Pedro de Valdivia
Pedro Gutiérrez de Valdivia or Valdiva was a Spanish conquistador and the first royal governor of Chile. After serving with the Spanish army in Italy and Flanders, he was sent to South America in 1534, where he served as lieutenant under Francisco Pizarro in Peru, acting as his second in command. In 1540 he led an expedition of 150 Spaniards into Chile, where he defeated a large force of indigenous natives and founded Santiago in 1541, he extended Spanish rule south to the Biobío River in 1546, fought again in Peru, returned to Chile as governor in 1549. He began to conquer Chile south of the Biobío and founded Concepción in 1550, he was killed in a campaign against the Mapuche. The city of Valdivia in Chile is named after him. Pedro de Valdivia is believed to have been born in Villanueva de la Serena in Extremadura, Spain around 1500 to an impoverished hidalgo family. In 1520 he joined the Spanish army of Charles I and fought in Flanders in 1521 and Italy between 1522 and 1525, participating in the battle of Pavia as part of the troops of the Marquis of Pescara.
He reached America in 1535, spent an uneventful year in Venezuela, moved on to Peru in 1537. There he took part on the side of Hernando Pizarro in his struggle against Diego de Almagro and fought in the battle of Las Salinas in 1538, which saw Almagro defeated and captured. Afterwards he accompanied Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro to conquer both the province of Collao and las Charcas in High Peru; as compensation for his help in conquering these lands, he was awarded a silver mine and became a wealthy man. Valdivia had married Marina Ortíz de Gaete in Spain, but in Peru he became attached to the widow Inés de Suárez, to accompany him to Chile as his mistress. After the failure of the expedition of Diego de Almagro in 1536, the lands to the south of Peru had remained unexplored. Valdivia asked governor Francisco Pizarro for permission to complete the conquest of that territory, he got his permission but was appointed only Lieutenant Governor, not Governor as he had wanted. The expedition was fraught with problems from the beginning.
Valdivia had to sell the lands and the mine, assigned to him in order to finance the expedition. A shortage of soldiers and adventurers was problematic since they were not interested in conquering what they were sure were poor lands. Furthermore, while he was preparing the expedition, Pedro Sánchez de la Hoz arrived from Spain with a royal grant for the same country. To avoid difficulties, Pizarro advised the two competitors to join their interests, on December 28, 1539, a contract of partnership was signed; the small expedition left Cuzco, Peru in January, 1540, with Pizarro's permission and Pedro Sancho de Hoz as partner. They carried with them a plethora of seeds for planting, a drove of swine and brood mares, a thousand native Indians but were composed of only a few Spaniards. Only one woman was among the travelers, Inés de Suárez, Valdivia's mistress. En route more Spaniards joined the expedition, attracted by Valdivia's fame as a brilliant leader; these conquistadores had formed part of the failed campaigns to the highlands of Bolivia and all in all around 150 Spaniards joined the expedition.
Valdivia resolved to avoid the road over the Andes, which had proved fatal to Almagro's army, set out resolutely through the Atacama Desert. On the way, Pedro Sancho de Hoz, seeking sole leadership, failed, he was pardoned but from on had to accept subordinate status. The natives of the region were not pleased by the return of the Spaniards due to the maltreatment they had suffered under Almagro. With many promises, Valdivia was able to regain their trust. After a march of five months, suffering great privations, they arrived at the Copiapo valley, where Valdivia took possession of the land in the name of the Spanish king. Soon thereafter they continued south and in December 1540, eleven months after they left Cuzco and his expedition reached the valley of the Mapocho river, where they were able to establish the capital of the territory; the valley was well populated with natives. Its soil was fertile and there was abundant fresh water. Two high hills provided defensive positions. Soon after their arrival, Valdivia tried to convince the native inhabitants of his good intentions, sending out delegations bearing gifts for the caciques.
