Beemer is a village in Cuming County, United States. The population was 678 at the 2010 census. S, according to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.40 square miles, all land. The first settlers of European descent arrived in the Beemer area by prairie schooner in 1864, the new inhabitants built dugouts, sod houses, eventually, log cabins. The first school in Beemer Township was taught by Mrs. William Sharp in 1867 in her log cabin, West of Beemer, a small stream called Rock Creek flows into the south side of the Elkhorn River. In 1865, August Lambrecht built a grain and flour mill on the creek about 1,000 feet from the river. Lambrechts mill, combined with the creek and with favorable conditions, attracted a small concentration of settlers. In 1871, the tracks of the Fremont and Missouri Valley Railroad, which followed the Elkhorn upstream from Fremont, reached Wisner, as the railway was extended, water stops were needed at 7-to-10-mile intervals to support the steam locomotives.
The railroad stops were served by telegraphs for the purpose of administering and controlling the railroad as well as development of the telegraphs. The telegraph station at the stop located at the site of present-day Beemer was named after the nearest significant settlement, Rock Creek. Mr. Beemer built the first rail depot building, and led the drive to build a bridge across the Elkhorn. His efforts on behalf of the area were rewarded in 1886, the first century was marked by spurious growth and numerous initiatives to develop Beemer. The Beemer Times, founded by A. D. Beemer around 1 March 1886, chronicled the times, the progress, the achievements, the disasters, five churches were established in Beemer during this era. The Methodist Episcopal Church was built at the northeast corner of Fifth and Beemer Streets, in 1904, it moved to a new building on the northwest corner of Third and Fraisier streets. The first St. Johns Lutheran Church building, with a 44-foot steeple, was built on the southeast corner of Third and Lambrecht streets, the Congregational Church at the northeast corner of Third and Canfield streets was dedicated January 14,1900.
The Holy Cross Roman Catholic Church, at the southwest corner of Sixth, the Mennonite Church at the southwest corner of Sherman and Fourth streets was dedicated on March 15,1959. The first Beemer Public School was held in a frame building located on the northest corner of Third. By 1886, in order to support its 32 enrolled pupils, the names of absent or tardy students were duly reported in the Beemer Times. In 1892, voters approved $10,000 in bonds for a modern brick school
1954 World Series
The 1954 World Series matched the National League champion New York Giants against the American League champion Cleveland Indians. Giants manager Leo Durocher, who had managed teams to three National League championships, won his first and only World Series title in his managerial career, after moving West, the San Francisco Giants would not win a World Series until the 2010 season. This was the first time the Cleveland Indians had been swept in a World Series and they had won four games without a loss in the 1922 World Series, but there was one tie. Game 4 was the last World Series and playoff game at Cleveland Stadium, the Indians did not return to the World Series or playoffs until 1995, the Indians, by winning the American League pennant, kept the Yankees from having a chance to win their sixth straight series. The last time the Yankees had not won the series or pennant beforehand was 1948, again and it was the only World Series from 1949 to 1958 which did not feature the Yankees. The Indians easily won the 1954 pennant on the strength of the American Leagues top pitching staff, leading the AL in team ERA at 2.72, pitchers Early Wynn and Bob Lemon were in top form, with solid contributions from Mike Garcia and Art Houtterman.
Bob Feller, at age 35, could only make 19 starts, Cleveland had potent hitting, leading the AL in home runs and finishing second in runs scored, although the team managed just 30 stolen bases in 63 attempts. Bobby Ávila led the offense with 112 runs and a.341 average, while Larry Doby, defensively catcher Jim Hegan made only four errors in 134 games and threw out 44% of would-be base stealers. The New York Giants entered the World Series with a top pitching staff as well, with Johnny Antonelli, Rubén Gómez. The Giants relied more heavily on relief pitching with Hoyt Wilhelm and Marv Grissom rounding out a staff led the NL in team ERA at 3.09. Manager Leo Durocher used a solid, consistent lineup with all his starters, except for the catching position, Willie Mays led an offense that featured Don Meuller, Al Dark, Hank Thompson and pinch-hitter extraordinaire Dusty Rhodes. NL New York Giants vs. AL Cleveland Indians Cleveland got on the board first and fast, leadoff man Al Smith was hit by a pitch, Bobby Ávila singled and Vic Wertz brought home both with a triple to right.
