Rodney George Laver, better known as Rod Laver, is an Australian former tennis player. He was the No. 1 ranked professional from 1964 to 1970, spanning four years before and three years after the start of the Open Era in 1968. He was the No. 1 ranked amateur in 1961–62. Laver's 200 singles titles are the most in tennis history; this included his all-time men's record of 10 or more titles per year for seven consecutive years. He excelled on all of the court surfaces of his time: grass, hard and wood/parquet. Laver won 11 Grand Slam singles titles, though he was banned from playing those tournaments for the five years prior to the Open Era. Laver is the only player to twice achieve a Calendar Grand Slam, in 1962 and 1969, the latter remains the only time a man has done so in the Open Era, he won eight Pro Slam titles, including the "pro Grand Slam" in 1967, he contributed to five Davis Cup titles for Australia during an age when Davis Cup was deemed as significant as the four majors. Rodney George Laver was born in Rockhampton, Australia, on 9 August 1938.
He was the third of four children of Roy Laver, a cattleman and butcher, his wife Melba Roffey. In 1966, aged 27, married Mary Benson in San Rafael, California. Born Mary Shelby Peterson in Illinois, she was a divorcee with three children. After their wedding ceremony, a group of well-known tennis players in attendance, including Lew Hoad, Ken Rosewall, Roy Emerson, Mal Anderson and Barry MacKay, stood outside the church with raised tennis rackets that formed an archway for the newlyweds to walk under. Laver and Mary had a son and the family lived at various locations in California including Rancho Mirage, Corona del Mar, a ranch near Santa Barbara and Carlsbad. Mary Laver died in November 2012 at the age of 84 at their home in Carlsbad. Laver was a young boy, he was coached in Queensland by Charlie Hollis and by the Australian Davis Cup team captain Harry Hopman, who gave Laver the nickname "Rocket". Laver was both Australian and US Junior champion in 1957, he had his breakthrough on the world stage in 1959, when he reached all three finals at Wimbledon, winning the mixed doubles title with Darlene Hard.
As an unseeded player, he lost the singles final to Peruvian Alex Olmedo after surviving an 87-game semifinal against American Barry MacKay. His first major singles title was the Australian Championships in 1960, where he defeated fellow Australian Neale Fraser in a five-set final after coming back from two sets down and saving a Fraser championship point in the fourth set. Laver captured his first Wimbledon singles crown in 1961. In 1962, Laver became the first male player since Don Budge in 1938 to win all four Grand Slam singles titles in the same year and won an additional 18 titles in all. Among those titles were the Italian Championships and the German Championships, giving Laver the "clay court triple" of Paris and Hamburg, achieved only by Lew Hoad in 1956; the biggest hurdle to Laver's winning the Grand Slam was the French Championships on slow clay, where Laver won three consecutive five-setters beginning with the quarterfinals. In his quarterfinal with Martin Mulligan, Laver saved a matchpoint in the fourth set with a backhand volley after coming to the net behind a second serve.
In the final, Laver lost the first two sets and was down 0–3 in the fourth set before coming back to defeat Roy Emerson. At Wimbledon, his progress was much easier. Laver lost only one set the whole tournament, to Manuel Santana in a quarterfinal, who held a set point for a two set lead. At the US Championships, Laver lost only two sets during the tournament and defeated Emerson again in the final. In February 1963, he appeared on the panel game show To Tell the Truth, where all four panelists identified him based on his knowledge of the history of tennis. In December 1962 Laver turned professional after winning the Davis Cup with the Australian team. After an initial period of adjustment he established himself among the leading professional players such as Ken Rosewall, Lew Hoad and Andrés Gimeno, Pancho Gonzales when Gonzales returned to a full-time schedule in 1964. During the next seven years, Laver won the U. S. Pro Tennis Championships five times, including four in a row beginning in 1966.
