Sumatra is a large island in western Indonesia, part of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island, located in Indonesia and the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2. Sumatra is an elongated landmass spanning a diagonal northwest-southeast axis; the Indian Ocean borders the west and southwest coasts of Sumatra with the island chain of Simeulue and Mentawai off the western coast. In the northeast the narrow Strait of Malacca separates the island from the Malay Peninsula, an extension of the Eurasian continent. In the southeast the narrow Sunda Strait separates Sumatra from Java; the northern tip of Sumatra borders the Andaman Islands, while off the southeastern coast lie the islands of Bangka and Belitung, Karimata Strait and the Java Sea. The Bukit Barisan mountains, which contain several active volcanoes, form the backbone of the island, while the northeastern area contains large plains and lowlands with swamps, mangrove forest and complex river systems; the equator crosses the island at its center in West Riau provinces.
The climate of the island is tropical and humid. Lush tropical rain forest once dominated the landscape. Sumatra has a wide range of plant and animal species but has lost 50% of its tropical rainforest in the last 35 years. Many species are now critically endangered, such as the Sumatran ground cuckoo, the Sumatran tiger, the Sumatran elephant, the Sumatran rhinoceros, the Sumatran orangutan. Deforestation on the island has resulted in serious seasonal smoke haze over neighbouring countries, such as the 2013 Southeast Asian haze causing considerable tensions between Indonesia and affected countries Malaysia and Singapore. Sumatra was known in ancient times by the Sanskrit names of Swarnadwīpa and Swarnabhūmi, because of the gold deposits in the island's highlands; the first mention of the name of Sumatra was in the name of Srivijayan Haji Sumatrabhumi, who sent an envoy to China in 1017. Arab geographers referred to the island as Lamri in the tenth through thirteenth centuries, in reference to a kingdom near modern-day Banda Aceh, the first landfall for traders.
The island is known by other names namely, Andalas or Percha Island. Late in the 14th century the name Sumatra became popular in reference to the kingdom of Samudra Pasai, a rising power until replaced by the Sultanate of Aceh. Sultan Alauddin Shah of Aceh, in letters addressed to Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1602, referred to himself as "king of Aceh and Samudra"; the word itself is from Sanskrit "Samudra", meaning "gathering together of waters, sea or ocean". Marco Polo named the kingdom Samara or Samarcha in the late 13th century, while the 14th century traveller Odoric of Pordenone used Sumoltra for Samudra. Subsequent European writers used similar forms of the name for the entire island. European writers in the 19th century found that the indigenous inhabitants did not have a name for the island; the Melayu Kingdom was absorbed by Srivijaya. Srivijayan influence waned in the 11th century after it was defeated by the Chola Empire of southern India. At the same time, Islam made its way to Sumatra through Arabs and Indian traders in the 6th and 7th centuries AD.
By the late 13th century, the monarch of the Samudra kingdom had converted to Islam. Marco Polo visited the island in 1292. Ibn Battuta visited with the sultan for 15 days, noting the city of Samudra was "a fine, big city with wooden walls and towers," and another 2 months on his return journey. Samudra was succeeded by the powerful Aceh Sultanate. With the coming of the Dutch, the many Sumatran princely states fell under their control. Aceh, in the north, was the major obstacle, as the Dutch were involved in the long and costly Aceh War; the Free Aceh Movement fought against Indonesian government forces in the Aceh Insurgency from 1976 to 2005. Security crackdowns in 2001 and 2002 resulted in several thousand civilian deaths; the longest axis of the island runs 1,790 km northwest–southeast, crossing the equator near the centre. At its widest point, the island spans 435 km; the interior of the island is dominated by two geographical regions: the Barisan Mountains in the west and swampy plains in the east.