On February 12, 1541, Valdivia founded the city of Santiago de la Nueva Extremadura. The ceremony was held at the foot of the Huelén hill. After arriving in Chile and his men went out of their way to restore the relationship between conquistador and Indian, harmed by Almagro and his merciless ways. At first, Valdivia was successful in his efforts to deal benevolently with the native population, but this peaceful coexistence did not last long. One of the first orders that Valdivia gave was to have a ship constructed at the mouth of the Aconcagua River to send to Peru for further supplies and to serve as a courier service, but soon was obliged to return in haste to Santiago to subdue a mutiny; the Spaniards' greed surfaced and overshadowed previous intentions when rumors of gold at the Marga Marga mines, in the vicinity of Valparaiso arose, the settlers began forcing the natives to work there
The Arauco War was a long-running conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people fought in the Araucanía. The conflict begun at first as a reaction to the Spanish conquest attempt establishing cities and forcing Mapuches into unfree labour, it subsequently evolved over time into phases of low intensity warfare, drawn-out sieges, slave-hunting expeditions, pillaging raids, punitive expeditions and renewed Spanish attempts to secure lost territories. After many initial Spanish successes in penetrating Mapuche territory, the Battle of Curalaba in 1598 and the following destruction of the Seven Cities marked a turning point in the war leading to the establishment of a clear frontier between the Spanish domains and the land of the independent Mapuche. From the 17th to the late 18th century a series of parliaments were held between royal governors and Mapuche lonkos and the war devolved to sporadic pillaging carried out by Spanish soldiers as well as Mapuches and outlaws; the Chilean War of Independence brought new hostilities to the frontier, with different factions of Spaniards and Mapuches fighting for independence, royalism or personal gain.
Mapuche independence ended with the Chilean occupation of Araucanía between 1861 and 1883. The modern Mapuche conflict is inspired by the Arauco War; the beginning of the conflict is placed at the Battle of Reynogüelén, which occurred in 1536 between an expedition of Diego de Almagro and a well-organized and numerous group of Mapuche soldiers, near the confluence of the Ñuble and Itata rivers. During the early phase of the Conquest of Chile, the Spanish conquistador Pedro de Valdivia conducted a nine-year campaign to secure the city of Santiago, destroyed on September 11, 1541 by the Mapochoes under the direction of their chief, Michimalonco. Valdivia hoped to enlarge the territory under his jurisdiction and, despite injuries from a fall from his horse, resolved to take personal command of a land expedition into Araucanía. In 1544, sent a naval expedition comprising the barks, San Pedro and Santiaguillo, under the command of Juan Bautista Pastene, to reconnoiter the southwestern coast of South America to the Strait of Magellan.
The expedition set sail from Valparaíso, entered the bay of San Pedro, made landings at what is now known as Concepción and at Valdivia, named in honor of the commander. Encountering severe storms further south, he returned to Valparaiso. Valdivia himself set out in 1546, with sixty horsemen plus guides and porters, crossed the Itata River and were attacked by Mapuche warriors in the Battle of Quilacura near the Bío-Bío River. Realizing that it would be impossible to proceed in such hostile territory with so limited a force, Valdivia elected to return to Santiago after finding a site for a new city at what is now Penco and that would become the first site of Concepción. In 1550, a new expedition was launched, consisting of a naval force under Pastene, a land force of two hundred Spaniards mounted and foot and a number of Mapocho auxiliaries under Valdivia, they planned to reunite on the shores of the Bay of Concepción. The expedition advanced to the shores of the Bío-Bío River. Along the way they had several battles with groups of Mapuches as they explored the region killing many with little loss to themselves.
After spending over a week in the area and encountering increasing opposition, the Spanish marched toward the Sea through the valleys of the Laja and Bío-Bío rivers, towards the coast at Penco. On the banks of the Andalién River, they camped for two days between the river and a lake, where they were attacked on the second night by a large force of Araucanians under their toqui Ainavillo in the Battle of Andalien; the night attack was defeated in a furious battle, the Spaniards suffered one killed and many wounds to men and their mounts. After a day treating their wounds they continued towards their rendezvous at the Bay of Concepción. There Valdivia began building a fort at. On February 23, Pastene's fleet anchored in the bay, brought supplies and provided materials to finish the fort. On March 1 Valdivia founded here the city of Concepción del Nuevo Extremo. On March 3 of that year, the fort was completed and was attacked nine days by the largest force of Mapuches yet seen in the Battle of Penco.
