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Melhus

Melhus is a municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. It is part of the Gauldalen region; the administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Melhus. Other villages include Gåsbakken, Korsvegen, Kvål, Lundamo, Øysand. Agriculture is important in Melhus, the extensive lowland areas in the flat valley surrounding the Gaula River are dominated by grain fields. Many inhabitants work in a 20-minute drive north from Melhus; the 694-square-kilometre municipality is the 162nd largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Melhus is the 71st most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 16,424; the municipality's population density is 25.1 inhabitants per square kilometre and its population has increased by 13.6% over the last decade. Melhus was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. In 1865, the western district of Høilandet was separated from Melhus to form a separate municipality. On 1880, the eastern district of Flaa was separated to form its own municipality.

During the 1960s, there were many municipal mergers across Norway due to the work of the Schei Committee. On 1 January 1964, Melhus was merged with the neighboring municipalities of Hølonda, Flå, the small Langørgen farm area in the neighboring municipality of Buvik to form a new, larger municipality of Melhus. On 1 January 2018, the municipality switched from the old Sør-Trøndelag county to the new Trøndelag county; the municipality is named after the old Melhus farm. The first element is meðal which means "middle" and the last element is the plural form of hús which means "house"; the farm is one part of a greater and older farm, which had the name Óðinssalr which means "the salr of Odin". The coat of arms was granted on 8 November 1979; the arms show a gold-colored archer with a red background. The arms were chosen to symbolize Einar Tambarskjelve, a famous chief and archer from Melhus in the 11th century, he is mentioned as an archer for King Olav Tryggvason in the Battle of Svolder. The Church of Norway has four parishes within the municipality of Melhus.

It is part of the Gauldal prosti in the Diocese of Nidaros. Melhus was the site of many important events during the Viking Era, it was the site of the farm Rimul in Melhus at which Jarl Haakon was killed by his slave, Tormod Kark. Jarlshola is the location in Melhus thought to have been the hiding place of Jarl Haakon and Tormod Kark on their last night before the infamous murder at Rimul; the 695-square-kilometre municipality of Melhus includes the valley of the river Gaula as it flows northwards towards its mouth at the Gaulosen, an arm of the Trondheimsfjord. The lake Svorksjøen lies on the western border with Meldal; the lakes Benna and Ånøya lie in the central part of the municipality, the lake Samsjøen lies on the southeastern border with Midtre Gauldal municipality. The mountains of Rensfjellet and Vassfjellet lie on the eastern border with Selbu and Klæbu municipalities, respectively. All municipalities in Norway, including Melhus, are responsible for primary education, outpatient health services, senior citizen services and other social services, economic development, municipal roads.

The municipality is governed by a municipal council of elected representatives, which in turn elect a mayor. The municipality falls under the Frostating Court of Appeal; the municipal council of Melhus is made up of 37 representatives that are elected to four year terms. The party breakdown of the council is as follows: European route E6 runs north and south through the municipality, following the Gaula River. There is a 3-kilometre long stretch of European route E39 passes east and west in the northern part of Melhus between Buvika and Leinstrand; the Dovre Line follows the river through Melhus. The following stations are located along the railway line in Melhus: Melhus Station, Kvål Station, Ler Station, Lundamo Station, Hovin Station; the railroad goes through the Gulfoss Tunnel at Hovin. Trønderbladet: Largest newspaper in Melhus. Gaula: Newspaper published in Melhus which covers the Midtre Gauldal and Byneset Trøndelag travel guide from Wikivoyage Municipal fact sheet from Statistics Norway Municipal website Melhus Prestegårdslåna Local history of Melhus

Ethel Jenner Rosenberg

Ethel Jenner Rosenberg became the first English Baháʼí. Rosenberg became a Baháʼí when she converted in 1899, after having been introduced to the Baháʼí Faith by Mary Thornburgh-Cropper, an American resident in London who had converted in 1898. Rosenberg was born in the city of Bath, Somerset to a Jewish family and was a painter trained at the Slade School of Fine Art in London, she was ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's social secretary during his visits to London. ʻAbdu'l-Bahá asked her, among others, to give consideration to publishing Baháʼí books, which resulted in the publication of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá in London and A Brief Account of the Bahai Movement. Rosenberg assisted Laura Clifford Barney in compiling Some Answered Questions and Lady Blomfield in compiling Paris Talks. Rosenberg traveled to America three times doing so with Mírzá Abu'l-Faḍl and Laura Clifford Barney, she stayed with Phoebe Hearst. Rosenberg made three pilgrimages to Haifa, in 1904, 1909 and 1921; when she arrived in Haifa for her third pilgrimage, in 1921, she found that ʻAbdu'l-Bahá had died.