Sumatra is the closest Indonesian island to mainland Asia. To the southeast is Java, separated by the Sunda Strait. To the north is the Malay Peninsula, separated by the Strait of Malacca. To the east is Borneo, across the Karimata Strait. West of the island is the Indian Ocean; the Great Sumatran fault, the Sunda megathrust, run the entire length of the island along its west coast. On 26 December 2004, the western coast and islands of Sumatra Aceh province, were struck by a tsunami following the Indian Ocean earthquake; this was the longest earthquake recorded, lasting between 600 seconds. More than 170,000 Indonesians were killed in Aceh. Other recent earthquakes to strike Sumatra include the 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake and the 2010 Mentawai earthquake and tsunami. To the east, big rivers carry silt from the mountains, forming the vast lowland interspersed by swamps. If unsuitable for farming, the area is of great economic importance for Indonesia, it produces oil from both above and below the soil -- petroleum.
Sumatra is the largest producer of Indonesian coffee. Small-holders grow Arabica coffee in the highlands, while Rob
History Jambi is a province of Indonesia. It is located on spans to the Barisan Mountains in the west, its capital and largest city is Jambi. The province has a land area of 50,058 km2, it has a population of 3,092,265 according to the 2010 Census. Jambi was the site of the Srivijayan kingdom that engaged in trade throughout the Strait of Malacca and beyond. Jambi succeeded its southern economic and military rival, as the capital of the kingdom; the movement of the capital to Jambi was induced by the 1025 raid by pirates from the Chola region of southern India, which destroyed much of Palembang. In the early decades of the Dutch presence in the region, when the Dutch were one of several traders competing with the British, Chinese and Malays, the Jambi Sultanate profited from trade in pepper with the Dutch; this relationship declined by about 1770, the sultanate had little contact with the Dutch for about sixty years. In 1833, minor conflicts with the Dutch who were well established in Palembang, meant the Dutch felt the need to control the actions of Jambi.
They coerced Sultan Facharudin to agree to greater Dutch presence in the region and control over trade, although the sultanate remained nominally independent. In 1858 the Dutch concerned over the risk of competition for control from other foreign powers, invaded Jambi with a force from their capital Batavia, they met little resistance, Sultan Taha fled upriver, to the inland regions of Jambi. The Dutch installed Nazarudin, in the lower region, which included the capital city. For the next forty years Taha maintained the upriver kingdom, reextended his influence over the lower regions through political agreements and marriage connections. In 1904, the Dutch were stronger and, as a part of a larger campaign to consolidate control over the entire archipelago, soldiers managed to capture and kill Taha, in 1906, the entire area was brought under direct colonial management. Following the death of Jambi sultan, Taha Saifuddin, on 27 April 1904 and the success of the Dutch controlled areas of the Sultanate of Jambi, Jambi set as the Residency and entry into the territory Nederlandsch Indie.
Jambi's first Resident OL Helfrich was appointed by the Governor General under Dutch Decree No. 20, dated 4 May 1906 with his inauguration held on 2 July 1906. Jambi province is divided into nine regencies and two cities, listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census and according to the latest estimates; the official language of Jambi province is Indonesian as in all parts of Indonesia. However Jambi is home to several indigenous languages and dialects such as Jambi Malay, Kerinci language, Kubu language, Lempur Malay, Rantau Panjang Malay, all of which are Malayan languages. Due to transmigration policy, many ethnic groups from various parts of Indonesia Java, Borneo and other parts of Sumatra brought their native languages as well; the non-Pribumi people such as the Chinese Indonesians speak several varieties of Chinese. Kerinci Seblat National ParkThe largest of the three national parks comprising the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra, Kerinci Seblat has the distinction of being the second-largest national park in all of Southeast Asia, only after Lorentz National Park on Papua.