In the beginning of 1963, Laver was beaten by both Rosewall and Hoad on an Australasian tour. Hoad won the first eight matches against Laver, Rosewall won 11 out of 13. By the end of the year, with six tournament titles, Laver had become the No. 2 professional player behind Rosewall. In 1964, Laver and Rosewall both won seven important titles, but Laver won 15 of 19 matches against Rosewall and captured the two most prestigious titles, the US Pro Championships over Gonzales and the Wembley Championships over Rosewall. In tennis week, Raymond Lee has described the Wembley match, where Laver came from 5–3 down in the fifth set to win 8–6, as their best and one that changed tennis history. Lee regards this win as the one that established Laver's long reign as world number one; the other prestige title, the French pro, was won by Rosewall. In 1965, Laver was the No. 1 professional player, winning 17 titles and 13 of 18 matches against Rosewall. In ten finals, Laver won eight against the still dangerous Gonzales.
In 1966, Laver won 16 events, including the US Pro Championships, the Wembley Pro Championship, eight other important tournaments. In 1967, Laver won 19 titles, including the Wimbledon Pro, the US Pro Championships, the Wembley Pro Championship, the French Pro Championship, which gave him a clean sweep of the most important
Yarra Park is part of the Melbourne Sports and Entertainment Precinct, the premier sporting precinct of Victoria, Australia. Located in Yarra Park is the Melbourne Cricket Ground and numerous sporting fields and ovals, including the associated sporting complexes of Melbourne & Olympic Parks; the park and sporting facilities are located in the inner-suburb of East Melbourne. In the late 1850s, many of the earliest games of Australian rules football were played at Yarra Park, known at the time as the Richmond Paddock. Tree-lined paths run parallel to Punt Road and Swan Street, criss-cross the park; some of the lawns are used for parking for sporting events. Three footbridges allow pedestrians and cyclists to cross the railway lines to the different sporting venues and easy access to the Yarra River Trail. Around the MCG are sculptures of Australian sporting heroes including: Australian rules footballers Ron Barassi and Dick Reynolds. Nearby is an old eucalyptus scar tree which shows a big scar caused by harvesting of bark for a canoe by the original inhabitants of the Yarra River Valley, the Wurundjeri people of the Kulin nation.
The adjacent Punt Road Oval, home of the Richmond Football Club features a statue of Tiger legend Jack Dyer. In 1856, Victorian Governor Charles La Trobe proclaimed 81 hectares of parkland, extending from Punt Road to Swanston Street, from Wellington Parade to the Yarra River; the area was used as police paddocks for the agistment of police horses. The earliest recorded matches of Australian rules football were played at the Richmond Paddock in 1858; the Argus wrote the following year: "Football, like cricket, has become an institution... expect to see every available portion of Richmond Paddock, other'lungs of the city', dotted by animated groups in full pursuit of the leathern spheroid." It remained an important site for the sport until the MCG and other cricket grounds were opened for football in the late 1870s. By the 1860s five recreational ovals were marked out: the Melbourne Cricket Ground, Richmond Cricket Ground, East Melbourne Cricket Club ovals, an oval in Gosch's Paddock, south of Swan Street.
In the southern section of the park land was set aside for the Friendly Society's Gardens, the Scotch College oval. In 1874 Yarra Park Primary School was opened in the north east corner of the park. A housing subdivision was excised from the park in 1881. Since this time major excisions have been made for Melbourne's eastern and southeastern rail lines, the Hurstbridge railway line, Olympic Park Sporting Complex, Rod Laver Arena in Melbourne Park's National Tennis Centre. However, Gosch's Paddock still links Yarra Park to the Yarra River at the Morrell Bridge for cyclists and pedestrians. In 2007 The Government Introduced the'Melbourne Cricket Ground and Yarra Park Amendment Bill'. Sports Minister James Merlino told Parliament ‘The main focus of the bill, is to transfer responsibility for Yarra Park from the City of Melbourne to the Melbourne Cricket Ground Trust.’ The site is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register. Melbourne City Council - Yarra Park Map Yarra Park Adventure Tour Yarra Park Association
Docklands Stadium known by naming rights sponsorship as Marvel Stadium, is a multi-purpose sports and entertainment stadium in the Docklands precinct of Melbourne, Australia. Construction started in October 1997, under the working name "Victoria Stadium", was completed in 2000 at a cost of A$460 million. Built as a replacement for Waverley Park, the stadium is used for Australian rules football and is the headquarters of the Australian Football League which, since 7 October 2016, has had exclusive ownership of the venue. Headquartered in the stadium precinct is Seven Network's digital broadcast centre; the stadium hosts a number of other sporting events, including some domestic Twenty20 cricket matches, Melbourne Victory soccer home matches, one-off rugby league and rugby union matches as well as number of special events and concerts. The stadium was announced on 31 October 1996 as a replacement for the much larger Waverley Park as a headquarters for the Australian Football League. Developed by the Docklands Stadium Consortium and thereafter controlled by the Seven Network, the remaining leasehold interest in the stadium was sold to James Fielding Funds Management on 21 June 2006 for A$330 million.
