Buxton Opera House
Buxton Opera House is in The Square, Derbyshire, England. It is a 902-seat opera house that hosts the annual Buxton Festival and, from 1994 to 2013, the International Gilbert and Sullivan Festival, among others, as well as pantomime at Christmas and other entertainments year-round. Hosting live performances until 1927, the theatre was used as a cinema until 1976. In 1979, it was reopened as a venue for live performance, it was designed by Frank Matcham, one of Britain's finest theatre architects. He designed a number of famous London theatres, including the London Palladium and the London Coliseum; the Opera House ran as a successful theatre, receiving touring companies until 1927, when it was turned into a cinema. Silent films were shown until 1932 when the theatre was wired for sound and could present ‘talkies’; the Opera House became the venue for an annual summer theatre festival from 1936 to 1942, two of them in conjunction with Lillian Bayliss and her London-based Old Vic company. After the Second World War, the theatre continued to serve as a cinema, although the Literary and Dramatic Societies of local schools Buxton College and Cavendish Grammar School staged annual performances of either Shakespeare, such as Hamlet and Macbeth, or modern works, such as Bertold Brecht's Life of Galileo and Dylan Thomas's The Doctor & the Devils.
In 2014, the opera house's former finance chief was jailed for two years for stealing nearly £250,000 from the opera house accounts in 2012 and 2013. The Opera House fell into disrepair. In 1976, it was closed and rumours circulated that it would never reopen. In 1979, however, it was restored and an orchestra pit was added to the original Frank Matcham design. Since the Opera House has been a full-time venue for stage productions, presenting 450 performances per year, including opera, musical theatre, comedy, children's shows and concerts; the theatre is staffed by a small full-time technical crew for all the backstage work, setting up all the shows and artists that appear. Volunteers from the local community are employed for front-of-house duties including bar work and as ushers. By the 1990s, more work was needed to repair and modernise the theatre, from 1999 to 2001 an extensive programme of internal and external restoration took place. In February 2007, another refurbishment was completed at the Opera House that saw the installation of air conditioning in the gallery and backstage area, new seats in the gallery and upper circle, a new get-in lift to replace the ramp and new backstage working lights as well as re-wiring and painting the backstage area and dressing rooms.
The current capacity is 902 seats. In 2011, FT Magazine featured an article on opera house design. In the section called "My favourite experiences", the writer praised the European opera houses "designed by the Viennese architectural firm of Fellner and Helmer... represent a near-ideal marriage of size and decorative beauty. Their British equivalents are those designed by Frank Matcham – best of all the Buxton Opera House." The theatre complex includes the adjacent Pavilion Gardens, the 369-seat Pavilion Arts Centre, the Octagon Hall auditorium, as well as a two-storey restaurant with a bar and gift shop. The arts centre stage area can be converted into a separate 93-seat studio theatre. Since July 1979, the Opera House and theatre complex has been home to the Buxton Festival, which runs for about two weeks in mid-July and has developed into one of Britain's largest opera-based festivals, it includes a Handel opera and other seen operas as well as more popular classics. Running alongside it is the Buxton Festival Fringe.
It is popular as a warm-up for the Edinburgh Fringe, it now claims to be the largest'true' fringe festival in the UK. From 1994 to 2013, the Opera House hosted the annual three-week-long International Gilbert and Sullivan Festival, attracting audiences from all over the UK and from abroad; the Opera House presents over 400 performances each year. Since 2004, the Opera House and the neighbouring Pavilion Gardens have hosted the annual Four Four Time music festival which sees a wide variety of musical performances over one week in February. Performers for the 2008 festival included Marc Almond, Richard Hawley, The Stranglers and Boy George. Notes Buxton Opera House official website
Derby Cathedral, known as the Cathedral of All Saints, is a grade I listed cathedral church in the city of Derby, in the county of Derbyshire, England. It was promoted from parish church status into a cathedral in 1927 in order to create a seat for the Bishop of Derby, which new see was created in that year; the original church of All Saints was founded in the mid-10th century as a royal collegiate church, dedicated to All Saints. The main body of the church as it stands today is a Georgian rebuilding by James Gibbs, completed in 1725; the tower dates from the 16th century, a retrochoir was added in the 20th century. The original church, dedicated to All Saints, was built in about 943 by the Anglo-Saxon King Edmund I as a royal collegiate church, of which building no trace survives. Following the Norman Conquest of 1066, according to the Domesday Book of 1086, it belonged to the king, was served by a college of seven priests; the Saxon building became structurally unstable and was therefore demolished.
