Stone Ridge, New York
Stone Ridge is a hamlet in Ulster County, New York, United States. The population was 1,173 at the 2010 census. Stone Ridge is located in the Town of Marbletown, along US 209 where it overlaps NY 213; the Main Street Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988. Stone Ridge is located at 74 ° 9' 23" west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 5.2 square miles, of which 5.2 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,173 people, 458 households, 327 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 225.0 per square mile. There were 501 housing units at an average density of 96.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 94.46% White, 1.71% Black or African American, none Native American, 1.88% Asian, none Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 1.45% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.41% of the population. There were 458 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.6% were non-families.
25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.01. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 22.3% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 30.2% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $39,271, the median income for a family was $68,977. Males had a median income of $35,000 versus $26,176 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $21,465. About 8.3% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over. SUNY Ulster Rondout Valley Central School District. High Meadow School Stone Ridge Public Library
The Fighter is a 2010 American biographical sports drama film directed by David O. Russell, starring Mark Wahlberg, Christian Bale, Amy Adams, Melissa Leo; the film centers on the lives of professional boxer Micky Ward and his older half-brother Dicky Eklund. Adams plays Micky's girlfriend Charlene Fleming, Leo portrays Micky and Dicky's mother, Alice Eklund-Ward; the film was inspired by the 1996 documentary that features the Eklund-Ward family, titled High on Crack Street: Lost Lives in Lowell. The film was released in select North American theaters on December 17, 2010, in the United Kingdom on February 4, 2011, it was nominated for seven Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director, winning the awards for Best Supporting Actor and Best Supporting Actress. It was the first film to win both awards since Hannah and Her Sisters in 1986. Micky Ward is an American welterweight boxer from Massachusetts. Managed by his mother, Alice Ward, trained by his older half-brother, Dicky Eklund, Micky became a "stepping stone" for other boxers to defeat on their way up.
Dicky, a former boxer whose peak of success was going the distance with Sugar Ray Leonard in 1978, has become addicted to crack cocaine. He is being filmed for an HBO documentary he believes to be about his "comeback". On the night of an undercard fight in Atlantic City, Micky's scheduled opponent is ill, a substitute is found, 20 pounds heavier than Micky, a huge difference in professional boxing, constituting two or three weight classes. Despite Micky's reservations, his mother and brother agree so that they can all get the purse and Micky is defeated. Micky retreats from the world and forms a relationship with Charlene Fleming, a former college athlete who dropped out and became a bartender. After several weeks, Alice arranges another fight for Micky, but Micky is concerned it will turn out the same, his mother and seven sisters blame Charlene for his lack of motivation. Micky mentions he received an offer to be paid to train in Las Vegas, but Dicky says he will match the offer so he can keep training and working with his family.
Dicky tries to get money by posing his girlfriend as a prostitute and once she picks up a client, impersonating a police officer to steal the client's money. This is foiled by the actual police and Dicky is arrested after a chase and a fight with them. Micky tries to stop the police from beating his brother and a police officer brutally breaks his hand before arresting him. At their arraignment, Micky is released. Micky washes his hands of Dicky. On the night of the HBO documentary's airing, Dicky's family, Dicky himself in prison, are horrified to see that it is called Crack in America and depicts how crack addiction ruined Dicky's career and life. Dicky begins trying to get his life together in prison. Micky is lured back into boxing by his father, who believes Alice and his stepson Dicky are bad influences; the other members of his training team and a new manager, Sal Lanano, persuade Micky to return to boxing with the explicit understanding that his mother and brother will no longer be involved.
They place Micky in minor fights to help him regain his confidence. He is offered another major fight against an undefeated up-and-coming boxer. During a prison visit, Dicky advises Micky on how best to work his opponent, but Micky feels his brother is being selfish and trying to restart his own failed career. During the actual match, Micky is nearly overwhelmed, but implements his brother's advice and triumphs. Upon his release from prison and his mother go to see Micky train. Assuming things are as they were, Dicky prepares to spar with his brother, but Micky informs him that he is no longer allowed per Micky's agreement with his current team. In the ensuing argument, in which Micky chastises both factions of his family and his trainer leave in disgust. Micky and Dicky spar. Dicky storms off to get high again, Alice chides Micky, only to be sobered when he tells her that she has always favored Dicky. Dicky returns to his crack house, where he says goodbye to his friends and heads to Charlene's apartment.
