Alexander "Alex" Manoogian was an Armenian-American industrial engineer, businessman and philanthropist who spent most of his career in Detroit, Michigan. He was the founder of the Masco Corporation, which in 1969 was listed on the NYSE. In 1954, he patented and brought to market the first successful washerless ball valve faucet, the Delta faucet, named for the faucet cam shaped like the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet, he and his wife Marie donated the Manoogian Mansion to the city of Detroit, which uses it as the official residence of the Mayor of Detroit. In addition to donations to local universities, the Manoogians donated substantial amounts of money to churches, educational institutions and charities of the Armenian Diaspora to preserve and continue their culture. Arriving in Bridgeport, Connecticut, in 1920, Manoogian began working as a machinist, he worked for short periods in Rhode Island and in Massachusetts. In time, he was joined by two brothers and two sisters. Manoogian and his family moved to Detroit, Michigan, in 1924, attracted to opportunities in the booming auto industry.
After gaining more experience, in 1929 he founded the Masco Screw Company known as Masco Corporation. By 1936, in the midst of the Great Depression, Manoogian had expanded Masco to the point that it was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Manoogian's redesign and production of the Delta faucet, which allowed one-handed use, resulted in best-selling status for the plumbing fixture and generated substantial profits for his business. In 1995, his company had 38 percent of the domestic market for faucets. Manoogian married Marie Tatian an Armenian immigrant, their daughter Louise Manoogian Simone succeeded him as President of AGBU. Their son Richard A. Manoogian was CEO of the family business Masco and is a major collector of American art. Manoogian contributed generously to charitable organizations and educational institutions to the Armenian General Benevolent Union. In recognition, he was voted Life President in 1970 and Honorary Life President in 1989. Manoogian was active in the Knights of Vartan.
In 1968 he established Marie Manoogian Cultural Fund. The fund, seeded with a $1 million endowment, is devoted to the publication and translation of Armenian scholarly and literary works, Armenian cultural material worldwide. Through the AGBU, the Manoogians funded schools for ethnic Armenians in Michigan. Manoogian funded numerous Armenian churches, cultural centers, university chairs for Armenian studies and museums worldwide, he donated generously to Wayne State University in Detroit. Marie Manoogian died in 1993, Alex in 1996, they were first interred in Michigan. In 2007 they were reinterred with state honors in Armenia. Manoogian Hall, Wayne State's center for international language and linguistics, is named after him. In 1966 the Manoogians donated their mansion to the city of Detroit, it is used today as the mayoral residence. In 1982 Alex and Marie Manoogian donated funds for the construction of a museum in their name, the Treasury House Museum, on the grounds of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin in Armenia.
1990, was awarded the Ellis Island Medial of Honor. 1993, Alex Manoogian was named a National Hero of Armenia and a citizen of Armenia by President Levon Ter Petrosian, the first person outside the country to be so honored. 2007, at the invitation of the government of Armenia and the Armenian Apostolic Church, the remains of Marie and Alex Manoogian were moved and reinterred with full state honors on the grounds of Holy Etchmiadzin, in front of the Treasury Museum. The Archbishop, national officials and Louise Manoogian Simone, Richard Manoogian and others of their family attended the ceremony. Alex Manoogian streets in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. Steve Takesian, "Alex Manoogian", Find A Grave
The Armenian Genocide known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians citizens within the Ottoman Empire. The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, deported from Constantinople to the region of Ankara, 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, the majority of whom were murdered; the genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases—the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, the elderly, the infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian Desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery and massacre. Other ethnic groups were targeted for extermination in the Assyrian genocide and the Greek genocide, their treatment is considered by some historians to be part of the same genocidal policy.
Most Armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a direct result of the genocide. Raphael Lemkin was moved by the annihilation of the Armenians to define systematic and premeditated exterminations within legal parameters and coin the word genocide in 1943; the Armenian Genocide is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides, because scholars point to the organized manner in which the killings were carried out. It is the second most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust. Turkey denies. In recent years, Turkey has been faced with repeated calls to recognize them as genocide; as of 2018, 29 countries have recognized the mass killings as genocide, as have most genocide scholars and historians. The Armenian Genocide took place before the coining of the term genocide. English-language words and phrases used by contemporary accounts to characterise the event include "massacres", "atrocities", "annihilation", "holocaust", "the murder of a nation", "race extermination" and "a crime against humanity".