It is one of the Sumatran Tiger's last strongholds on the island, within its borders sits the highest active volcano in Southeast Asia - Mount Kerinci. Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds May 2011: The Jambi provincial administration is striving to have the ancient Muaro Jambi temple site at Muaro Jambi village in Maro Sebo District, Muaro Jambi Regency, recognized as a world heritage site; the site was a Buddhist education centre that flourished during the 7th and 8th centuries and is made from bricks similar to those used in Buddhist temples in India. Islam is the largest religion in beign practised by 96.5 % of the population. Minority religions are Christianity with 3%, Buddhism 0.97%, Confucianism 0.05% and Hinduism 0.25% of the population. Putri Tangguk, a Malay traditional folklore originated from Jambi Locher-Scholten, Elsbeth. 1993. Rivals and rituals in Jambi, South Sumatra. Modern Asian Studies 27:573-591. Official government site Fan site
Tarumanagara or Taruma Kingdom or just Taruma is an early Sundanese Indianised kingdom, whose 5th-century ruler, produced the earliest known inscriptions on Java island. The kingdom was located not far from modern Jakarta, according to Tugu inscription Purnavarman built a canal that changed the course of the Cakung River, drained a coastal area for agriculture and settlement. In his inscriptions, Purnavarman associated himself with Vishnu, Brahmins ritually secured the hydraulic project. Tarumanagara is believed was existed between 358–669 CE in Western Java region, in and around modern day Bogor and Jakarta corresponds to modern Greater Jakarta area; the earliest known written records of Tarumanagara existence were inscribed in stone inscriptions. Inscribed stone is called prasasti in Indonesian. Numbers of stone inscriptions dated from Tarumanagara period was discovered in Western Java region. In 1863, Dutch East Indies, a huge boulder of inscribed stone was spotted near Ciampea not far from Buitenzorg.
The stone inscription was discovered on the river bed of Ciaruteun river, a tributary of Cisadane River. It is today known as the Ciaruteun inscription, dated from the 5th century, written in Vengi letters and in Sanskrit language; this is the earliest inscription that mentioned the kingdom's name "Tarumanagara". The inscription reports the most famous king of Tarumanagara. Located nearby is the Prasasti Kebon Kopi I called Telapak Gadjah stone, with an inscription and the engraving of two large elephant footprints; the inscription read: These elephant foot soles, akin to those of the strong Airavata, belongs to Tarumanagara King, successful and full of control. Not only stones testify of the existence of his Tarumanagara kingdom. There are Chinese historical sources, since Tarumanagara maintained extended trade and diplomatic relations in the territory stretching between India and China; the Chinese Buddhist Monk Fa Xian reported in his book fo-kuo-chi that he stayed on the island of Ye-po-ti, most the western part of Java island, for six months, from December 412 until May 413.
He reported that the Law of Buddha was not much known, but that the Brahmans flourished, heretics too. Between the period 528 to 669, Tarumanagara sent their embassy to Chinese court; the kingdom was mentioned in the annals of the Sui dynasty, the king of To-lo-mo has sent diplomatic mission, which arrived in China in 528 and 535. It was mentioned; the annals of Tang dynasty mentioned in the year 666 and 669 the envoys of To-lo-ma has visited the court of Tang. The name Tarumanagara was found in several inscriptions in the Western Java region dated from circa 4th century; the Chinese chronicle recorded the name To-lo-ma or To-lo-mo which suggest the Chinese pronunciation of "Taruma". Tarumanagara means the kingdom of Taruma; the name "Taruma" itself is connected to the Citarum River of West Java. In Sundanese language, ci means river while tarum means indigo plant. Tarum is local name of indigo plant. According to the book Nusantara, Maharshi Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman founded the Tarumanagara kingdom in 358.