Bob Lemon gave two back in the third on singles by Whitey Lockman and Alvin Dark, a walk to Willie Mays, and that was that until the 10th inning. Mays saved the day in the eighth after leadoff singles by Larry Doby, wertzs drive to deep center field would have scored both if not for Mayss memorable catch. Lemon went all the way for Cleveland, losing it in the 10th when Dusty Rhodes, once again, the visitors started quickly, couldnt hold onto their lead. Smiths leadoff homer off Johnny Antonelli put Cleveland up 1-0 before a lot of Polo Grounds fans had settled into their seats. Early Wynn preserved that lead until the inning, but after Mays and Thompson singles, once again Rhodes pinch-hit for Irvin and came through. Antonelli himself got the run home against his counterpart, scoring Thompson on a groundout
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams now play in the National League and American League, the NL and AL operated as separate legal entities from 1876 and 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining legally separate entities since 1903, the merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000. The organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises about 240 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs, with the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseballs first professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869,30 years after Abner Doubleday supposedly invented the game of baseball, the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who often jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era, Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, and survived potential downturns during the Great Depression, shortly after the war, baseballs color barrier was broken by Jackie Robinson. The 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL, new stadiums, Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, and media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, today, MLB is composed of thirty teams, twenty-nine in the United States and one in Canada. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America, MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution and this document has undergone several incarnations since 1875, with the most recent revisions being made in 2012.
Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sports umpiring crews, and negotiates marketing, labor, MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball. This ruling has been weakened only slightly in subsequent years, the weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLBs primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916, the last attempt at a new league was the aborted Continental League in 1960. The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner, Rob Manfred, the chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives, chief officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer. The multimedia branch of MLB, which is based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media and this branch oversees MLB. com and each of the 30 teams websites. Its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, MLB Productions is a similarly structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media
Major League Baseball All-Star Game
The game usually occurs on either the second or third Tuesday in July, and is meant to mark a symbolic halfway-point in the MLB season. Both of the major leagues share a common All-Star break, with no games scheduled on the day before or two days after the All-Star Game itself. Some additional events and festivities associated with the game take place each year close to, no official MLB All-Star Game was held in 1945 including the official selection of players due to World War II travel restrictions. The first All-Star Game was held on July 6,1933 as part of the 1933 Worlds Fair in Chicago, at Comiskey Park and was initiated by Arch Ward, initially intended to be a one-time event, its great success resulted in making the game an annual one. The venue for the All-Star Game is chosen by Major League Baseball, the criteria for the venue are subjective, cities with new ballparks and those who have not hosted the game in a long time—or ever—tend to get selected. New York City has hosted more than any city, having done so nine times in five different stadiums.
At the same time, the New York Mets failed to host for 48 seasons, in the first two decades of the game there were two pairs of teams that shared ballparks, located in Philadelphia and St. Louis. This led to some shorter-than-usual gaps between the use of venues, The Cardinals hosted the game in 1940, and the Browns in 1948. The Athletics hosted the game in 1943, and the Phillies in 1952, the venues traditionally alternate between the American League and National League every year. This tradition has been several times, The first time was in 1951. Detroit Tigers were chosen to host the game as part of the citys 250th birthday. The second was when the format during the 1959–1962 seasons resulted in the A. L. being one game ahead in turn. This was corrected in 2007, when the N. L, San Francisco Giants were the host for the 2007 All-Star Game, which set up the 2008 game to be held at the A. L. s Yankee Stadium in its final season. This decision was made following the announcement of Miami as host for the 2017 All Star Game, the coaching staff for each team is selected by its manager.
This honor is given to the manager, not the team and this happened in 2003, when Dusty Baker managed the National League team despite having moved from the National League champion San Francisco Giants to the Chicago Cubs. This has included situations where the person is no longer actively managing a team, mcGraw came out of retirement for that purpose. Dick Williams resigned after managing the Oakland Athletics to the 1973 World Series, in 1974, he became manager of the California Angels, whose uniform he wore for the game. Tony La Russa, who managed the World Series champion St. Louis Cardinals in 2011, in 1979, Bob Lemon managed the American League team after having been fired by New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner
Early Wynn Jr. nicknamed Gus, was an American Major League Baseball right-handed pitcher. He pitched for the Washington Senators, Cleveland Indians, and Chicago White Sox during his 23-year major league career and he was identified as one of the most intimidating pitchers in the game with his powerful fastball combined with a hard attitude towards batters. Wynn was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1972, Wynn was born in Alabama and signed with the Senators at the age of 17, deciding to pursue baseball instead of finishing high school. He spent a couple of seasons in the leagues, had a brief major league stint in 1939, returned to the major leagues in 1941. He missed the 1945 MLB season and a portion of the season while serving in the United States Army during the latter part of World War II. Wynn was a member of one of baseballs best pitching rotations along with Bob Feller, Mike Garcia and he won the 1959 Cy Young Award, beginning to rely on the knuckleball as the velocity of his pitches declined.