Under the terms of the agreement governing construction and operation of the venue, in 2025 the AFL were to win ownership of the stadium for a $30 fee. The stadium, like Waverley Park, was built for Australian rules football, unlike most grounds of a similar size in Australia which were designed for cricket; the first match to be played at the ground was between Essendon and Port Adelaide, before a crowd of 43,012, in Round 1 of the 2000 AFL season. Essendon won the match by 94 points, with Michael Long kicking the first goal at the ground; the first game, played with the roof closed was between the Western Bulldogs and the Brisbane Lions the following weekend. Docklands Stadium was the first stadium in Australia to have movable seating. All four level-one tiers of the stadium can be moved up to 18 metres forward into a rectangular configuration, it was first used for a Melbourne Storm game in July 2001. Despite the seating being a key feature of the stadium, it has been used, citing damage to turf, time to deploy the seats and a reduced capacity.
Docklands Stadium first featured rugby league football when it was used as the Melbourne Storm's home ground for one season in 2001. The Storm continued to play home games at the ground sporadically in the following years. Docklands was the venue for the third and deciding game of the 2006 State of Origin series and Australia's home game against New Zealand in the 2006 Tri-nations series. During the 2008 Rugby League World Cup Australia played England at the stadium and the opening games of the 2009 and 2012 State of Origin series were played here, the latter attracting 56,021, a new record for rugby league at the stadium. In 2015, LED electronic advertising was added around the perimeter of the ground on level 1 and 2. On 24 October 2015, the stadium hosted motorcycle speedway when it played host to the 2015 Speedway Grand Prix of Australia, the twelfth and final round of the 2015 Speedway Grand Prix World Championship season, it was the first time Australia had hosted a round of the SGP event since the final round of the 2002 season in Sydney.
With stadium capacity capped at 42,000 for the event, 26,609 fans saw 45 year old American rider Greg Hancock take out his 20th SGP Final. Danish rider Niels-Kristian Iversen finished second with Poland's Maciej Janowski finishing third; the reigning Australian Champion, Jason Doyle, qualified for the final but was outed in a crash in the first turn in which he suffered neck and chest injuries. A conscious Doyle was transported to the Royal Melbourne Hospital for observation. Doyle managed to win the 2017 meeting and that season's world title after he was forced to miss the 2016 meeting after he was injured in the previous meeting in To run, Poland which many thought cost him the 2016 title. In March 2016, it was announced that Collingwood president Eddie McGuire had taken a proposal to the state government for the stadium to be sold for redevelopment when the AFL gain ownership of the stadium in 2025, with a new similar size stadium built within the Melbourne Sports and Entertainment Precinct.
The plan was rejected by the AFL. Prior to the start of the 2016 AFL season the seats in the Medallion Club were replaced; the old seats in the Medallion Club section were relocated to other areas in the ground. On 7 October 2016, the AFL Commission announced that the league had acquired exclusive ownership of the stadium; the league elected to buy out the owners'share for a figure believed to be $200 million, rather than wait until 2025 when the league would automatically acquire ownership of the venue for $30. At the end of the 2016/17 Big Bash, the stadium was rated the most entertaining venue for T20 cricket in Australia; the stadium was constructed by Baulderstone Hornibrook and opened on 9 March 2000 as "Colonial Stadium". Colonial State Bank paid $32.5 million for 10 years of naming rights. In 2000, Commonwealth Bank took over Colonial State Bank and sold the naming rights to Telstra for about $50 million; the name was changed to "Telstra Dome" on 1 October 2002. During this time it was colloquially referred to as "The Dome", including by clubs which are sponsored by rival telecommunications companies.