A new building was constructed in the 14th century, which surviving drawings show was about the same size as the present building. In 1510–32 the surviving 212-foot high tower was built in the Perpendicular Gothic style. On top of the tower are twelve large sculpted grotesque animal figures, three per face, sculpted stone heads of two Green Men appear on either side of the main West Door at the base of the tower; the tower is built with Ashover Grit sandstone, sourced from nearby Duffield Bank quarry. In 1556, during the persecutions of Protestants during the reign of Queen Mary, Joan Waste was tried for heresy within the Church of All Saints, was executed on the Burton Road in Derby; the fabric of the church appears to have deteriorated from about 1650, was in a ruinous state 1700. In February 1723 the vicar, Dr. Michael Hutchinson, having decided that a new building was required, decided unilaterally to demolish the church and employed a gang of workmen to accomplish the task overnight. Having accepting this fait accompli handed to them, the Mayor and Corporation of Derby commenced fundraising for the building of a new church by inviting subscriptions for the purpose, made the first donation themselves.
Dr Hutchinson expended much effort in fundraising, which exertion may have adversely affected his health. He made a significant personal financial contribution to the fund, his efforts are recorded on a memorial tablet in the South Aisle. Having encountered numerous disputes, Hutchinson resigned in 1728 and died about eighteen months leaving numerous outstanding debts. With the original 1530s tower retained, the rest of the church was rebuilt to a Neo-Classical design made in 1725 by the architect James Gibbs. In his Book of Architecture, Gibbs wrote as follows regarding All Saints Church: "It is the more beautiful for having no galleries, which, as well as pews, clog up and spoil the insides of churches... the plainness of this building makes it less expensive, renders it more suitable to the old steeple". To offset the rather austere interior, Gibbs introduced a wrought-iron chancel screen, extending across the entire width of the church, manufactured by the local iron-smith and gate-maker Robert Bakewell, but not completed until five years after the new church was opened.
The first sermon was preached in the new church on 25 November 1725. By Order in Council on 1 July 1927 All Saints' Church became a cathedral; the new building was extended eastwards with the addition of a retrochoir designed by Sebastian Comper, constructed between 1967 and 1972. The Cathedral's treasures include the 18th-century wrought iron rood screen manufactured by Robert Bakewell, for which he was paid £157.10.0d. The entrance gates, moved to the cathedral from St Mary's Gate in 1957, were made by Robert Bakewell; the gates were refurbished in 2012 and renamed the Queen Elizabeth II Gates to celebrate the Queen's Diamond Jubilee. Notable 20th-century additions are stained-glass windows designed by Ceri Richards, a bronze crucifix by Ronald Pope. In 1927 a new clock was installed by John Smith & Son, Derby clockmakers, replacing one reputed to have been made by George Ashmore in 1738, but by so worn as to be beyond its useful life; until March 1976 this timekeeper and associated parts had been mechanically driven by heavy weights which had to be wound manually, some of them daily.
This work had been undertaken by John Smiths for many years, but rising costs caused the authorities to install an automatic winding mechanism to both the clock and the carillon which sounds the bells. Derby Cathedral's clock has two dials, one facing West along St Mary's Gate, one facing South down Irongate. Both are 8 feet in diameter, they were restored and gilded in 1964 again in the early 21st century. The 1964 restoration proved beyond doubt that the long metal tubes driven through the tower walls to operate the clock mechanism were gun barrels dating from the 1745'uprising' of Bonnie Prince Charlie; the carillon is the mechanical instrument which drives the tunes played upon the Cathedral's bells each day. They were installed by John Smith of Derby in 1931 to replace a machine of similar design, dating from the 17th century and subsequently enhanced towards the end of the 17th century by George Sorocold, a Derby millwright; the current machine plays a tune three times a day, the seven tunes it plays are changed automatically each day.