He finished with exactly 300 career wins, he had spent several months in pursuit of his 300th win, Wynn served as a coach and broadcaster in the major leagues after his retirement as a player. In 1999, he was included on The Sporting News list of the 100 greatest players in baseball history and he died that year in an assisted living facility following heart related problems and a stroke. Wynn was born in Hartford, the son of Blanche Wynn and Early Wynn Sr. an automobile mechanic and he excelled at both football and baseball in high school. As a sophomore, Wynn was about to become the top running back at his school when he suffered a leg on a punt return. The injury forced him out of football and focused his attention on baseball, Wynn described it as my best break ever. When he was a teenager, Wynn attended a session in Florida for the Washington Senators. He impressed Senators coach Clyde Milan enough that the organization offered him a league contract. Wynn signed with Washington for $100 per month and decided not to high school.
Between 1937 and 1939, Wynn pitched minor league baseball in the Florida State League, Wynn made his MLB debut in 1939, appearing in only three games before returning to the minor leagues for 1940. He made it back to the leagues in 1941, starting five games, completing four of them. Wynn was named to Washingtons four-man pitching rotation in 1942 and he pitched 30 games that season, finishing with a 10-16 record and a 5.12 earned run average. The next season, in 37 games, he finished 18-12 with a 2.91 ERA and he led the league in losses in 1944, compiling an 8-17 record
The American League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or simply the American League, is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball in the United States and Canada. It developed from the Western League, a league based in the Great Lakes states. It is sometimes called the Junior Circuit because it claimed Major League status for the 1901 season,25 years after the formation of the National League. At the end of season, the American League champion plays in the World Series against the National League champion. Through 2016, American League teams have won 64 of the 112 World Series played since 1903, the 2016 American League champions are the Cleveland Indians. The New York Yankees have won 40 American League titles, the most in the history, followed by the Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics. Originally a minor league known as the Western League, the American League developed into a major league after the American Association disbanded, in its early history, the Western League struggled until 1894, when Ban Johnson became the president of the league.
Johnson led the Western League into major league status and soon became the president of the newly renamed American League, babe Ruth, noted as one of the most prolific hitters in Major League Baseball history, spent the majority of his career in the American League. The American League has one notable difference versus the National League, in 1902, the Milwaukee Brewers moved to St. Louis and were renamed the St. Louis Browns. In 1902, The Cleveland Bluebirds were renamed the Cleveland Broncos, in 1903, the Broncos were renamed the Cleveland Naps. In 1915, the Naps were renamed the Cleveland Indians, in 1903, the Baltimore Orioles moved to New York and were renamed the New York Highlanders. In 1913, the Highlanders were renamed the New York Yankees, in 1904, the Chicago White Stockings were renamed the Chicago White Sox. In 1908, the Boston Americans were renamed the Boston Red Sox, in 1954, the St. Louis Browns moved to Baltimore and were renamed as the Baltimore Orioles. In 1955, the Philadelphia Athletics moved to Kansas City and were renamed as the Kansas City Athletics, in 1961, the league expanded and added two teams as the Los Angeles Angels and the Washington Senators, expanding the league to 10 teams.
The original Senators team moved to Minneapolis/St, Paul in 1961 and were renamed as the Minnesota Twins. The Angels team name changed to the California Angels in 1966, to the Anaheim Angels in 1997, the Kansas City Royals and the Seattle Pilots were added to the American League, expanding the league to 12 teams. In 1970, the Seattle Pilots moved to Milwaukee and were renamed the Milwaukee Brewers, in 1972, the Washington Senators relocated to the Dallas/Fort Worth area and were renamed the Texas Rangers. In 1977, the league expanded to fourteen teams, when the Seattle Mariners, in 1998, the Tampa Bay Rays was added to the American League and at the same time, the Milwaukee Brewers were switched to the National League, leaving the American League with 14 teams
In baseball or softball, a strikeout occurs when a batter accumulates three strikes during a time at bat. It usually means the batter is out, a strikeout is a statistic recorded for both pitchers and batters, and is denoted by K. Although a strikeout suggests that the pitcher dominated the batter, the style that generates home runs leaves batters susceptible to striking out. Some of the greatest home run hitters of all time — such as Alex Rodriguez, Gorman Thomas, Reggie Jackson, and Sammy Sosa — were notorious for striking out. A pitched ball is ruled a ball by the if the batter did not swing at it and, in that umpires judgment. Any pitch at which the batter swings or, that in that umpires judgment passes through the zone, is ruled a strike. Each ball and strike affects the count, which is incremented for each pitched ball with the exception of a ball on any count with two strikes. That is, a strike may only occur by the batter swinging and missing at a pitched ball. A pitched ball that is struck by the batter with the bat on any count, a batter may strike out by bunting, even if the ball is hit into foul territory.
