of Adam Johann von Krusenstern and Nikolai Rezanov in 1803–1806, he funded and directed the voyage of the Ryurik's circumnavigation of 1814–1816, which provided substantial scientific information on Alaska's and California's flora and fauna, important ethnographic information on Alaskan and Californian natives.
During the Russian-California period when they operated Fort Ross, the Russians named present-day Bodega Bay, California as "Rumyantsev Bay" in his honor. In 1799 the Russian government appointed an official, with the title'Correspondent', to maintain oversight of company affairs, the first being Nikolai Rezanov; this role was soon expanded to a three-seat board of directors, with two elected by the stockholders and one appointed by the government. Additionally the directors had to send reports of the company's activities directly to the tsar, they appointed a Chief Manager of the company, stationed in North America to directly administer the forts, trade stations and outposts. Alexander Andreyevich Baranov was appointed as the first Chief Manager. During his tenure, he founded both Pavlovskaya and New Archangel, settlements that became operating bases for the company, he was replaced in 1818 by an officer appointed from the Imperial Russian Navy. The position of Chief Manager was thereafter reserved for Imperial Naval officers.
The Ukase of 1799 granted the company a monopoly over trade in Russian America, defined with a southern border of 55° N latitude. Tsar Alexander I in the Ukase of 1821 asserted its domain to 45°50′ N latitude, revised by 1822 to 51° N latitude; this border was challenged by both Great Britain and the United States, which resulted in the Russo-American Treaty of 1824 and the Russo-British Treaty of 1825. These established 54°40′ as the ostensible southward limit of Russian interests; the only attempt by the Russians to enforce the ukase of 1821 was the seizure of the U. S. brig Pearl in 1822, by the Russian sloop Apollon. The Pearl, a vessel of the maritime fur trade, was sailing from Boston, Massachusetts to New Archangel/Sitka; when the U. S. government protested, the Russians paid compensation. Due to treaty violations in 1833 with the British by the company's governor, Baron Ferdinand von Wrangel, the Russians leased the southeastern sector of what is now the Alaska Panhandle, to the Hudson's Bay Company in 1838 as part of a damages settlement.
The lease gave the HBC authority as far north as 56° 30' N. Under Baranov, who governed the region between 1790 and 1818, a permanent settlement was established in 1804 at "Novo-Arkhangelsk", a thriving maritime trade was organized. Alutiiq and Aleut men from the Kodiak and the Aleutian Islands were forcibly conscripted to work for the company for three-year periods because they were "among the most sophisticated and effective sea otter hunters in the world." During its initial years, the company had problems in maintaining a pool of skilled crewmen for its ships. The limited number of Russian men proficient in naval craft in the Empire sought employment in the Imperial Russian Navy; the RAC had difficulty recruiting men for naval training, in part due to the continued practise of serfdom in the Empire, which kept most peasants tied to the land. In 1802 the Imperial government directed the Imperial Navy to send officers for employment in the RAC, with half of their pay to come from the company.
Russian merchants were excluded from the port of Guangzhou and its valuable markets, something the RAC endeavoured to change. The company funded a circumnavigation that lasted from 1803 to 1806, with the goals of expanding Russian navigational knowledge, supplying the RAC stations, opening commercial relations with the Qing Empire. While the expedition did sell its wares at the Chinese port, "no noticeable progress" towards securing Russian trading rights was made during the next half century. Due to the closed Chinese ports, the RAC had to ship its furs to the Russian port of Okhotsk. From there caravans took more than a year to reach Ayan and the Siberian Route; the majority of the pelts were traded in Kyakhta, where Chinese trade goods, principally cotton and tea, were traded. Fort Elizabeth was built in Hawaii by Georg Anton Schäffer, an agent of the RAC, his actions to attempt to overthrow the Kingdom of Hawaii is known as the Schäffer affair. Over the course of the RAC's first decade of enterprise, its officials became concerned about American ships trading in adjacent coastal regions their sale of firearms to natives.
Throughout 1808 to 1810
Ivan Petrof was a Russian-born soldier and translator who for many years was regarded as a major authority on Alaska. According to historian Terrence Cole, Petrof "holds the distinction of telling more lies about Alaska that were believed for more years than any other person in history." Petrof's early history is obscure. He served in the United States Army 1867-1870, including service at Fort Kenai in Alaska as a translator, he re-enlisted in 1871 and subsequently deserted, though he obtained a special discharge through political influence. He worked for H. H. Bancroft starting in about 1874 and was an author of Bancroft's History of Alaska, he traveled to Sitka in 1878 to translate source material. According to Cole, a dozen of the documents he returned with were complete forgeries. Petrof was special agent of the United States Tenth Census for Alaska, he traveled extensively in Alaska and prepared the Report on the Population and Resources of Alaska, which forms 189 pages of Volume VIII of the Tenth Census, published in 1884.
This report and two general maps of Alaska were issued by the Census Office, one dated 1880 and the other 1882. Petrof's census results are still cited. A preliminary version of the report on the population and resources of Alaska was published early in 1881 as House of Representative Ex. Doc. No. 40, Forty-sixth Congress, third session. This report contains a general map of Alaska showing Petrof's travel route for his census work, he traveled through Kodiak, the Shumagin Islands, Belkofski, Unimak, the Pribilof Islands, St. Michael, he journeyed for considerable distances up the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers. After 1880 he lived in Alaska. From 1883-1887 he was assistant collector of Customs at Kodiak. Subsequently he was director of the 1890 census for Alaska. In 1892, while writing up the census results, he was asked to serve as a translator for the US State Department in connection with the Bering Sea Arbitration, it was discovered. This called his previous work into question. Subsequently it has been discovered that much of what he said and wrote about his own experience was false.
Petrof Bay on Kuiu Island in the Alaska Panhandle and Petrof Glacier on the Kenai Peninsula are named for Ivan Petrof. Journal of a Trip of Alaska, 1878 Map of Alaska and Adjoining Regions, 1880 Map of Alaska and Adjoining Regions, 1882 Report on the Population and Resources of Alaska, in the Volume VIII of the Tenth Census, published in 1884 Petroff Papers letters, in the Bancroft Library. Cole, Terrence "Klondike Literature" Columbia Magazine, Summer 2008: Vol. 22, No. 2 Ehler, Landis " Explorers of Katmai Country: Ivan Petroff" National Park Service blog. Foster, John Watson Diplomatic Memoirs, Volume 2 Houghton Mifflin Company pp 40-41 Haycox, Stephen Alaska: An American Colony University of Washington Press p 183. New York Times "A special agent's treachery" November 14, 1892 Sherwood, Morgan B. Exploration of Alaska 1865-1900 Yale University Press.. Chapter 4 "The enigmatic Ivan Petroff" p59 ff. https://www.nps.gov/katm/blogs/Explorers-of-Katmai-Country-Ivan-Petroff-1842-1896.htm