He tells her that Micky needs both of them and they need to work together. After bringing everyone back together, the group goes to London for the title fight against welterweight champion Shea Neary. Micky scores another upset victory and the welterweight title; the film jumps a few years ahead, with Dicky crediting his brother as the creator of his own success. The real-life brothers banter as the end credits run. Mark Wahlberg as Micky Ward: Wahlberg elected to star in the film due to his friendship with Ward, with whom he shares an inner-city working class Massachusetts upbringing in a family with eight siblings. Wahlberg was a huge fan of Ward's, calling him a "local sports hero"; the actor was attracted to the film's central theme, an ordinary person in "an against-all-odds story", which he explored in Invincible. To mimic Ward's habits and mannerisms, Wahlberg had him "on set, watching me every single day". During pre-production, the Ward brothers temporarily moved into Wahlberg's home. To add to the film's realism, Wahlberg refused a stunt double and took real punches during the fight scenes, which resulted in him nearly getting his nose broken a couple of times.
Wahlberg underwent a strict bodybuilding exercise regimen, dedicating over four years of training to obtain a muscular physique to convincingly play Ward. "The last six movies I did I was secretly preparing for The Fighter at the same time", the actor continued, "so I would leave three hours early for work and go to the gym a
Bellows Falls, Vermont
Bellows Falls is an incorporated village located in the town of Rockingham in Windham County, United States. The population was 3,165 at the 2000 census. Bellows Falls is home to a heritage railroad; the falls were once a fishing place for the nomadic Abenaki tribes, who were part of the Algonquian language family. They shad. Indigenous peoples had fished at the falls and inhabited the area for thousands of years before European arrival, they carved two sets of faces in the rocks just below the falls. The community was settled in 1753 by colonists of English descent; the settlers named the town for Colonel Benjamin Bellows, a landowner. In 1785, Colonel Enoch Hale built at the falls the first bridge over the Connecticut River, it was the only bridge across the river until 1796, when another was built at Springfield, Massachusetts. The bridge was replaced. Two bridges link Bellows Falls to New Hampshire: the New Arch Bridge, which replaced the Arch Bridge in 1982, the Vilas Bridge, closed due to safety concerns in 2009.
The Bellows Falls Canal, the first canal built in the United States, was dug by a British-owned company from 1791-1802. The original canal was 22 feet wide and four feet deep, had 9 locks, each 75 feet long and 20 feet wide, which allowed shipping to go around the Great Falls in the Connecticut River by being lifted 52 feet around the gorge. River traffic declined after railroads were built to the Connecticut Valley in 1849, by 1858 the canal had become used exclusively for water power to run the paper mills which became established there. In 1874 the canal was enlarged to 17 feet deep. By 1908 it was delivering 15,000 horsepower to the mills; when the mills replaced water power with electrical power, the canal was widened again in 1927-28 to 100 feet, the water was used to power turbines to generate electricity. The canal's bottom was lined with concrete, the sides secured with rip-rap set in concrete. A fish ladder allows salmon to continue upstream at times when the bulk of the river's flow is diverted to the canal.
The canal is now part of the Bellows Falls Downtown Historic District. In 1802, entrepreneurs built the first paper mill in Windham County. Two railroads converged in 1849 at Bellows Falls. By 1859, a woolen textile mill was operating, in addition to factories that produced furniture, marble and blinds, iron castings, cabinetware, harness, shoe pegs and organs; the principal products, were paper and farm machinery. Bellows Falls was incorporated as a village in 1909; the years of industry created wealth in the town, substantial Victorian houses and mercantile buildings were constructed. Bellows Falls today attracts visitors through heritage tourism based on its historic Victorian architecture; the commercial town center, along with the canal, the bridges spanning it, several neighborhoods of houses, were listed as historic districts on the National Register of Historic Places, as were individual landmarks such as the historic railroad station and the Adams Gristmill Warehouse. The village is located within the town of Rockingham.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.4 square miles, all land. Bellows Falls is bounded on the east by the Connecticut River; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,165 people, 1,329 households, 782 families residing in the village. The population density was 2,286.1 people per square mile. There were 1,443 housing units at an average density of 1,042.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the village was 97.28% White, 0.35% African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 1.45% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.14% of the population. There were 1,329 households out of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.0% were couples living together and joined in either marriage or civil union, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.1% were non-families. 34.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.01. In the village, the population was spread out with 26.1% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males. The median income for a household in the village was $29,608, the median income for a family was $45,688. Males had a median income of $29,137 versus $22,340 for females; the per capita income for the village was $15,276. About 5.6% of families and 12.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.3% of those under age 18 and 15.9% of those age 65 or over. Bellows Falls has several cultural attractions including: Adams Grist Mill Museum Bellows Falls Historical Society & Museum Bellows Falls Opera House Green Mountain Railroad, a heritage railroad Rockingham Arts & Museum Project Vilas Bridge, a defunct bridge over the Connecticut river Just downstream of the bridge are petroglyphs on large boulders at the Bellows Falls Petroglyph Site.