Jayasingawarman originated from Salankayana, India that collapsed after the invasion of Samudragupta from Gupta Empire. After re-settling in Western Java, he married a Sundanese princess daughter of King Dewawarman VIII of Salakanagara, he was buried at the bank of Kali Gomati river. His son, Dharmayawarman ruled from 382 to 395, his burial site is at Chandrabaga river. His grandson Purnawarman was the third king of Tarumanagara and reigned from 395 to 434. Book Nusantara, parwa II sarga 3 notes that under the reign of King Purnawarman, Tarumanagara held control over 48 small kingdoms with area stretching from Salakanagara or Rajatapura to Purwalingga. Traditionally Cipamali river was the border between Java. In 397, King Purnawarman established a new capital city for the kingdom, located near to a beach, called Sunda Pura meaning Holy Town or Pure Town. Thus, word “Sunda” was introduced for the first time by King Purnawarman in 397. Sunda Pura could have been near present-day Bekasi, he left seven memorial stones with inscriptions bearing his name spread across current Banten and West Java provinces.
The prasasti tugu, a few years older than the Parasasti Ciaruteun, is considered the oldest of all the inscriptions. There are more stones with inscriptions from the time of some close to Bogor city, they are Prasasti Muara Cianten, Prasasti Pasir Awi, Prasasti Cidanghiang, Parasasti Jambu. Prasasti Cidanghiang, consisting of two lines, proclaiming Purnawarman as the standard for rulers around the world. Prasasti Jambu, with a two-line inscription in Pallava/Sanskrit, bears the large footprints of the king; the inscription translates as: The name of the king, famous of faithfully executing his duties and, incomparable is Sri Purnawarman who reigns Taruma. His armour cannot be penetrated by the arrows of his enemies; the prints of the foot soles belong to him, always successful to destroy the fortresses of his enemies, was always charitable and gave honorable receptions to those who are loyal to him and hostile to his enemies. Purnawarman is the most well-known king of Tarumanagara because he produced quite a number of
The Kingdom of Bali was a series of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms that once ruled some parts of the volcanic island of Bali, in Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. With a history of native Balinese kingship spanning from the early 10th to early 20th centuries, Balinese kingdoms demonstrated sophisticated Balinese court culture where native elements of spirit and ancestral reverence combined with Hindu influences – adopted from India through ancient Java intermediary – flourished and shaped the Balinese culture; because of its proximity and close cultural relations with the neighbouring Java island during the Indonesian Hindu-Buddhist period, the history of Bali Kingdom was intertwined and influenced by its Javanese counterparts, from Medang c. 9th century to Majapahit empire in 13th to 15th centuries. The culture, language and architecture of the island was influenced by Java. Javanese influences and presences grew stronger prompted with the fall of Majapahit empire in the late 15th century. After the empire fell to its Muslim vassal of Demak Sultanate, a number of Hindu Majapahit courtiers, nobles and artisans, found refuge on the island of Bali.
As a result, Bali became what historian Ramesh Chandra Majumdar describes as the last stronghold of Indo-Javanese culture and civilisation. The Balinese Kingdom in subsequent centuries expanded their influence to neighbouring islands; the Balinese Kingdom of Gelgel for example extended their influences to Blambangan region in eastern end of Java, neighbouring island of Lombok, as far as western part of Sumbawa island, while Karangasem established their rule on western Lombok in period. Since the mid-19th century, the colonial state of Dutch East Indies began its involvements in Bali, as they launched their campaign against Balinese minor kingdoms one by one. By the early 20th century, the Dutch has completed their conquest of Bali as these minor kingdoms fell under their control, either by force resulted in Puputan fighting followed by mass ritual suicide, or surrendered graciously to the Dutch. Either way, despite some of these Balinese royal houses still surviving, these events ended a millennium of the native Balinese independent kingdoms, as the local government changed to Dutch colonial administration, to provincial government of Bali within the Republic of Indonesia.
Bali has been inhabited by humans since Paleolithic times, testified by the finding of ancient tools such as hand axes in Sembiran and Trunyan villages in Bali. Followed by Mesolithic period. Bronze Age period follows, from around 600 BCE to 800 CE; the historical period in Bali started c. 8th century, marked by the discovery of inscribed Buddhist votive clay tablets. These Buddhist votive tablets, found in small clay stupa figurines called "stupikas", are the first known written inscriptions in Bali and date from around the 8th century CE; such stupikas have been found in the regency of Gianyar, in the villages of Pejeng and Blahbatuh. The bell-shaped stupikas bears resemblances to the style of the 8th-century stupas of Central Javanese Buddhist art found in Borobudur and other Buddhist temples dated from that period, which suggested the Sailendra link to the Buddhist pilgrims or inhabitant of early Bali's history. In the early 10th century, Sri Kesari Warmadewa created the Belanjong pillar inscription found near the southern strip of Sanur beach.