It is known that the tunes of the original machine were varied over the years, first by
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Peveril Castle is a ruined 11th-century castle overlooking the village of Castleton in the English county of Derbyshire. It was the main settlement of the feudal barony of William Peverel, known as the Honour of Peverel, was founded some time between the Norman Conquest of 1066 and its first recorded mention in the Domesday Survey of 1086, by Peverel, who held lands in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire as a tenant-in-chief of the king; the town became the economic centre of the barony. The castle has views across the Hope Cave Dale. William Peveril the Younger inherited his father's estates, but in 1155 they were confiscated by King Henry II. While in royal possession, Henry visited the castle in 1157, 1158, 1164, the first time hosting King Malcolm IV of Scotland. During the Revolt of 1173–1174, the castle's garrison was increased from a porter and two watchmen to a force led by 20 knights shared with the castles of Bolsover and Nottingham; the Earls of Derby had a claim to the Peveril family's estates through marriage, in 1199 William de Ferrers, the fourth earl, paid 2,000 marks for the Peak lordship, although the castle remained under royal control.
The closest Peveril Castle came to seeing battle was in 1216, when King John gave the castle to William de Ferrers, but the castellan refused to relinquish control. Although they were both John's supporters, the king authorised the earl to use force to evict the castellan, who capitulated, although there is no evidence that the castle was assaulted. In 1223 the castle returned to the Crown. In the 13th century there were periods of building work at the castle, by 1300 its final form had been established. Toward the end of the 14th century, the barony was granted to John of Duke of Lancaster. Having little use for the castle, he ordered some of its material to be stripped out for re-use, marking the beginning of its decline. From the time of John of Gaunt to the present day, the castle has been owned and administered by the Duchy of Lancaster. Peveril Castle became less important administratively, by 1609 it was "very ruinous and serveth for no use". In the 19th century, Sir Walter Scott featured the castle in his novel Peveril of the Peak.
The site is situated in a national park, cared for by English Heritage. Peveril Castle is protected as a Grade I listed building. Peveril Castle stands on a limestone outcrop overlooking the west end of Hope Valley, in the midst of an ancient landscape. Overlooking the head of the valley, 2 km to the west, is Mam Tor, a Bronze Age hill fort, 2 miles to the east at Brough-on-Noe is the Roman fort of Navio; the valley formed a natural line of communication and had extra importance due to valuable mineral resources in the area lead. The small Hope Castle lay halfway along the valley; the castle's founder, William Peveril, was a follower of William the Conqueror and was rewarded for supporting him during the Norman Conquest. The first mention of him in England records that in 1068 he was granted the new castle at Nottingham by William the Conqueror, in the process of subduing the Midlands and northern England. An unsubstantiated legend states. By the Domesday Book of 1086, Peveril had become a powerful landowner, with holdings in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire.
The exact year he founded the castle is uncertain, although it must have been started by 1086 as it is recorded in the Domesday Book, one of 48 castles mentioned in the survey and the only one in Derbyshire. The castle was recorded as standing at Pechesers, translated as both "Peak's Tail" and "Peak's Arse". Although the earliest Norman castles were built in timber, Peveril Castle seems to have been designed from outset to be built in stone. William Peveril had custody of royal lands such as the district of Hope, although he had his own estates, he relied on continued royal favour to maintain power in this way. In 1100 the new king, Henry I, granted William "his demesne in the Peak", thus the Peak became an independent lordship under William Peveril's control, the castle became an important centre of administration for the area, allowing the collection of taxes. Castleton began to grow as the lordship's economic heart. William Peveril was succeeded by his son, William Peveril the Younger. In the civil war known as The Anarchy between King Stephen and the Empress Matilda, Peveril backed the losing side and his fortunes suffered after his capture at the Battle of Lincoln in 1141.