Historic districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places are: Bellows Falls Neighborhood Historic District – a neighborhood on streets adjacent to downtown. Bello
A Time of Destiny
A Time of Destiny is a 1988 American drama film directed by Gregory Nava and written by Nava and Anna Thomas. The story is based on the opera La forza del destino by Giuseppe Verdi; the motion picture was executive produced by Carolyn Pfeiffer. It features original music by veteran composer Ennio Morricone. Set during World War II in Italy and San Diego, the film tells of two friends who become enemies during the war. Soldiers Martin and Jack are good friends during World War II. While their friendship grows, they do not realize. Martin learns that Jack is married to his sister Josie; when Jack and Josie elope, her Basque immigrant father, tracks them down and abducts his daughter in order to dominate her with his "old-world" notions of marriage. However, when Jorge Larraneta drowns in a lake after an auto accident, Martin returns home and learns of his father's death, he vows revenge. Martin gets himself assigned to Jack's infantry platoon in Italy. William Hurt as Martin Larraneta Timothy Hutton as Jack Melissa Leo as Josie Larraneta Francisco Rabal as Jorge Larraneta Concha Hidalgo as Sebastiana Stockard Channing as Margaret Megan Follows as Irene Frederick Coffin as Ed Peter Palmer as Policeman Kelly Pacheco as Young Josie The film was released in a limited basis on April 22, 1988.
The box office opening weekend was $509,397. Box office sales were disappointing. Total sales for the domestic run were $1,212,487 and in its widest release the film was shown in 220 screens; the film closed on June 23, 1988. Filming locations included: Istria Peninsula, Croatia. Roger Ebert, film critic for the Chicago Sun-Times, liked the film but questioned the complex screenplay. Yet, Ebert was appreciative of the acting and wrote, "You see what I mean when I call the movie operatic, it glories in brooding vengeance, fatal flaws of character and deep morality. Its plot is so labyrinthine, its passions are so large that they are a challenge to actors trained in a realistic tradition, but Hurt, who has the most difficult passages, rises to the occasion with one of the strangest and most effective performances he has given." His television partner Gene Siskel put it on his worst of 1988 list. Vincent Canby was not so kind to the actors, he wrote in his review for The New York Times, "The movie includes some big, unimpressive battle scenes, a number of orangey sunsets, a lot of comic-strip dialogue and one memorable moment in which the silhouette of a gentle, southern California mountain range fades into the silhouette of a man lying on his death bed.
The performances are not good."The Washington Post was just as tough on Nava and Thomas. Film critic Rita Kempley said, "Hurt's role as a vengeful psycho churns up this laughable purple potboiler, but the perennial Oscar nominee can't save it from itself." An original motion picture soundtrack was released on September 1988, by Virgin Records. The CD, which has eighteen tracks, features original music composed for the film by Ennio Morricone; the recording includes several selections of Edda Dell ` Orso's vocals. Selections from this soundtrack was used for the trailer of the film “Wyatt Earp”. A Time of Destiny on IMDb A Time of Destiny at Rotten Tomatoes A Time of Destiny at AllMovie A Time of Destiny at Box Office Mojo A Time of Destiny soundtrack by Ennio Morricone at YouTube
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Madalyn Murray O'Hair
Madalyn Murray O'Hair was an American activist supporting atheism and separation of church and state. In 1963 she founded American Atheists and served as its president to 1986, after which her son Jon Garth Murray succeeded her, she created the first issues of American Atheist Magazine. O'Hair is best known for the Murray v. Curlett lawsuit, which challenged the policy of mandatory prayers and Bible reading in Baltimore public schools, in which she named her first son William J. Murray as plaintiff. Consolidated with Abington School District v. Schempp, it was heard by the United States Supreme Court, which ruled that official Bible-reading in American public schools was unconstitutional; the Supreme Court had prohibited sponsored prayer in schools in Engel v. Vitale on similar grounds. Through American Atheists, O'Hair filed numerous other suits on issues of separation of church and state. In 1995, O'Hair, her second son Jon Garth Murray, her adopted daughter Robin Murray O'Hair, disappeared from Austin, Texas.