In Japan, this is called furinige, or swing and escape, in Major League Baseball, it is known as an uncaught third strike. When this happens, a strikeout is recorded for both the pitcher and the batter, but no out is recorded, because of this, a pitcher may occasionally be able to record more than three strikeouts in one half-inning. In baseball scorekeeping, a strikeout is recorded as a K. A strikeout looking is often scored with a backward K, and sometimes as a K-L, CK, despite the scorekeeping custom of using K for strikeout, SO is the official abbreviation used by Major League Baseball. K is still used by fans and enthusiasts for purposes other than official record-keeping. The K may be placed backward in cases where the batter strikes out looking, the use of K for a strikeout was invented by Henry Chadwick, a newspaper journalist who is widely credited as the originator of the box score and the baseball scorecard. As is true in much of baseball, both the box score and scorecard remain largely unchanged to this day, Chadwick decided to use K, the last letter in struck, since the letter S was used for sacrifice.
Chadwick was responsible for several other scorekeeping conventions, including the use of numbers to designate player positions and those unaware of Chadwicks contributions have speculated that K was derived from the last name of 19th century pitcher Matt Kilroy. If not for the evidence supporting Chadwicks earlier use of K, Kilroy raised the prominence of the strikeout, setting an all-time single-season record of 513 strikeouts in 1886, only two years after overhand pitching was permitted
Mike Garcia (baseball, born 1923)
Edward Miguel Mike Garcia, nicknamed Big Bear and Mexican Mike, was an American right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball. Garcia was born in San Gabriel and grew up in Orosi and he entered minor league baseball at the age of 18. After one season, he joined the U. S. Army, following his military discharge, Garcia returned to baseball. He was promoted to the MLB in 1948 and he played 12 of his 14 major league seasons for the Cleveland Indians. From 1949 to 1954, Garcia joined Bob Lemon, Early Wynn, historians consider the Big Four to be one of the greatest starting pitching rotations in baseball history. During those six seasons with the Big Four, Garcia compiled a record of 104 wins against 57 losses and he had two 20-win seasons and led the American League in earned run average and shutouts twice each. Garcias best season came in 1954 when the Indians won a league record 111 games, Baseball historian Stephen Lombardi said that Garcia may have been the best AL pitcher that year. Garcia remained with the Indians until 1959, but never duplicated the success he had achieved in 1954, in his last five seasons with Cleveland, he finished with losing records three times.
After leaving the Indians, Garcia spent a season with the Chicago White Sox, Garcia retired from baseball in 1961. He developed diabetes within a few years and suffered from kidney disease, Garcia died outside of Cleveland at the age of 62 and was buried in his home state of California. Baseball experts and former teammates have commented on Garcias overpowering pitching, his control and his low ERA. Garcia was born in San Gabriel. He grew up on a ranch in Orosi, where his Indigenous Mexican father, Merced Garcia, mikes father raised horses, and Mike aspired to race them. He participated in one race and was thrown from the horse, Garcia played four years of high school baseball, the first three years at Orosi High School and the last at Visalia High School. Garcia was pitching in baseball when Cleveland Indians scout Willis Butler noticed him in Tulare. In 1942, Butler signed him as a free agent to the organizations Class D farm team. Garcia earned a 10–10 win–loss record with Appleton and he spent the next three years as a signalman in the United States Army during World War II.