Raphael Lemkin coined "genocide" in 1943, with the fate of the Armenians in mind. It happened to the Armenians after the Armenians Hitler took action."The survivors of the genocide used a number of Armenian terms to name the event. Mouradian writes that Yeghern, or variants like Medz Yeghern and Abrilian Yeghern were the terms most used; the name Aghed translated as "Catastrophe", according to Beledian, the term most used in Armenian literature to name the event. After the coining of the term genocide, the portmanteau word Armenocide was used as a name for the Armenian Genocide. Works that seek to deny the Armenian Genocide attach qualifying words against the term genocide, such as "so-called", "alleged" or "disputed," or characterise it as a "controversy", or dismiss it as "Armenian allegations", "Armenian claims" or "Armenian lies", or employ euphemisms to avoid the word genocide, such as calling it a "tragedy for both sides", or "the events of 1915". American President Barack Obama's use of the term Medz Yeghern when referring to the Armenian Genocide has been described "as a means of avoiding the word genocide".
Several international organizations have conducted studies of the atrocities, each in turn determining that the term "genocide" aptly describes "the Ottoman massacre of Armenians in 1915–16". Among the organizations affirming this conclusion are the International Center for Transitional Justice, the International Association of Genocide Scholars, the United Nations' Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. In 2005, the International Association of Genocide Scholars affirmed that scholarly evidence revealed the "Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire began a systematic genocide of its Armenian citizens – an unarmed Christian minority population. More than a million Armenians were exterminated through direct killing, starvation and forced death marches"; the IAGS condemned Turkish attempts to deny the factual and moral reality of the Armenian Genocide. In 2007, the Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity produced a letter signed by 53 Nobel Laureates re-affirming the Genocide Scholars' conclusion that the 1915 killings of Armenians constituted genocide.
Bat Ye'or has suggested that "the genocide of the Armenians was a jihad". Ye'or holds jihad and what she calls "dhimmitude" to be among the "principles and values" that led to the Armenian Genocide; this perspective is challenged by Fà'iz el-Ghusein, a Bedouin Arab witness of the Armenian persecution, whose 1918 treatise aimed "to refute beforehand inventions and slanders against the Faith of Islam and against Moslems generally... hat the Armenians have suffered is to be attributed to the Committee of Union and Progress... T has been due to their nationalist fanaticism and their jealousy of the Armenians, to these alone. Arnold Toynbee writes that "the Young Turks made Pan-Islamism and Turkish Nationalism work together for their ends, but the development of their policy shows the Islamic element receding and the Nationalist gaining ground". Toynbee and various other sources report that many Armenians were spared death by marrying into Turkish families or converting to Islam. Concerned that Westerners would come to regard the "extermination of the Armenians" as "a black stain on the history of Islam, which the ages will not efface", El-Ghusein observes that many
Cyprus the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, southeast of Greece. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia, Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC; as a strategic location in the Middle East, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great. Subsequent rule by Ptolemaic Egypt, the Classical and Eastern Roman Empire, Arab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty and the Venetians, was followed by over three centuries of Ottoman rule between 1571 and 1878.
Cyprus was placed under the UK's administration based on the Cyprus Convention in 1878 and was formally annexed by Britain in 1914. While Turkish Cypriots made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot leaders and Turkey in the 1950s. Turkish leaders for a period advocated the annexation of Cyprus to Turkey as Cyprus was considered an "extension of Anatolia" by them. Following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960; the crisis of 1963–64 brought further intercommunal violence between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, which displaced more than 25,000 Turkish Cypriots into enclaves and brought the end of Turkish Cypriot representation in the republic. On 15 July 1974, a coup d'état was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists and elements of the Greek military junta in an attempt at enosis, the incorporation of Cyprus into Greece; this action precipitated the Turkish invasion of Cyprus on 20 July, which led to the capture of the present-day territory of Northern Cyprus in the following month, after a ceasefire collapsed, the displacement of over 150,000 Greek Cypriots and 50,000 Turkish Cypriots.
A separate Turkish Cypriot state in the north was established by unilateral declaration in 1983. These events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute; the Republic of Cyprus has de jure sovereignty over the entire island, including its territorial waters and exclusive economic zone, with the exception of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which remain under the UK's control according to the London and Zürich Agreements. However, the Republic of Cyprus is de facto partitioned into two main parts: the area under the effective control of the Republic, located in the south and west, comprising about 59% of the island's area. Another nearly 4% of the island's area is covered by the UN buffer zone; the international community considers the northern part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law, amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union.
Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean. With an advanced, high-income economy and a high Human Development Index, the Republic of Cyprus has been a member of the Commonwealth since 1961 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. On 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone; the earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean Greek, ku-pi-ri-jo, meaning "Cypriot", written in Linear B syllabic script. The classical Greek form of the name is Κύπρος; the etymology of the name is unknown. Suggestions include: the Greek word for the Mediterranean cypress tree, κυπάρισσος the Greek name of the henna tree, κύπρος an Eteocypriot word for copper, it has been suggested, for example, that it has roots in the Sumerian word for copper or for bronze, from the large deposits of copper ore found on the island. Through overseas trade, the island has given its name to the Classical Latin word for copper through the phrase aes Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus" shortened to Cuprum.
The standard demonym relating to Cyprus or its people or culture is Cypriot. The terms Cypriote and Cyprian are used, though less frequently; the earliest confirmed site of human activity on Cyprus is Aetokremnos, situated on the south coast, indicating that hunter-gatherers were active on the island from around 10,000 BC, with settled village communities dating from 8200 BC. The arrival of the first humans correlates with the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants. Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old. Remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with a human body at a separate Neolithic site in Cyprus; the grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, predating ancient Egyptian civilisation and pushing back the ear
Moushegh Ishkhan was an Armenian Diasporan poet and educator. Moushegh Ishkhan was born in 1913 in a village near Ankara. Orphaned during the Armenian Genocide at the age of two, Ishkhan settled in Damascus. Receiving his elementary education locally, he moved to Cyprus where he attended the Melkonian Educational Institute. After studying for two years at Melkonian, Ishkhan moved to Beirut, Lebanon in 1930 where he attended Nshan Palandjian College. After his graduation in 1935, he became a teacher for three years, his first book of poems was published in 1936. He studied at the University of Brussels since 1938, but World War II interrupted his studies and in 1940 he returned to Beirut. Upon his return, he continued teaching at Nshan Palandjian College, he authored 17 books. He published plays, a series of textbooks on Armenian literature in addition to his well-known poetry. Yerevan school No. 5 named after Moushegh Ishkhan has a museum dedicated to him. According to Ishkhan, in the absence of territory for Armenian diaspora it is language that functions as the'space' for imagining the nation: "The Armenian language is the home and haven where the wanderer can own roof and wall and nourishment...".
Ishkhan's biography Ishkhan profile on hamazkayin.com including many other famous Armenian authors Ishkhan's poetry in Armenian Les Poèmes Arméniens Traduits par Louise Kiffer-Sarian
Armenians are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia. Armenians constitute the de facto independent Artsakh. There is a wide-ranging diaspora of around 5 million people of full or partial Armenian ancestry living outside modern Armenia; the largest Armenian populations today exist in Russia, the United States, Georgia, Germany, Lebanon and Syria. With the exceptions of Iran and the former Soviet states, the present-day Armenian diaspora was formed as a result of the Armenian Genocide. Most Armenians adhere to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a non-Chalcedonian church, the world's oldest national church. Christianity began to spread in Armenia soon after Jesus' death, due to the efforts of two of his apostles, St. Thaddeus and St. Bartholomew. In the early 4th century, the Kingdom of Armenia became the first state to adopt Christianity as a state religion. Armenian is an Indo-European language, it has two mutually intelligible and written forms: Eastern Armenian, today spoken in Armenia, Artsakh and the former Soviet republics.
The unique Armenian alphabet was invented in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots. The name Armenian has come to internationally designate this group of people, it was first used by neighbouring countries of ancient Armenia. The earliest attestations of the exonym Armenia date around the 6th century BC. In his trilingual Behistun Inscription dated to 517 BC, Darius I the Great of Persia refers to Urashtu as Armina (in Old Persian. In Greek, Αρμένιοι "Armenians" is attested from about the same time the earliest reference being a fragment attributed to Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. Armenians call themselves Hay; the name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region.