Remaining in Haifa, she greeted Lady Blomfield, Shoghi Effendi, Shoghi Effendi's sister Ruhangiz when the three arrived from England on December 29, 1921. Shoghi Effendi gave her instructions for the calling of the first National Spiritual Assembly of England, which she would serve on. Weinberg, Robert. Ethel Jenner Rosenberg: England's Outstanding Baháʼí Pioneer. George Ronald Publisher Ltd. ISBN 978-0853983996

Azerbaijani alphabet

The Azerbaijani alphabet of the Republic of Azerbaijan is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Azerbaijani language. This superseded previous versions based on Cyrillic and Perso-Arabic scripts after the fall of Soviet Union and independence of Azerbaijan. In Iran, where Azeris make up the second largest ethnic group, the Persian script is used to write the Azerbaijani language. While there have been a few standardization efforts, the orthography and the set of letters used differs among Iranian Azeri writers, with at least two major branches, the orthography used by Behzad Behzadi and the Azari magazine, the orthography used by the Varliq magazine. In Russia, the Cyrillic alphabet is still used to write in Azerbaijani language. From the nineteenth century there were efforts by some intellectuals like Mirza Fatali Akhundov and Mammad agha Shahtakhtinski to replace the Arabic script and create a Latin alphabet for Azeri. In 1929, a Latin alphabet was created by Soviet Union sponsored Yeni türk əlifba komitəsi in Baku which hoped that the new alphabet would divide the Azerbaijanis in the USSR from those living in Iran.

An additional reason for the soviet regime's encouragement of a non-Arabic script was that they hoped the transition would work towards secularizing Azerbaijan's Muslim culture and since language script reform, proposed as early as the 19th century by Azeri intellectuals, had been rejected by the Azeri religious establishment on the grounds that Arabic script, the language of the Koran, was "holy and should not be tampered with" there was some historical basis for the reform which received overwhelming support at the First Turcological Congress in Baku during 1926 where the reform was voted for 101 to 7. The Azeri poet Samad Vurgun declared "Azerbaijani people are proud of being the first among Oriental nations that buried the Arabic alphabet and adopted the Latin alphabet; this event is written in golden letters of our history" As a result, in the Soviet Union in 1926 the Uniform Turkic Alphabet was introduced to replace the varieties of the Arabic script in use at the time. In 1939, during the Red terror campaign, Joseph Stalin ordered that the Azeri script used in the USSR again be changed, this time to the Cyrillic script in order to sever the soviet Azerbaijanis ties with the people in the Republic of Turkey.

At the same time that the leaders of the Soviet Union were attempting to isolate the Soviet population of Azeri speakers from the neighboring populations in Persia and Turkey, the Persian government of the Azeri speaking Qajar dynasty was overthrown by Reza Shah who established the Pahlavi dynasty and banned the publication of texts in Azeri. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 and Azerbaijan gained its independence, one of the first laws passed in the new Parliament was the adoption of a new Latin-script alphabet. From 1929 until 1939: Aa, Bʙ, Cc, Çç, Dd, Ee, Əə, Ff, Gg, Ƣƣ, Hh, Ii, Ьь, Jj, Kk, Qq, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Ɵɵ, Pp, Rr, Ss, Şş, Tt, Uu, Vv, Xx, Yy, Zz, Ƶƶ From 1939 until 1958: Аа, Бб, Вв, Гг, Ғғ, Дд, Ее, Әә, Жж, Зз, Ии, Йй, Кк, Ҝҝ, Лл, Мм, Нн, Оо, Өө, Пп, Рр, Сс, Тт, Уу, Үү, Фф, Хх, Һһ, Цц, Чч, Ҹҹ, Шш, Ыы, Ээ, Юю, Яя, ʼ From 1958 until 1991: Аа, Бб, Вв, Гг, Ғғ, Дд, Ее, Әә, Жж, Зз, Ии, Ыы, Јј, Кк, Ҝҝ, Лл, Мм, Нн, Оо, Өө, Пп, Рр, Сс, Тт, Уу, Үү, Фф, Хх, Һһ, Чч, Ҹҹ, Шш, ʼ From 1991 until 1992: Aa, Ää, Bb, Cc, Çç, Dd, Ee, Ff, Gg, Ğğ, Hh, Xx, Iı, İi, Jj, Kk, Qq, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Öö, Pp, Rr, Ss, Şş, Tt, Uu, Üü, Vv, Yy, Zz Since 1992: Aa, Bb, Cc, Çç, Dd, Ee, Əə, Ff, Gg, Ğğ, Hh, Xx, Iı, İi, Jj, Kk, Qq, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Öö, Pp, Rr, Ss, Şş, Tt, Uu, Üü, Vv, Yy, ZzThe Azerbaijani alphabet is the same as the Turkish alphabet, except for Әə, Xx, Qq, the letters for sounds which do not exist as separate phonemes in Turkish.

When compared to the historic Latin alphabet: Ğğ has replaced the historic Ƣƣ. When the new Latin script was introduced on December 25, 1991, A-umlaut was selected to represent the sound /æ/. However, on May 16, 1992, it was replaced by the grapheme schwa, used previously. Although use of Ä ä seems to be a simpler alternative as the schwa is absent in most character sets Turkish encoding, it was reintroduced; this section contains the national anthem of Azerbaijan, in the current Latin, Cyrillic, Jaꞑalif, Perso-Arabic alphabets. The Arabic and Cyrillic alphabets each have a different sequence of letters; the table below is ordered according to the latest Latin alphabet: 1 – in the beginning of a word and after vowels The Azeri Perso-Arabic alphabet contains the letter ڴ. ڴ stood