Garcia was discharged from the Army at the age of 22 and he played for the Class C Bakersfield Indians of the California League. With Bakersfield, Garcias ERA and strikeouts led the league and he earned 22 wins, in 1947 he joined the Cleveland Indians during spring training, but he was assigned to the Class A Wilkes-Barre Barons of the Eastern League by Cleveland coach Bill McKechnie
Herbert Jude Score was an American Major League Baseball pitcher and announcer. He pitched for the Cleveland Indians and Chicago White Sox from 1955 through 1962 and he was television and radio broadcaster for the Cleveland Indians from 1964–1997. Score was inducted into the Cleveland Indians Hall of Fame in 2006, Herb Score was born in Rosedale New York in 1933. At 3, he was run over by a truck and had rheumatic fever, as a teenager, he starting playing basketball and baseball at Holy Name of Mary School until he moved with his family to Lake Worth, Florida. In 1952, he threw six no-hitters for the Lake Worth Community High School baseball team, on June 7,1952, his 19th birthday, he signed a baseball contract with the Cleveland Indians. He was sent to Indianapolis of the American Association where he made 10 pitching starts, in 1953, he moved to Clevelands Class A affiliate, Reading of the Eastern League. There he met and became friends with future outfielder Rocky Colavito from the Bronx. For the 1954 season, both were promoted to Triple-A Indianapolis, Score was named The Sporting News Minor League Player of the Year and began to be referred to as left-handed Bob Feller.
In 1955, Score came up to the Major Leagues as a rookie with the Cleveland Indians at the age of 21 and he appeared on the cover of Sports Illustrated magazine on May 30,1955. Score struck out 245 batters in 1955, a Major League rookie record that stood until 1984 and it was the first time in MLB history a regular starting pitcher averaged over one strikeout per inning. On May 7,1957, during the first inning of a game against the New York Yankees at Municipal Stadium in Cleveland. McDougald lined the pitch to the mound and struck Score in the face, breaking Scores facial bones, the ball caromed to third baseman Al Smith, who threw McDougald out before rushing to the pitching mound to Scores aid. McDougald, seeing Score hit by the baseball and lying down and injured, ran immediately to the mound, instead of first base. McDougald reportedly vowed to retire if Score permanently lost his sight in one eye as a result of the accident, Score eventually recovered his 20/20 vision, though he missed the rest of the season.
He returned early in the 1958 season, though many believe Score feared being hit by another batted ball, and thus changed his pitching motion, Score himself rejected that theory. In 1959, hed shifted his pitching motion in a bid to avoid another, the reason my motion changed, Score told Pluto, was because I hurt my elbow, and I overcompensated for it and ended up with some bad habits. As a result of the changes Score made in his delivery, his velocity dropped. Score pitched the full 1959 season, going 9–11 with a 4.71 ERA and 147 strikeouts, in the book The Greatest Team Of All Time, Mickey Mantle picked Herb Score as the toughest American League left-handed pitcher he faced
Charles Herbert Red Ruffing was an American professional baseball player. A pitcher, he played in Major League Baseball from 1924 through 1947 and he played for the Boston Red Sox, New York Yankees, and Chicago White Sox. Ruffing is most remembered for his time with the highly successful Yankees teams of the 1930s and 1940s, Ruffing dropped out of school as a child to work in a coal mine in his native Illinois. He played for the company baseball team as an outfielder. After he lost four toes from his foot in a mining accident, he became unable to run in the field. He played in minor baseball in 1923 and 1924 before making his MLB debut with the Red Sox. After struggling with Boston, pitching to a 36–93 win–loss record, the Red Sox traded Ruffing to the Yankees, after one season with the White Sox, Ruffing retired from pitching to work in coaching. He served as a coach for the White Sox, a pitching coach for the New York Mets. Ruffing was a member of six World Series championship teams with the Yankees and he appeared in six MLB All-Star Games.
He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1967, the Yankees dedicated a plaque to Ruffing in Monument Park in 2004. Ruffing was born on May 3,1905, in Granville and he was one of five children. His parents and Louise Ruffing, emigrated to the United States from Germany, Ruffing was raised in Coalton and Nokomis, Illinois. He went to school in Nokomis and his father was a coal miner, working in a mine in Coalton, until he suffered a broken back. John became the superintendent of the mine, and served as mayor of Coalton, Red quit school at the age of 13 to work for his father in the mine, earning $3 per day, working as a coupler. Conditions in the mine were dangerous, reds cousin, who worked in the mine, died in an accident. He played baseball as an outfielder and first baseman for the company team. When Ruffing was 15 years old, he suffered an accident in the mine, though the doctor was able to save his foot, Red lost four toes. He was supposed to begin his baseball career in the Kentucky–Illinois–Tennessee League that year
1948 World Series
The 1948 World Series matched the Cleveland Indians against the Boston Braves. Though superstar pitcher Bob Feller failed to win either of his two starts, the Indians won the Series in six games to capture their second championship and their first since 1920. Consequently, this was the first, and to date only, television coverage of the World Series increased this year, but due to the medium still being in its infancy coverage was strictly regional. This was the only World Series from 1947 to 1958 not to feature a New York team, the teams would meet again in the 1995 World Series won by the Braves—by relocated to Atlanta. Feller walked Braves catcher Bill Salkeld to open the inning, Braves manager, Billy Southworth replaced the slow-footed Salkeld with Phil Masi, who entered the game as a pinch runner. Mike McCormick followed with a bunt, advancing Masi to second base. Feller issued a walk to Eddie Stanky, who was replaced by Sibby Sisti. Feller tried to pick off Masi at second base, Indians shortstop Lou Boudreau appeared to tag Masi out, but umpire Bill Stewart called him safe.