It was the oldest written inscription created by a ruler found in Bali. The pillar dated in 836 saka. According to the inscription, Sri Kesari was a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty that led a military expedition, to establishing a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali. Two other inscription by Kesari are known in the interior Bali, which suggest conflicts in the mountainous interior of the island. Sri Kesari is considered as the founder as the Warmadewa dynasty, the earliest known ruler of Bali, which prospered for several generations prior to Javanese expansion, it seems that the centre of early court of Bali was first located in Sanur area east of today Denpasar city, the political and cultural centre moved inland to the north, clustered around southern plain within today Gianyar Regency. The stone cave temple and bathing place of Goa Gajah, near Ubud in Gianyar, was made around the same period, it shows a combination of Hindu Shivaite iconography. Several carvings of stupas and image of Boddhisattvas suggested that Warmadewa dynasty was the patron of Mahayana Buddhism.
Hinduism is practised in Bali during this period. In the second half of the 10th century, Bali was ruled by king Udayana Warmadewa and his queen, Mahendradatta, a princess of Isyana dynasty from East Java. Mahendradatta was the daughter of king Sri Makutawangsawarddhana, sister of king Dharmawangsa of Medang Kingdom; the presence of a Javanese queen in the Balinese court suggested that either Bali had formed an alliance with East Java, or Bali was Java's vassal. The royal Balinese couple was the parents of the famous king of Airlangga. Airlangga's younger brothers Marakata and Anak Wungçu rose to the Balinese throne; the rock-cut candi shrine of Gunung Kawi in Tampaksiring was made around the same period. It demonstrates similar temple style of Java during the late Medang period; the Warmadewa dynasty continued to rule Bali well until the
Indonesian National Revolution
The Indonesian National Revolution, or Indonesian War of Independence, was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia. It took place between Indonesia's declaration of independence in 1945 and the Netherlands' recognition of Indonesia's independence at the end of 1949; the four-year struggle involved sporadic but bloody armed conflict, internal Indonesian political and communal upheavals, two major international diplomatic interventions. Dutch military forces were able to control the major towns and industrial assets in Republican heartlands on Java and Sumatra but could not control the countryside. By 1949, international pressure on the Netherlands and the partial military stalemate became such that it recognised Indonesian independence; the revolution marked the end of the colonial administration of the Dutch East Indies, except for Netherlands New Guinea. It significantly changed ethnic castes as well as reducing the power of many of the local rulers.
It did not improve the economic or political fortune of the majority of the population, although a few Indonesians were able to gain a larger role in commerce. The Indonesian independence movement began in May 1908, commemorated as the "Day of National Awakening". Indonesian nationalism and movements supporting independence from Dutch colonialism, such as Budi Utomo, the Indonesian National Party, Sarekat Islam and the Indonesian Communist Party, grew in the first half of the 20th century. Budi Utomo, Sarekat Islam and others pursued strategies of co-operation by joining the Dutch initiated Volksraad in the hope that Indonesia would be granted self-rule. Others chose a non-cooperative strategy demanding the freedom of self-government from the Dutch East Indies colony; the most notable of these leaders were Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, two students and nationalist leaders who had benefited from the educational reforms of the Dutch Ethical Policy. The occupation of Indonesia by Japan for three and a half years during World War II was a crucial factor in the subsequent revolution.