On 1 March 2009, when the naming rights transferred to Etihad Airways, the ven
Swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through water for recreation, exercise, or survival. Locomotion is achieved through coordinated movement of the body, or both. Humans can hold their breath underwater and undertake rudimentary locomotive swimming within weeks of birth, as a survival response. Swimming is among the top public recreational activities, in some countries, swimming lessons are a compulsory part of the educational curriculum; as a formalized sport, swimming features in a range of local and international competitions, including every modern Summer Olympics. Swimming relies on the nearly neutral buoyancy of the human body. On average, the body has a relative density of 0.98 compared to water, which causes the body to float. However, buoyancy varies on the basis of body composition, lung inflation, the salinity of the water. Higher levels of body fat and saltier water both lower the relative density of the body and increase its buoyancy. Since the human body is only less dense than water, water supports the weight of the body during swimming.
As a result, swimming is “low-impact” compared to land activities such as running. The density and viscosity of water create resistance for objects moving through the water. Swimming strokes use this resistance to create propulsion, but this same resistance generates drag on the body. Hydrodynamics is important to stroke technique for swimming faster, swimmers who want to swim faster or exhaust less try to reduce the drag of the body's motion through the water. To be more hydrodynamic, swimmers can either increase the power of their strokes or reduce water resistance, though power must increase by a factor of three to achieve the same effect as reducing resistance. Efficient swimming by reducing water resistance involves a horizontal water position, rolling the body to reduce the breadth of the body in the water, extending the arms as far as possible to reduce wave resistance. Just before plunging into the pool, swimmers may perform exercises such as squatting. Squatting helps in enhancing a swimmer’s start by warming up the thigh muscles.
Human babies demonstrate an innate swimming or diving reflex from newborn until the age of 6 months. Other mammals demonstrate this phenomenon; the diving response involves apnea, reflex bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction. Because infants are innately able to swim, classes for babies of about 6 months old are offered in many locations; this makes strong swimmers from a young age. Swimming can be undertaken using a wide range of styles, known as'strokes,' and these strokes are used for different purposes, or to distinguish between classes in competitive swimming, it is not necessary to use a defined stroke for propulsion through the water, untrained swimmers may use a'doggy paddle' of arm and leg movements, similar to the way four-legged animals swim. There are four main strokes used in competition and recreation swimming: the front crawl known as freestyle, the breaststroke, the backstroke and the butterfly. Competitive swimming in Europe started around 1800 using the breaststroke. In 1873, John Arthur Trudgen introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions.
The butterfly stroke developed in the 1930s, was considered a variant of the breaststroke until accepted as a separate style in 1953. Butterfly is considered the hardest stroke by many people, but it is the most effective for all-around toning and the building of muscles, it burns the most calories. Other strokes exist for specific purposes, such as training or rescue, it is possible to adapt strokes to avoid using parts of the body, either to isolate certain body parts, such as swimming with arms only or legs only to train them harder, or for use by amputees or those affected by paralysis. Swimming has been recorded since prehistoric times, the earliest records of swimming date back to Stone Age paintings from around 7,000 years ago. Written references date from 2000 BC; some of the earliest references include the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible and other sagas. The coastal tribes living in the volatile Low Countries were known as excellent swimmers by the Romans. Men and horses of the Batavi tribe could cross the Rhine without losing formation, according to Tacitus.
Dio Cassius describes one surprise tactic employed by Aulus Plautius against the Celts at the Battle of the Medway: The thought that Romans would not be able to cross it without a bridge, bivouacked in rather careless fashion on the opposite bank. Thence the Britons retired to the river Thames at a point near where it empties into the ocean and at flood-tide forms a lake; this they crossed because they knew where the firm ground and the easy passages in this region were to be found, but the Romans in attempting to follow them were not so successful. However, the swam across again and some others got over by a bridge a little way up-stream, after which they assailed the barbarians from several sides at once and cut down many of them." In 1538, Nikolaus Wynmann, a Swiss professor of languages, wrote the first swimming book, The Swimmer or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming. There are many reasons why people swim, from swimming as a recreational pursuit to swimming as a necessary pa
Roger Federer is a Swiss professional tennis player, ranked world No. 4 in men's singles tennis by the Association of Tennis Professionals. He has won 20 Grand Slam singles titles—the most in history for a male player—and has held the world No. 1 spot in the ATP rankings for a record total of 310 weeks, including a record 237 consecutive weeks. After turning professional in 1998, he was continuously ranked in the top ten from October 2002 to November 2016, he re-entered the top ten following his victory at the 2017 Australian Open. In majors, Federer has won a record eight Wimbledon titles, six Australian Open titles, five US Open titles, one French Open title, he is one of eight men to have achieved a Career Grand Slam. Federer has reached a record 30 men's singles Grand Slam finals, including 10 consecutively from the 2005 Wimbledon Championships to the 2007 US Open. Federer has won a record six ATP Finals titles, 28 ATP Tour Masters 1000 titles, a record 22 ATP Tour 500 titles. Federer is the only player after Jimmy Connors to have won 100 or more career singles titles in the Open Era.