In 1153 Peveril was suspected of attempting to 4th Earl of Chester. In 1153 the future King Henry II accused Peveril of "plundering and treachery" and threatened to confiscate his estates and hand them over to the Earl of Chester. Two years Henry, now king, followed through his threat; the Earl of Chester was dead by this time, the king kept the property for himself. Once under royal control, Peveril became the administrative centre of the Forest of High Peak. William Peveril the Younger died in 1155, as his only male heir had predeceased him, the family's claim on the confiscated estates was taken up by the husband of William's daughter, Margaret Peveril. Margaret had married Robert de Ferrers, 2nd Earl of Derby. King Henry II visited Peveril Castle three times during his reign. During the first visit, in 1157, he hosted King Malcolm IV of Scotland who paid homage to Henry after ceding Cumberland and Westmorland to the English king. Henry II visited again in 1158 and 1164; when a group of barons led by Henry's sons Henry the Young King, Duke of Brittany, Prince Richard Richard the Lionheart, took part in the Revolt of 1173–1174 aga
Robert Bakewell (ironsmith)
Robert Bakewell was an English smith. He took an apprenticeship in London as an iron worker and became an skilled ironsmith, he was born in Uttoxeter, Staffordshire in 1682. In 1706 he started working at Melbourne Hall for Thomas Coke while living in the town of Melbourne. In the gardens at the hall, a wrought iron arbour created by Bakewell can still be seen today: it is known locally as'the Birdcage'. Following an affair with local woman Elizabeth Fisher, which resulted in the birth of a son, Bakewell Fisher, he moved from Melbourne to Derby, where he set up a workshop and forge at Oake's Yard in St Peter's Street, he married Mary Cokayne and had a family of three sons and three daughters. He is buried in St Peter's Church, Derby. Examples of his work can be seen at Derby Cathedral, where he made the wrought iron rood screen and the gates at the west door. There are wrought iron gates by Bakewell at the Derby Industrial Museum, ironwork by him in a number of churches in Derbyshire towns and villages: Alvaston, Borrowash, Etwall, Radbourne.
In Leicestershire at Staunton Harold church, a metal screen by Bakewell can be seen. Beard, Geoffrey. Georgian Craftsmen and Their Work. London: Country Life. OCLC 1061927
Ardotalia is a Roman fort in Gamesley, near Glossop in Derbyshire, England. Ardotalia was constructed by Cohors Primae Frisiavonum—The First Cohort of Frisiavones. Evidence for the existence of this unit exists not only from the building stone found at the site but from various diplomas and other Roman writings; this unit would have had around a thousand men, including the specialist craftsmen needed to perform the skilled work of building the fort. This unit was assisted in constructing the fort by the 3rd Cohort of Bracara Augustani; these men were Iberian Celts from the colony of Braga in Portugal, who seem to have been attached to the XX Legion Valeria Victrix in Chester. Whilst it is unknown which of these Cohorts manned the fort, it seems more that the 3rd Cohort of Bracara Augustani performed this duty, as they were from a hilly region and so were more experienced in holding terrain such as that found around Glossop; the Frisiavones were from low-lying lands beyond the Rhine and so may have been divided between the lower terrain of Manchester and Northwich.
The First Cohort of Frisiavones were present at Brocolitia, one of Hadrian's wall forts and settlements, at Carrawburgh, Northumberland. Evidence for this relies on an inscription on an altar stone, which tells us that Optio Maus had repaid a vow to the goddess Coventina. Whether this altar was the repayment of the vow is unknown; the name Melandra is of unknown origin but may have been originated by the John Watson, Rector of Stockport, who visited the site c. 1771 when substantial stone remains existed. The name Ardotalia is a hypothetical emendation of Zerdotalia written in the Ravenna Cosmography; the site is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Notes Bibliography