The Netherlands had little ability to defend its colony against the Japanese army, within only three months of their initial attacks, the Japanese had occupied the Dutch East Indies. In Java, to a lesser extent in Sumatra, the Japanese spread and encouraged nationalist sentiment. Although this was done more for Japanese political advantage than from altruistic support of Indonesian independence, this support created new Indonesian institutions and elevated political leaders such as Sukarno. Just as for the subsequent revolution, the Japanese destroyed and replaced much of the Dutch-created economic and political infrastructure. On 7 September 1944, with the war going badly for the Japanese, Prime Minister Koiso promised independence for Indonesia, but no date was set. For supporters of Sukarno, this announcement was seen as vindication for his collaboration with the Japanese. Under pressure from radical and politicised pemuda groups and Hatta proclaimed Indonesian independence, on 17 August 1945, two days after the Japanese Emperor's surrender in the Pacific.
The following day, the Central Indonesian National Committee elected Sukarno as President, Hatta as Vice-President. PROCLAMATION We, the people of Indonesia, hereby declare the independence of Indonesia. Matters which concern the transfer of power etc. will be executed by careful means and in the shortest possible time. Djakarta, 17 August 1945 In the name of the people of Indonesia, Soekarno—Hatta It was mid-September before news of the declaration of independence spread to the outer islands, many Indonesians far from the capital Jakarta did not believe it; as the news spread, most Indonesians came to regard themselves as pro-Republican, a mood of revolution swept across the country. External power had shifted; these strikes were only broken in July 1946. The Japanese, on the other hand, were required by the terms of the surrender to both lay down their arms and maintain order; the resulting power vacuums in the weeks following the Japanese surrender, created an atmosphere of uncertainty, but one of opportunity for the Republicans.
Many pemuda joined pro-Republic struggle groups. The most disciplined were disbanded Giyugun and Heiho groups. Many groups were undisciplined, due to both the circumstances of their formation and what they perceived as revolutionary spirit. In the first weeks, Japanese troops withdrew from urban areas to avoid confrontations. By September 1945, control of major infrastructure installations, including railway stations and trams in Java's largest cities, had been taken over by Republican pemuda who encountered little Japanese resistance. To spread the revolutionary message, pemuda set up their own radio stations and newspapers, graffiti proclaimed the nationalist sentiment. On most islands, struggle committees and militia were set up. Republican newspa
Kediri or Kadiri was a Hindu Javanese Kingdom based in East Java from 1042 to around 1222. Despite the lack of archaeological remains, the age of Kediri saw much development in classical literature. Mpu Sedah's Kakawin Bharatayuddha, Mpu Panuluh's Gatotkacasraya, Mpu Dharmaja's Smaradhana blossomed in this era; the kingdom's capital is believed to have been established in the western part of the Brantas River valley, somewhere near modern Kediri city and surrounding Kediri Regency. The name "Kediri" or "Kadiri" derived from Sanskrit word Khadri which means Indian Mulberry, locally known as pacé or mengkudu tree; the bark of morinda produces a brownish-purplish dye for batik-making, while its fruit have medicinal values. Similar named city known, Kadiri in Andhra Pradesh, India; the kingdom was known as Panjalu as the twin kingdom with Jenggala. During the reign of Jayakatwang that revived the short-lived second dynasty of Kadiri, the kingdom is known as Gelang-gelang or Gegelang. Other than Kadiri, the kingdom was often referred to as Daha or Dahana, after its capital.
The name "Daha" was used in Majapahit period, as the seat of rival court of Trowulan. The Kingdom of Kediri is the successor of Airlangga's Kahuripan kingdom, thought as the continuation of Isyana Dynasty in Java. In 1045, Airlangga divided his kingdom of Kahuripan into two and Panjalu, abdicated in favour of his sons to live as an ascetic, he died four years later. The first king of Kediri to leave historical records was Çri Jayawarşa Digjaya Çāstaprabhu. In his inscription dated 1104, like Airlangga, he claimed himself to be the incarnation or Avatar of Vishnu; the second king was Kameçvara. His formal stylised name was Çri Maharaja Rake Sirikan çri Kameçvara Sakalabhuwanatustikarana Sarwaniwaryyawiryya Parakrama Digjayottunggadewa; the Lanchana of his reign was a skull with a crescent moon called chandrakapala, the symbol of Shiva. During his reign, Mpu Dharmaja wrote Smaradhana, in which the king was adored as the incarnation of Kamajaya, the god of love, his capital city Dahana was admired throughout the known world.
