Melbourne Airport

Melbourne Airport, colloquially known as Tullamarine Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Melbourne, the second busiest airport in Australia. It opened in 1970 to replace the nearby Essendon Airport. Melbourne Airport is the main international airport of the four airports serving the Melbourne metropolitan area, the other international airport being Avalon Airport; the airport comprises four terminals: one international terminal, two domestic terminals and one budget domestic terminal. It is 23 kilometres northwest of the city centre, adjacent to the suburb of Tullamarine; the airport has its own postcode -- Melbourne Airport, Victoria. In 2016–17 around 25 million domestic passengers and 10 million international passengers used the airport; the Melbourne–Sydney air route is the third most-travelled passenger air route in the world. The airport features direct flights to 33 domestic destinations and to destinations in the Pacific, Asia, North America and South America. Melbourne Airport is the number one arrival/departure point for the airports of four of Australia's eight other capital cities.

Melbourne serves as a major hub for Qantas and Virgin Australia, while Jetstar Airways and Tigerair Australia utilise the airport as home base. Domestically, Melbourne serves as headquarters for Australian airExpress and Toll Priority and handles more domestic freight than any other airport in the nation. Before the opening of Melbourne Airport, Melbourne's main airport was Essendon Airport, designated an international airport in 1950. In the mid-1950s, over 10,000 passengers were using Essendon Airport, its limitations were beginning to become apparent. Essendon's facilities were insufficient to meet the increasing demand for air travel. By the mid-1950s, an international overflow terminal was built in a new northern hangar; the airport could not be expanded. The search for a replacement for Essendon commenced in February 1958, when a panel was appointed to assess Melbourne's civil aviation needs. In 1959, the Commonwealth Government acquired 5,300 ha of grassland in then-rural Tullamarine. In May 1959 it was announced that a new airport would be built at Tullamarine, with Prime Minister Robert Menzies announcing on 27 November 1962 a five-year plan to provide Melbourne with a A$45 million "jetport" by 1967.

The first sod at Tullamarine was turned two years in November 1964. In line with the five-year plan, the runways at Essendon were expanded to handle larger aircraft, with Ansett Australia launching the Boeing 727 there in October 1964, the first jet aircraft used for domestic air travel in Australia. On 1 July 1970, Prime Minister John Gorton opened Melbourne Airport to international operations ending Essendon's near two decade run as Melbourne's international airport. Essendon still was home to domestic flights for one year, until they transferred to Melbourne Airport on 26 June 1971, with the first arrival of a Boeing 747 occurring that year. In the first year of operations, Melbourne handled six international airlines and 155,275 international passengers. Melbourne Airport was called'Melbourne International Airport', it is at a name derived from the indigenous name Tullamareena. Locally, the airport is referred to as Tullamarine or as Tulla to distinguish the airport from the other three Melbourne airports: Avalon and Moorabbin.

On opening, Melbourne Airport consisted of three connected terminals: International in the centre, with Ansett to the South and Trans Australia Airlines to the North. The design capacity of the airport was eight Boeing 707s at a rate of 500 passengers per hour, with minor expansion works completed in 1973 allowing Boeing 747s to serve the airport. By the late 1980s peak passenger flows at the airport had reached 900 per hour, causing major congestion. In late 1989, Federal Airports Corporation Inspector A. Rohead was put in charge of a bicentennial project to rename streets in Melbourne Airport to honour the original inhabitants, European pioneers and aviation history. Information on the first two categories was provided by Ian Hunter, Wurundjeri researcher, Ray Gibb, local historian; the project was completed but was shelved, with the only suggested name, Gowrie Park Drive, being allocated, named after the farm at the heart of the airport. During the 1920s, the farm had been used as a landing site for aircraft, which were parked at night during World War II in case Essendon Aerodrome was bombed.

In 1988, the Australian Government formed the Federal Airports Corporation, placing Melbourne Airport under the operational control of the new corporation along with 21 other airports around the nation. The FAC undertook a number of upgrades at the airport; the first major upgrades were carried out at the domestic terminals, with an expansion of the Ansett domestic terminal approved in 1989 and completed in 1991, adding a second pier for use by smaller regional airlines. Work on an upgrade of the international terminal commenced in 1991, with the'SkyPlaza' retail complex completed in late 1993 on a site flanking the main international departure gates; the rest of the work was completed in 1995, when the new three-level satellite concourse was opened at the end of the existing concourse. Diamond shaped and measuring 80 m on each side, the additional 10 aerobridges provided by the expansion doubled the international passenger handing capacity at Melbourne Airport. In April 1994, the Australian Government announced that all airports operated by FAC would be privatized in several phases.

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Gmina Włodowice

Gmina Włodowice is a rural gmina in Zawiercie County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland. Its seat is the village of Włodowice, which lies 7 kilometres north of Zawiercie and 47 km north-east of the regional capital Katowice; the gmina covers an area of 76.29 square kilometres, as of 2006 its total population is 5,311. Gmina Włodowice contains the villages and settlements of Góra Włodowska, Kopaniny, Parkoszowice, Rudniki, Rzędkowice, Skałka, Włodowice and Zdów. Gmina Włodowice is bordered by the towns of Myszków and Zawiercie, by the gminas of Kroczyce, Niegowa and Żarki. Polish official population figures 2006

Joel Arthur Rosenthal

Joel Arthur Rosenthal is an American jeweller who works in Paris where he founded the fine jewelry firm JAR. He has been called "the Faberge of our time." Born in 1943 in the Bronx, Joel Arthur Rosenthal is the only son of a postman and a teacher in biology. He spent a semester at City College of New York studying linguistics, he transferred to Harvard University, where he studied art history and philosophy, graduating in 1966. He moved to Paris where he worked as a screenwriter as a needle-stitcher, opening a small shop, he experimented with unusually colored yarn. Its clientele included designers from Valentino. Rosenthal one day was asked; that sent his career in a new direction. After a short stint as a salesman in the New York store of Bulgari, he returned to Paris in 1977 and began designing pieces there from affordable materials, such as coral and minute colored diamond. Quick success led the self-taught Rosenthal to open a non-descript salon at 7 Place Vendôme, where he still hosts his loyal clients.

His company, JAR, has no shop sign on the street. The entry is made on the sponsorship of a known customer and for persons whose name excludes any ambiguity; each piece is unique, created for a specific client. He takes inspiration from the fauna and flora for his creations, mixing references from the past with current techniques of jewelry. What Rosenthal has been doing since 1977 is setting gems in pavé arrangements as fine as needlepoint stitches amplifying the stones' colors by mounting them in a blackened alloy. In 1994, JAR made a Parrot Tulip bangle of gold, with diamond and garnet accents, that sold at auction in 2014 for 3.25 million Swiss francs. In 2002, the first public exhibition devoted to JAR was held in London; the 400 pieces presented lent by their owners, were arranged in full black, the visitors having to use a flashlight to observe them. On this occasion JAR published the only book on his works, JAR Paris, a catalog of 720 pages printed in a limited number of copies, his only other public exhibition was at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art in 2013.

Rosenthal is the only living "artist of gems" to have had a solo show at New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art. In 2017, Rosenthal created his first piece of Judaica for the exhibition Menorah: Worship, Legend, co-sponsored by the Vatican and the Jewish Museum of Rome, it was the sole work commissioned for the exhibition and his first work not meant for a collector, "but, to be seen out there." "It was unexpected," he said of being a part of the exhibition. "I have done all I could to shield myself from what's going on in the world" — and this show, with its message of unity, was a clear statement about what is going on the world. "But I was confident because of what it is and where it was going." Images of Rosenthal Photos of JAR jewelry