Federer's all-court game and versatile style of play involve exceptional shot-making. Effective both as a base-liner and a volleyer, his apparent effortlessness and efficient movement on the court have made Federer popular among tennis fans, he has received the tour Sportsmanship Award 13 times and been named the ATP Player of the Year and ITF World Champion five times. He has won the Laureus World Sportsman of the Year award a record five times, including four consecutive awards from 2005 to 2008 and the most recent one in 2018, he is the only individual to have won the BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year award four times. Federer was born in Switzerland, his father, Robert Federer, is a Swiss-German from Berneck in the Canton of St. Gallen, his mother, Lynette Federer, is an Afrikaner from Kempton Park, Gauteng, in South Africa. Federer has one sibling, his older sister, the mother of a set of twins. Since his mother is South African, he holds both South African citizenship, he grew up in nearby Birsfelden, Münchenstein, close to the French and German borders, he speaks Swiss German, Standard German and French fluently, as well as functional Italian and Swedish.
Federer served as a ball boy at his hometown Basel tournament, the Swiss Indoors, in 1992 and 1993. Like all male Swiss citizens, Federer was subject to compulsory military service in the Swiss Armed Forces. However, in 2003 he was ruled "unsuitable" and was subsequently not required to fulfill his military obligation. Instead, he served in the civil protection force and was required to pay 3% of his taxable income as an alternative, he grew up supporting F. C. Basel and the Swiss national football team. Federer credits his hand-eye coordination to the wide range of sports he played as a child, including badminton and basketball Federer is married to former Women's Tennis Association player Miroslava Federer, whom he met while they were both competing for Switzerland at the 2000 Sydney Olympics. Called Mirka, she retired from the tour in 2002 because of a foot injury, they were married at Wenkenhof Villa in Riehen near Basel on 11 April 2009, surrounded by a small group of close friends and family.
In 2009, Mirka gave birth to identical twin girls. The Federers had another pair of identical twins in this time boys. In 2003, he established the Roger Federer Foundation to help disadvantaged children and to promote their access to education and sports. Since May 2004, citing his close ties with South Africa he has been supporting the South Africa-Swiss charity IMBEWU, which helps children better connect to sports as well as social and health awareness. In 2005, Federer visited South Africa to meet the children. In 2005, he auctioned his racquet from his US Open championship to aid victims of Hurricane Katrina. At the 2005 Pacific Life Open in Indian Wells, Federer arranged an exhibition involving several top players from the ATP and WTA tour called Rally for Relief; the proceeds went to the victims of the tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. In December 2006, he visited Tamil Nadu, one of the areas in India most affected by the tsunami.. He was appointed a Goodwill Ambassador by UNICEF in April 2006 and has appeared in UNICEF public messages to raise public awareness of AIDS.
In response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Federer arranged a collaboration with fellow top tennis players for a special charity event during the 2010 Australian Open called'Hit for Haiti', in which proceeds went to Haiti earthquake victims. He participated in a follow-up charity exhibition during the 2010 Indian Wells Masters, which raised $1 million; the Nadal vs. Federer "Match for Africa" in 2010 in Zurich and Madrid raised more than $4 million for the Roger Federer Foundation and Fundación Rafa Nadal. In January 2011, Federer took part in an exhibition, Rally for Relief, to raise money for the victims of the Queensland floods. In 2014, the "Match for Africa 2" between Federer and Stan Wawrinka, again in Zurich, raised £850,000 for education projects in Southern Africa. On 24 November 2017, Federer received an honorary doctorate awarded to him by his home university, the University of Basel, he received the title in recognition for his role in increasing the international reputation of Basel and Switzerland, his engagement for children in Africa through his charitable foundation.