Kameçvara's wife, Çri Kirana, was celebrated as the incarnation of Kamaratih, goddess of love and passion. The tales of this story, known as Panji cycle, spread throughout Southeast Asia as far as Siam. Jayabhaya succeeded Kameçwara, his formal stylised name was Çri Maharaja çri Dharmmeçwara Madhusudanawataranindita Suhrtsingha Parakrama Digjayottunggadewa. The Lanchana of his reign was Narasingha; the name Jayabhaya was immortalised in Sedah's Kakawin Bharatayuddha, a Javanese version of the Mahabharata, written in 1157. This Kakawin was perfected by Mpu Panuluh. Mpu Panuluh wrote Gatotkacasraya. Jayabhaya's reign was considered the golden age of Old Javanese literature; the Prelambang Joyoboyo, a prophetic book ascribed to Jayabhaya, is well known among Javanese. It predicted that the archipelago would be ruled by a white race for a long time a yellow race for a short time be glorious again; the Jayabhaya prophecies mention Ratu Adil, the Just Prince, a recurring popular figure in Javanese folklore.
During the reign, Ternate was a vassal state of Kediri. Jayabhaya's successor was Sarwweçwara, followed by Aryyeçwara, who used Ganesha as his royal Lanchana; the next monarch was Gandra. An inscription from his reign documents the beginning of the adoption of animal names for important officials, such as Kbo Salawah, Menjangan Puguh, Lembu Agra, Gajah Kuning, Macan Putih. Among these ranked officials mentioned in the inscription, there is a title Senapati Sarwwajala, or laksmana, a title reserved for navy generals, which means that Kediri had a navy during his reign. From 1190 to 1200, King Çrngga ruled Kediri, with the official name Çri maharaja çri Sarwweçwara Triwikramawataranindita Çrngga lancana Digwijayottunggadewa, he used a cangkha on a crescent moon as his royal seal. The last king of Kediri was Kertajaya, his royal seal was the same as Airlangga's. In 1222 he was forced to surrender his throne to Ken Arok and so lost the sovereignty of his kingdom to the new kingdom of Singhasari; this was the result of his defeat at the battle of Ganter.
This event marked the end of Kediri era, the beginning of the Singhasari era. According to Jiyu and Petak inscriptions, during the end of Majapahit era in the 15th century, there was a brief resurrection of Daha as the centre of political power, led by Girindrawardhana in 1478 after he managed to defeat Kertabhumi, but it short lived since descendant of Kertabhumi who became ruler of Demak crushed Daha in 1527. The Kediri kingdom existed alongside the Srivijaya empire based in Sumatra throughout 11th to 12th-century, seems to have maintained trade relations with China and to some extent India. Chinese account identify this kingdom as Tsao-wa or Chao-wa, numbers of Chinese records signify that Chinese explorers and traders frequented this kingdom. Relations with India were cultural one, as numbers of Javanese rakawi wrote literatures that been inspired by Hindu mythology and epics such as Mahabharata and Ramayana. In 11th-century, Srivijayan hegemony in Indonesian archipelago began to decline, marked by Rajendra Chola invasion to Malay Peninsula and Sumatra.