Garth Murray withdrew hundreds of thousands of dollars from American Atheists' funds, there was speculation that the trio had absconded. David Roland Waters, a convicted felon and former employee of American Atheists, was convicted of murdering O'Hair, Jon Garth Murray, Robin Murray O'Hair; the bodies were not found until Waters led authorities to their burial place following his conviction. Madalyn Mays was born in the Beechview neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on April 13, 1919, the daughter of Lena Christina and John Irwin Mays, she had an older brother, John Irwin Jr.. Their father was of Irish ethnicity and their mother was of German ancestry. At the age of four, Madalyn was baptized into her father's Presbyterian church; the family moved to Ohio, in 1936, Mays graduated from Rossford High School in Rossford. In 1941, Mays married a steelworker, they separated when they both enlisted for World War II service, he in the United States Marine Corps, she in the Women's Army Corps. In April 1945, while posted to a cryptography position in Italy, she began a relationship with officer William J. Murray, Jr. a married Roman Catholic.
He refused to divorce his wife. Mays adopted the name Madalyn Murray, she gave birth to her son with officer Murray after returning to Ohio, named the boy William J. Murray III. In 1949, Murray completed a bachelor's degree from Ashland University, she did not pass the bar exam. She moved with Bill to Maryland. On November 16, 1954, she gave birth to her second son, Jon Garth Murray, fathered by her boyfriend Michael Fiorillo, their relationship ended, it is believed that the boy, known as Garth, never met his father. It was rumored that Murray sought to defect to the Soviet Union at their embassy in Paris in 1960, but that the Soviets denied her entry. Murray with her sons returned to Baltimore in 1960 to live with her mother and brother Irv at their house in the Loch Raven neighborhood. In 1960 she filed a lawsuit against the Baltimore Public School System, naming her son William J. Murray III as plaintiff, she said that its practices of mandatory prayer and required reading of the Bible were unconstitutional.
The US Supreme Court upheld her position by a ruling in 1963. Because of hostility in Baltimore against her family related to this case, Murray left Maryland with her sons in 1963 and moved to Honolulu, Hawaii, she had assaulted five Baltimore City Police Department officers who tried to retrieve her son Bill's girlfriend Susan from her house. Susan gave birth to Bill's daughter. Murray adopted Robin. In 1965, Murray married U. S. Marine Richard O'Hair, changed her surname, he had belonged to a Communist group in Detroit during the 1940s. During investigations of the 1950s, he gave more than 100 names of other members to the FBI, he was investigated for falsely claiming to be an FBI agent. Although the couple separated, they were married until his death in 1978. In 1960, Murray filed a lawsuit against the Baltimore City Public School System, naming her son William as plaintiff, she challenged the city school system's practice of requiring students to participate in Bible readings at the city's public schools.
She said her son's refusal to participate had resulted in bullying by classmates and that administrators condoned this behavior. After consolidation with Abington School District v. Schempp, the lawsuit was heard by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1963; the Court voted 8–1 in Schempp's favor, saying that mandatory public Bible readings by students were unconstitutional. Prayer in schools other than Bible-readings had been ruled as unconstitutional the year before by the Court in Engel v. Vitale. O'Hair filed a number of other lawsuits: one was against the National Aeronautics and Space Administration because of the Apollo 8 Genesis reading; the case was rejected by the U. S. Supreme Court for lack of jurisdiction; the challenge had limited effect. In the Apollo 11 mission, NASA officials asked lunar module pilot Buzz Aldrin to refrain from quoting the Bible in broadcasts, he was allowed to conduct the first communion service in space. O'Hair appeared on The Phil Donahue Show several times, including the first episode in 1967.
Donahue said that O'Hair was unpleasant in person and had mocked him off-camera for being a Catholic. She appeared on the show in March 1970 to debate Preacher Bob Harrington, "The Chaplain of Bou