Tommy Holmes proceeded to hit a single that allowed Masi to score the run of the game. The umpires controversial ruling touched off heated debates among the media and fans, although Feller allowed only two hits, he took the loss in what would be the closest he ever came to winning a World Series game. Upon his death in 1990, Masis will revealed that he really was out on the pick-off play. C. and New York City, an Associated Press reporter observing the demonstration said, Technically, it was surprisingly good. For the third game, no home runs were hit by either team. This would not happen again in a World Series until 2014, satchel Paige appeared for the Indians, becoming the first black pitcher to take the mound in World Series history. The previous days single-game attendance record was broken with 86,288 fans,1948 World Series, Cleveland Indians over Boston Braves Cohen, Richard M. Neft, David S. The World Series, Complete Play-By-Play of Every Game, 1903–1989, archived from the original on 2008.
Baseballs Best,1948 World Series Audio, Game 5 radio broadcast, part 1 Audio, Game 5 radio broadcast, part 2 Audio, Game 5 radio broadcast, part 3 Audio, Game 5 radio broadcast, part 4
Relief pitchers are further divided informally into various roles, such as closers, set-up relief pitchers, middle relief pitchers, left/right-handed specialists, and long relievers. A teams staff of relievers is normally referred to metonymically as a teams bullpen, which refers to the area where the relievers sit during games, in the early days of Major League Baseball, substituting a player was not allowed except for sickness or injury. An ineffective pitcher would switch positions with another player on the field, the first relief appearance in the major leagues was in 1876 with Boston Red Caps outfielder Jack Manning switching positions with pitcher Joe Borden. In this early era, relief pitchers changing from a role to the pitchers box in this way were often called change pitchers. This strategy of switching players between the mound and the outfield is still employed in modern baseball, sometimes in long extra inning games where a team is running out of players. In 1889, the first bullpen appearance occurred after rules were changed to allow a player substitution at any time, early relief pitchers were normally starting pitchers pitching one or two innings in between starts.
In 1903, during the game of the inaugural World Series. Firpo Marberry is credited with being the first prominent reliever, from 1923 to 1935, he pitched in 551 games,364 of which were in relief. Baseball historian Bill James wrote that Marberry was a modern reliever—a hard throwing young kid who worked strictly in relief, worked often, another reliever, Johnny Murphy, became known as Fireman for his effectiveness when inserted into difficult situations in relief. Nonetheless, the full-time reliever who was entrusted with important situations was more the exception than the rule at this point, often, a teams ace starting pitcher was used in between his starts to close games. Later research would reveal that Lefty Grove would have been in his leagues top three in saves in four different seasons, had that stat been invented at the time, gradually after World War II, full-time relievers became more acceptable and standard. The relievers were usually pitchers that were not good enough to be starters, relievers in the 1950s started to develop oddball pitches to distinguish them from starters.
For example, Hoyt Wilhelm threw a knuckleball, and Elroy Face threw a forkball, in 1969, the pitchers mound was lowered and umpires were encouraged to call fewer strikes to give batters an advantage. Relief specialists were used to counter the increase in offense, relievers became more respected in the 1970s, and their pay increased due to free agency. All teams began having a closer, the 1980s were the first time in MLB that the number of saves outnumbered complete games. In 1995, there were nearly four saves for every complete game and it is unclear whether the specialization and reliance on relief pitchers led to pitch counts and fewer complete games, or whether pitch counts led to greater use of relievers. As closers were reduced to one-inning specialists, setup men and middle relievers became more prominent, in past decades, the relief pitcher was merely an ex-starter who came into a game upon the injury, ineffectiveness, or fatigue of the starting pitcher. The bullpen was for old starters who had lost the ability to throw effectively, many of these pitchers would be able to flourish in this diminished role