This force was routed despite the small size of the Spanish forces. Despite the resulting submission of the local tribes, Valdivia sent an emissary to the Viceroy of Peru, asking for additional forces. After reinforcement at Concepción in 1551, he organized another expedition to establish the fort La Imperial on the banks of the Imperial River, he returned to Concepción to prepare another expedition and await the reinforcements the Viceroy had promised to send by sea. Leaving orders that the new troops should disembark on the Tierras de Valdivia that Pastene had discovered earlier, Valdivia left with two hundred soldiers in the direction of Fort Imperial. Once he had passed it on his way south, he ordered Jerónimo de Alderete to drive inland and establish a fort, with the goal of securing his eastern flank. To this end, Alderente established a fort there. Meanwhile, Valdivia's column advanced southwards and joined the reinforcements sent from Peru, under the command of Francisco de Villagra. There, the city of Santa María la Blanca de Valdivia was established.
After garrisoning these new places, Valdivia returned to his base at Concepción in 1552 where rich placer gold mines were found in the Quilacoya River valley. With the goal of securing the lines of communication with the sou
Alonso García de Ramón
Alonso García de Ramón was a Spanish soldier and twice Royal Governor of Chile: first temporarily from July 1600 to February 1601, from March 1605 to August 1610. He was born in Cuenca, Spain in 1552, he served from the age of 16 in the Spanish Army first against the Morisco revolt in Granada. He was in Italy and Sicily, where he was cabo de escuadra, in the squadron of Juan of Austria in the 1572 battle of Navarino following the battle of Lepanto. In 1574, he was in the garrison of Goleta during the campaign of Juan of Austria in Tunis. In 1576 he survived under Alvaro de Bazan, Marquess of Santa Cruz in the Battle of Querquenes at the Kerkennah Islands, he next went to Flanders as a sergeant under Duke of Parma. He was in the assault of the city of Zichem, the attack of Borgerhout and the siege and assault of Maestricht where he was one of the first that mounted the walls, he returned to Spain and went to Chile, fighting with skill and bravery for Governor Alonso de Sotomayor against the Mapuche.
His most famous action was at the siege of Purén where he killed the Toqui Cadeguala in mounted single combat. Soon after Martín García Óñez de Loyola replaced Sotomayor, García de Ramón moved to Peru, earned the confidence of the Viceroy of Peru, García Hurtado de Mendoza, 5th Marquis of Cañete who entrusted him with many positions, that he carried out with brilliance including those of corregidor of Arica and Potosí. From 1599, when Francisco de Quiñónez was sent to Chile, he was Maestro de Campo of all Peru and was one of the most trusted military advisors of Viceroy, Luis de Velasco. García de Ramón was sent to relieve Francisco de Quiñónez as interim governor arriving in Chile on July 29, 1600, he was installed as governor. He soon discovered things were worse in southern Chile than he had known in Peru, La Imperial had been lost in April. Without reinforcements from Peru he was forced to extract men and supplies from the cities of Chile by means of imposing extraordinary contributions, special taxes, confiscating cattle, horses and arms that allowed him form a well equipped army of 400 men by December 1600.
By early January, his army had marched to Chillán where he was forced to leave a detachment to prevent Mapuche incursions above the Itata River. He moved on to Concepcion where he planned to relieve the remaining besieged fort Valdivia and cities of Villarica, Osorno, his attempt to send aid by ship to Valdivia and Chiloé failed when the ship was stolen by deserters from the army fleeing Chile for Peru. Unwilling to give up he planned to advance south via the central valley, to Angol, Purén and Lumaco, to aid Villarrica, on to Osorno in the south linking up with Francisco del Campo advancing from fort Valdivia. However, he and 310 men had not advanced further than Quillacoya when he had word that Arauco was now under siege and required relief, he had turned back to go to its aid when he was informed that Alonso de Ribera had arrived to assume the governorship in February 1601. Appointed in 1605 to replace Alonso de Ribera as Governor of Chile, he used the base of forts established by his predecessor as bases for his campaigns against the Mapuche.