The Chola king of Coromandel conquered Kedah from Srivijaya. The weakening of Srivijayan hegemony has enabled the formation of regional kingdoms, like Kediri, based on agriculture rather than trade. Ke
Economic history of Indonesia
The economic history of Indonesia is shaped by its geographic location, its natural resources, as well as its people that inhabited the archipelagic realm that today formed the modern nation of the Republic of Indonesia. The foreign contacts and international trades with foreign counterparts had shaped and sealed the fate of Indonesian archipelago, as Indians, Chinese and European traders reached the archipelago during the Age of Exploration and participated in spice trade and conquest. By the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company, one of the earliest multinational companies in the world's economic history, had established their base in Indonesian archipelago as they monopolised spice trade from the archipelago. By 1800 the Dutch East Indies colonial state had emerged and benefited from cash crop trades of coffee, quinine and palm oil from the colony from the mining sector: oil, coal and copper; the colonial state would be succeeded by the Indonesian Republic after World War II.
By the early 21st century, Indonesia rose to be the largest economy in Southeast Asia, as one of the emerging market economies of the world, a member of G-20 major economies and classified as a newly industrialised country. The economy of most of villages and polities in the archipelago relied on rice agriculture, as well as trading of forests products. Ancient kingdoms such as the Tarumanagara and Mataram were dependent on tax; the archipelago since a long time ago was known for its abundance of natural resources. This foreign contact was started by small Indianised trading kingdoms in the early 4th century that nurtured contacts with other major civilisations in Asian mainland. Benefited by its strategic location on thriving maritime trade route between India and China, polities in Indonesian archipelago soon would grow into a thriving and cosmopolitan trading empire such as Srivijaya that rose in the 7th century. In the world of commerce, Srivijaya rose to be a far-flung empire controlling the two passages between India and China, namely the Sunda Strait from Palembang and the Malacca strait from Kedah.
Arab accounts state that the empire of the maharaja was so vast that in two years the swiftest vessel could not travel round all its islands, which produced camphor, cloves, nutmegs and cubebs, ivory and tin, making the maharaja as rich as any king in India. Other than fostering the lucrative trade relations with India and China, Srivijaya established commerce link with Arabia. Possible, a messenger sent by Maharaja Sri Indravarman to deliver his letter for Caliph Umar ibn AbdulAziz of Ummayad in 718, was returned to Srivijaya with Zanji, the Caliph's present for maharaja; the Chinese chronicle mentioned about Che-li-t'o-lo-pa-mo, Maharaja of Shih-li-fo-shih in 724 had sent the emperor a ts'engchi as a gift. Srivijaya would continue to dominate the economy of the Indonesian archipelago until declined in the 13th century. In 14th century Java, the Majapahit kingdom would grow into a maritime empire that would control the trade and economy of the archipelago for another centuries. According to Chinese source from Ming Dynasty, Yingya Shenglan, Ma Huan reported the Javanese economy and market.
Rice is harvested twice a year, its grain is small. They harvest white sesame and lentils, but there is no wheat; this land produces sapan wood, sandalwood, puyang pepper, steel, tortoise shell and rare birds. The beasts here are strange: there are white deer, white monkey, various other animals. Pigs, cattle, horses and there are all types of ducks. For the fruits, there are all kinds of bananas, sugarcane, lotus, mang-chi-shi and lang Ch'a. In addition, all types of squash and vegetables are there. Taxes and fines were paid in cash. Javanese economy had been monetised since the late 8th century, using gold and silver coins; the 9th century Wonoboyo hoard discovered in Central Java shows that ancient Javan gold coins were seed-shaped, similar to corn, while the silver coins were similar to buttons. In about the year 1300, in the reign of Majapahit's first king, an important change took place: the indigenous coinage was replaced by imported Chinese copper cash. About 10,388 ancient Chinese coins weighing about 40 kg were unearthed from the backyard of a local commoner in Sidoarjo in November 2008.
Indonesian Ancient Relics Conservation Bureau of East Java verified that those coins dated as early as Majapahit era. The reason for using foreign currency is not given in any source, but most scholars assume it was due to the increasing complexity of Javanese economy and a desire for a currency system that used much smaller denominations suitable for use in everyday market transactions; this was a role for which gold and silver