Federer's main accomplishments as a junior player came at Wimbledon in 1998, where he won bot
A retractable roof is a roof system designed to roll back the roof on tracks so that the interior of the facility is open to the outdoors. Retractable roofs are sometimes referred to as operable roofs or retractable skylights; the term operable skylight, while quite similar, refers to a skylight that opens on a hinge, rather than on a track. Retractable roofs are used in residences and bars, swim centres, other facilities wishing to provide an open-air experience at the push of a button; the United States Patent and Trademark Office records show that David S. Miller, founder of Rollamatic Retractable Roofs, filed U. S. Patent 3,277,619 in August 1963 for a movable and remotely controllable roof section for houses and other types of buildings; as Rollamatic was founded five years earlier, the first installation of a motorized retractable roof must be between 1958 and 1963. While any shape is possible, common shapes are flat, hip-ridge and dome. A residence might incorporate one or more 3' by 5' retractables.
Stadium retractable roofs are used in locales where inclement weather, extreme heat, or extreme cold are prevalent during the respective sports seasons, in order to allow for playing of traditionally outdoor sports in more favorable conditions, as well as the comfort of spectators watching games played in such weather. Unlike their predecessors, the domes built during the 1960s, 1970s, early 1980s, retractable roofs allow for playing of the same traditionally outdoor sports in outdoor conditions when the weather is more favorable. Another purpose of retractable roofs is to allow for growth of natural grass playing fields in environments where extreme hot and/or cold temperatures would otherwise make installation and maintenance of such a field cost prohibitive. Installations throughout the world employ a variety of different styles; the first retractable roof sports venue was the now-demolished Civic Arena in Pittsburgh, United States. Constructed in 1961 for the Pittsburgh Civic Light Opera, the arena was home to minor-league and NCAA D-1 basketball and ice hockey teams before becoming the home of the NHL's Pittsburgh Penguins in 1967, as well as hosting over a dozen regular season NBA games in the 1960s and 1970s.
The arena's dome-shaped roof covered 170,000 square feet and was made up of eight equal segments constructed from close to 3,000 tons of steel, in which six segments could retract underneath the remaining two, supported by a 260-foot long exterior cantilevered arm. Olympic Stadium in Montreal, Quebec was slated to be the first outdoor retractable roof stadium at its debut for the 1976 Summer Olympics. However, plagued by construction problems, the roof was not installed until 1987, was not retractable until 1988. Movement of the roof was impossible in high wind conditions, technical problems plagued the facility. A permanent, fixed roof was installed in 1998. By contrast, the Rogers Centre in Toronto, Ontario had a functional retractable roof at its debut in 1989. Architecturally speaking, retractable roofs vary from stadium to stadium in shape and movement. For example, Miller Park has a fan style roof, while Toyota Stadium in Japan has an accordion-like roof. Most retractable roofs are made of metal, while some, such as the roof of State Farm Stadium, are made of water-resistant fabric.
Although each retractable roof differs in these aspects, Safeco Field's roof is unique in that it is the only one in North America that does not form a climate-controlled enclosure when in the extended position. In North American major sports leagues, specific rules exist governing the movement of retractable roofs before and during gameplay; these rules vary between the MLB, as well as from stadium to stadium. In general, if a game begins with the roof open and weather conditions become less favorable, the home team may, with the approval of the field officials and visiting team, request the roof be closed. Depending on the stadium, weather or gameplay conditions, the judgment of the officials, play may or may not continue until the roof is closed. If the game begins with the roof closed, it may be opened under some circumstances depending on the venue. If it is closed after the game begins it must remain closed for the duration of the game; some modern athletic facilities are using less-complex roof systems referred to as open roofs.
These are constructed with similar materials as retractable roofs, such as polycarbonate or tempered glass roofs. Hinged at the structure's gutters, open roofs close and open by the mechanics of a rack and pinion system or a push/pull drive system. Open roofs are seen at smaller athletic venues such as country clubs and universities, in the construction of commercial greenhouses and garden centres for climate control purposes. CBC archives. CBC Archives A clip from 1975 where the stadium architect talks about his design for the Montreal Olympic Stadium. CBC Archives A look back on the history of the Montreal Olympic Stadium. Guidelines for movement of a retractable roof
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a