In 1606, the Spanish forces of Garcia Ramon fought the Mapuche army under the caciques Ainavilu, Anganamen and Longoñongo in the Battle of Boroa. 500 Spaniards, defeated 6,000 Mapuches. García de Ramón built Fort San Ignacio de la Redención near Boroa but it was soon abandoned after the ambush of most of its garrison. In 1607, García de Ramón rebuilt Fort Purén and San Jerónimo de Millapoa in Catirai but as a result of the Parliament of Catirai he soon dismantled the later. José Toribio Medina, Diccionario biográfico colonial de Chile, Impr. Elziviriana, Santiago, 1906, Pg. 338 - 341 Alonso García de Ramón Diego Barros Arana, Historia general de Chile. Tomo tercero Capítulo XVII, Parts 7-9 Capítulo XXI Capítulo XXII
Arauco is a city and commune in Chile, located in Arauco Province in the Bío Bío Region. The meaning of Arauco means Chalky Water in Mapudungun; the region was a Moluche aillarehue. The Spanish settlements founded here during the Conquest of Chile were destroyed on numerous occasions by the Mapuche during the Arauco War. In 1552 Pedro de Valdivia the first governor of Chile, founded a fort, named San Felipe de Rauco or de Araucan, it was 12 km east of the location of the modern city of Arauco in the part of the valley on the South or left bank of the Carampangue River at the point where on the opposite bank it receives the riachuelo of Conumo. Valdivia planned it to be the base for a city; the Mapuche destroyed the fort in 1554, after killing Valdivia's insane mother-in-law. It was raised again after the battle of Quiapo, by García Hurtado de Mendoza in 1559. Destroyed again in 1563 it was rebuilt again in 1566 by Rodrigo de Quiroga and became a small town, that remained so without growing until being transferred to the current site of the city of Arauco.
The population of old Araucan was moved in 1590 by Governor Don Alonso de Sotomayor to the seacoast, four kilometers to southwest of the mouth of the Carampangue River located between its beach on the Bay of Arauco and the hill on the southwestern side of the place called cerro de Colocólo. The lands for the site were ceded by the cacique Colocólo, it was named Villa de San Ildefonso de Arauco. However, six years Martín García Óñez de Loyola transferred it to its present site, a fort raised on the slope of the Cerro Colocólo and gave it the name of Ciudad de San Felipe de Araucan. In the great Mapuche Uprising of 1598, that followed the death of Governor Loyola, it was destroyed by the Mapuche once again, it was recovered by Governor Alonso de Ribera in 1603, it continued to be harassed by the Mapuche until its inhabitants were forced to leave it in another great rising in 1655. Governor Ángel de Peredo recovered it in 1662 and Governor Francisco de Meneses Brito in 1665. Under the government of Don Juan Henríquez de Villalobos its fort was reconstructed in 1673, served as the defense of the town until it was destroyed completely by the earthquake of February 20, 1835.
It still suffered from the hostilities of the Mapuche in their uprisings of 1723 and 1766 and during the war of Independence in the assault that they made on it on June 4, 1817, with their royalist allies. Population began to gather around this fort and it became the city of Araucan on December 7, 1852, it became the capital of the department of Araucan and now Commune of Arauco in the Arauco Province. According to the 2002 census of Population and Housing by the National Statistics Institute the commune of Arauco spans an area of 956.1 km2 had 34,873 inhabitants. At that time, there were 17,270 women; the population grew by 17.6 % between the 2002 censuses. As a commune, Arauco is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years; the 2008-2012 alcalde is Mauricio Alarcón Guzmán. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Arauco is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Manuel Monsalve and Iván Norambuena as part of the 46th electoral district.
The commune is represented in the Senate by Victor Pérez Varela and Mariano Ruiz -Esquide Jara as part of the 13th senatorial constituency. Francisco Solano Asta-Buruaga y Cienfuegos, Diccionario geográfico de la República de Chile, D. Appleton y Compania, Nueva York, 1899 Arauco, pg. 47-49 Arauco Viejo, pg. 50 Municipality of Arauco
Royal Governor of Chile
The Royal Governor of Chile ruled over the Spanish colonial administrative district called the Captaincy General of Chile, as a result the Royal Governor held the title of a Captain General. There were 66 such governors or captains during the Spanish conquest and the periods of Spanish-centered colonialism. Ambrosio O'Higgins, Marquis of Osorno: José de Rezabal y Ugarte: Gabriel de Avilés, 2nd Marquis of Avilés: Joaquín del Pino Sánchez de Rojas: José de Santiago Concha Jiménez Lobatón: Francisco Tadeo Diez de Medina Vidanges: Luis Muñoz de Guzmán: Juan Rodríguez Ballesteros: Francisco Antonio García Carrasco Díaz: Mateo de Toro Zambrano, 1st Count of la Conquista: Period of the Reconquista Española: Governors and Captains General José Antonio Pareja: Juan Francisco Sánchez: Gabino Gaínza y Fernández de Medrano: Mariano Osorio: Francisco Marcó del Pont Ángel Díaz y Méndez: Mariano Osorio
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia