Melencolia I

Melencolia I is a 1514 engraving by the German Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer. The print's central subject is an enigmatic and gloomy winged female figure thought to be a personification of melancholia. Holding her head in her hand, she stares past the busy scene in front of her; the area is strewn with symbols and tools associated with craft and carpentry, including an hourglass, weighing scales, a hand plane, a claw hammer, a saw. Other objects relate to geometry or numerology. Behind the figure is a structure with an embedded magic square, a ladder leading beyond the frame; the sky contains a rainbow, a comet or planet, a bat-like creature bearing the text that has become the print's title. Dürer's engraving is one of the most well-known extant old master prints, despite a vast art-historical literature, it has resisted any definitive interpretation. Dürer may have associated melancholia with creative activity; as such, Dürer may have intended the print as a veiled self-portrait. Other art historians see the figure as pondering the nature of beauty or the value of artistic creativity in light of rationalism, or as a purposely obscure work that highlights the limitations of allegorical or symbolic art.

The art historian Erwin Panofsky, whose writing on the print has received the most attention, detailed its possible relation to Renaissance humanists' conception of melancholia. Summarizing its art-historical legacy, he wrote that "the influence of Dürer's Melencolia I—the first representation in which the concept of melancholy was transplanted from the plane of scientific and pseudo-scientific folklore to the level of art—extended all over the European continent and lasted for more than three centuries." Melencolia I has been the subject of more scholarship than any other print. As the art historian Campbell Dodgson wrote in 1926, "The literature on Melancholia is more extensive than that on any other engraving by Dürer: that statement would remain true if the last two words were omitted." Panofsky's studies in German and English, between 1923 and 1964 and sometimes with coauthors, have been influential. Melencolia I is one of Dürer's three Meisterstiche, along with Knight and the Devil and St. Jerome in His Study.

The prints are considered thematically related by some art historians, depicting labours that are intellectual, moral, or spiritual in nature. While Dürer sometimes distributed Melencolia I with St. Jerome in His Study, there is no evidence that he conceived of them as a thematic group; the print has two states. There is little documentation to provide insight into Dürer's intent, he made a few pencil studies for the engraving and some of his notes relate to it. A quoted note refers to the keys and the purse—"Schlüssel—gewalt/pewtell—reichtum beteut" —although this can be read as a simple record of their traditional symbolism. Another note reflects on the nature of beauty. In 1513 and 1514, Dürer experienced the death of a number of friends, followed by his mother, engendering a grief that may be expressed in this engraving. Dürer mentions melancholy only once in his surviving writings. In an unfinished book for young artists, he cautions that too much exertion may lead one to "fall under the hand of melancholy".

Panofsky considered but rejected the suggestion that the "I" in the title might indicate that Dürer had planned three other engravings on the four temperaments. He suggested instead that the "I" referred to the first of three types of melancholy defined by Cornelius Agrippa. Others see the "I" as a reference to the first stage of the alchemical process; the winged, androgynous central figure is thought to be a personification of melancholia or geometry. She sits on a slab with a closed book on her lap, holds a compass loosely, gazes intensely into the distance. Immobilized by gloom, she pays no attention to the many objects around her. Reflecting the medieval iconographical depiction of melancholy, she rests her head on a closed fist, her face is dark, indicating the accumulation of black bile, she wears a wreath of watery plants. A set of keys and a purse hang from the belt of her long dress. Behind her, a windowless building with no clear architectural function rises beyond the top of the frame.

A ladder with seven rungs leans against the structure. A putto sits atop a millstone with a chip in it, he scribbles on a tablet, or a burin used for engraving. Attached to the structure is a balance scale above the putto, above Melancholy is a bell and an hourglass with a sundial at the top. Numerous unused tools and mathematical instruments are scattered around, including a hammer and nails, a saw, a plane, pincers, a straightedge, a molder's form, either the nozzle of a bellows or an enema syringe. On the low wall behind the large polyhedron is a brazier with a goldsmith's crucible and a pair of tongs. To the left of the emaciated, sleeping dog is a censer, or an inkwell with a strap connecting a pen holder. A bat-like creature spreads its wings across the sky, revealing a banner printed with the words "Melencolia I". Beyond it is a rainbow and an object, either Saturn or a comet. In the far distance is a landscape with small treed islands, suggesting flooding, a sea; the rightmost portion

2015 FIBA Americas Championship

The 2015 FIBA Americas Championship for Men known as the FIBA AmeriCup, was the FIBA Americas qualifying tournament for the 2016 Summer Olympics, in Brazil. This FIBA AmeriCup tournament was held in Mexico; the tournament was won for the first time by the Venezuelan national basketball team. Venezuela and runner-up Argentina, qualified directly for the 2016 Olympics, they joined the FIBA Americas member, United States, who qualified for the Olympics by virtue of winning the 2014 FIBA World Cup, they elected not to participate at this tournament. Canada and Puerto Rico, the next three highest-finishing teams, qualified for the 2016 FIBA Olympic Qualifying Tournament, but none of them won their respective qualifying tournaments, therefore eliminating their 2016 Olympic hopes; the tournament had great attendance every day, breaking FIBA Americas records, had attendances of 20,000 people, at the third place and finals games. Host country Mexico Central American and Caribbean Sub-Zone: Puerto Rico Dominican Republic Cuba Panama North American Sub-Zone: Canada South American Sub-Zone: Venezuela Argentina Brazil Uruguay On 7 August 2014 at the day of the 2014 Centrobasket final, FIBA Americas announced that Mexico was chosen as the host of the championship, over Brazil and Venezuela.

The tournament was to be staged at the Monterrey Arena but on 9 May 2015, the venue was moved to the Palacio de los Deportes in Mexico City, that the dates were changed to 6 September to 12 September. The draw was held in Museum of Steel, Fundidora Park, Nuevo Leon on 25 March; this was how the teams were seeded: All times are local. All times are local. All times are local. Finalists qualify for the 2016 Summer Olympics, while losing semifinalists qualify to the 2016 FIBA World Olympic Qualifying Tournament for Men. Heissler Guillént Andrew Wiggins Andrés Nocioni Luis Scola Gustavo Ayón

Gertrude Demain Hammond

Gertrude Demain Hammond or Mrs. McMurdie was a British painter and children's book illustrator. Hammond was born in Brixton, she is known for graphic design and typography, exhibited from 1886 in London at the Royal Academy and Suffolk Street. Her 1904 work. Gertrude Demain Hammond was born in London, England in 1862, she is one of three children. All of the children in her family became artists. Gertrude herself was an illustrator who worked in black-and-white and watercolors, her older sister Christine Demain Hammond was a successful pen illustrator, her younger brother Percy Edward Demain Hammond was a stained-glass artist. Being the child of a banker’s clerk, Gertrude was afforded the opportunity to study at the Lambeth School of Art and at the Royal Academy Schools. In 1898 Hammond married Henry McMurdie, she continued to publish her artwork under her unmarried name. The couple resided at St. Paul’s Studios in Hammersmith, West London, known at the time to be something of an artists’ colony.

Gertrude Demain Hammond supported herself through black-and-white illustrations by contributing to a plethora of London journals such as The Yellow Book, illustrated for literary works of Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, Edmund Spenser. Hammond’s vision was consistent along with other painter-illustrators around the turn of the century, was shaped by the medievalising style brought about by the Pre-Raphaelites. In her career, Hammond struggled with gender inequality, she would sign her illustrations as “G. Demain Hammond” in an attempt to receive fair payment for her work, her sister did the same thing. In 1892, the sisters were a part of the few female illustrators for The Idler. A year the magazine was taken over by Jerome K. Jerome, who stopped giving commissions to women all together. Hammond commented on this discrimination of the time through some of her artwork. In her 1903 watercolor A Reading From Plato, Hammond depicts an aristocratic woman pondering the language of Plato contemplating philosophy, political theory, metaphysics, or other ideas that were ordinarily thought to be masculine subjects.

At the time that this painting was created, British women did not have the right to vote, would not be granted it for another 25 years. Hammond was a British painter and a children’s book illustrator, contributed to many works throughout her career. One children’s book she helped illustrate was Velma Bourgeois Richmond’s Shakespeare as Children's Literature: Edwardian Retellings in Words and Pictures, which aimed to make Shakespeare’s literature more accessible for children, therefore encouraging them to take an interest in the humanities and art of reading. Gertrude’s paintings and illustrations consisted of portraits, interior genre scenes, literary subjects, all done in watercolor, she was given the opportunity to exhibit at the Royal Academy and the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colors where she presented Youth’s Spring-Tribute. This graphic watercolor illustrated Youth’s Spring-Tribute, from a sequence of poems, The House of Life, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, in 1881; this watercolor was reproduced in a publication of an Edwardian birthday book in 1905, The Beautiful Birthday Book, replicating watercolors by Hammond.

The Story of Hereward - The Champion of England, novel by Douglas C. Steadman B. A. illustrated by Gertrude Demain Hammond R. I. pub. 1908 by George G. Harrap and Co. Stories From The Faerie Queene Retold From Spenser, novel by Laurence H. Dawson, illustrated by Gertrude Demain Hammond, pub. 1911-1912 by McClelland & Goodchild Limited Publishers. Hero-Myths and Legends of the British Race, novel by M. I. Ebbutt, illustrated by J. H. F. Bacon, Gertrude Demain Hammond, W. H. Margetson, Byam Shaw, Patten Wilson, pub. 1910 by Thomas Y. Crowell. Jasper: A Story for Children, novel by Mrs. Molesworth, illustrated by Gertrude Demain Hammond, pub. 1906 by London: Macmillan and Co. The Spell, novel by William Dana Orcutt, illustrated by pub. 1909 by Harper & Brothers Publishers. Tales From Shakespeare, novel by Charles Lamb and Mary Lamb, illustrated by Gertrude Demain Hammond, pub. 1878 by New York: Thomas Y. Crowell. Arethusa, novel by F. Marion Crawford, illustrated by pub. 1907 by New York, Macmillan. Faeries Afield, novel by Mrs. Molesworth, illustrated by pub.

1911 by London. A Girl in Springtime, novel by Jessie Mansergh, illustrated by pub. 1897 by Blackie and Son Limited, London. Shakespeare’s Stories of the English Kings, novel by Thomas Thellusson, illustrated by Gertrude Demain Hammond, pub. 1912 by London: G. G. Harrap. Two Maiden Aunts, novel by Mary H. Debenham, illustrated by pub. 1895 by New York: Thomas Whittaker. The Beautiful Birthday Book, illustrated by Gertrude Demain Hammond, pub. 1905 by A & C Black, London. Complete Works of George Eliot, novel by George Eliot, illustrated by Gertrude Demain Hammond and Frederick L. Stoddard, pub. 1908 by London: Postlethwaite, Taylor & Knowles, Ltd. The Personal History of David Copperfield, novel by Charles Dickens, illustrated by Gertrude Demain Hammond, pub. 1921 by New York: Dodd, Mead. Fairies of Sorts, novel by Mrs. Molesworth, illustrated by pub. 1908 by London: Macmillan and Company. Dimsie Moves Up Again, story by Dorita Fairlie Bruce, illustrated by pub. 1925 by Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press.

Works by Gertrude Demain Hammond at Project Gutenberg Works by Gertrude Demain Hammond at Faded Page Gertrude Demain Hammon