It is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. Movses Khorenatsi, the important early medieval Armenian historian, wrote that the word Armenian originated from the name Armenak or Aram; the Armenian Highland is the area surrounding the highest peak of the region. A controversial hypothesis put forward by some scholars, such as T. Gamkrelidze and V. Ivanov, has proposed that the Indo-European homeland was around the Armenian Highland; the modern Armenian language is grouped with Greek and Ancient Macedonian in the Pontic Indo-European subgroup of Indo-European languages by Eric P. Hamp in his 2012 Indo-European family tree, groups. There are two possible explanations, not mutually exclusive, for a common origin of the Armenian and Greek languages. Ancient Greek scholars, such as Herodotus, suggest that the Phrygians of western Anatolia, who spoke an Indo-European language, had made a contribution to the ethnogenesis of the Armenians: "the Armenians were equipped like Phrygians, being Phrygian colonists".
This appears to imply that some Phrygians migrated eastward to Armenia following the destruction of Phrygia by a Cimmerian invasion in the late 7th century BC. Greek scholars believed that the Phrygians had originated in the Balkans, in an area adjoining Macedonia, from where they had emigrated to Anatolia many centuries earlier. In Hamp's view the homeland of the proposed Greco-Armenian subgroup is the northeast coast of the Black Sea and its hinterlands, he assumes that they migrated from there southeast through the Caucasus with the Armenians remaining after Batumi while the pre-Greeks proceeded westwards along the southern coast of the Black Sea. Some genetics studies explain Armenian diversity by several mixtures of Eurasian populations that occurred between ~3,000 and ~2,000 BC, but genetic signals of population mixture cease after ~1,200 BC when Bronze Age civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean world and violently collapsed. Armenians have since remained isolated and genetic structure within the population developed ~500 years ago when Armenia was divided between the Ottomans and the Safavid Empire in Iran.
In the Bronze Age, several states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Hittite Empire and Hayasa-Azzi. Soon after Hayasa-Azzi came Arme-Shupria, the Nairi and the Kingdom of Urartu, who successively established their sovereignty over the Armenian Highland; each of the aforementioned nations and tribes participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people. Under Ashurbanipal, the Assyrian empire reached the Caucasus Mountains. Yerevan, the modern capital of Armenia, was founded in 782 BC by king Argishti I; the first geographical entity, called Armenia by neighboring peoples was established in the late 6th century BC u
A boarding school provides education for pupils who live on the premises, as opposed to a day school. The word "boarding" is used in i.e. lodging and meals. As they have existed for many centuries, now extend across many countries, their function and ethos varies greatly. Traditionally, pupils stayed at the school for the length of the term; some are for either girls while others are co-educational. In the United Kingdom, which has a rich history of such schools, many independent schools offer boarding, but so do a few dozen state schools, many of which serve children from remote areas. In the United States, most boarding schools cover grades seven or nine through grade twelve—the high school years; some American boarding schools offer a post-graduate year of study to help students prepare for college entrance. In some times and places boarding schools are the most elite educational option, whereas in other contexts, they serve as places to segregate children deemed a problem to their parents or wider society.
Notoriously and the United States tried to assimilate indigenous children in the Canadian Indian residential school system and American Indian boarding schools respectively. Some function as orphanages, e.g. the G. I. Rossolimo Boarding School Number 49 in Russia. Tens of millions of rural children are now educated at boarding schools in China. Therapeutic boarding schools offer treatment for psychological difficulties. Military academies provide strict discipline. Education for children with special needs has a long association with boarding; some boarding schools offer an immersion into democratic education, such as Summerhill School. Others are determinedly international, such as the United World Colleges; the term boarding school refers to classic British boarding schools and many boarding schools around the world are modeled on these. A typical boarding school has several separate residential houses, either within the school grounds or in the surrounding area. A number of senior teaching staff are appointed as housemasters, dorm parents, prefects, or residential advisors, each of whom takes quasi-parental responsibility for anywhere from 5 to 50 students resident in their house or dormitory at all times but outside school hours.
Each may be assisted in the domestic management of the house by a housekeeper known in U. K. or Commonwealth countries as matron, by a house tutor for academic matters providing staff of each gender. In the U. S. boarding schools have a resident family that lives in the dorm, known as dorm parents. They have janitorial staff for maintenance and housekeeping, but do not have tutors associated with an individual dorm. Older students are less supervised by staff, a system of monitors or prefects gives limited authority to senior students. Houses develop distinctive characters, a healthy rivalry between houses is encouraged in sport. Houses or dorms include study-bedrooms or dormitories, a dining room or refectory where students take meals at fixed times, a library and study carrels where students can do their homework. Houses may have common rooms for television and relaxation and kitchens for snacks, storage facilities for bicycles or other sports equipment; some facilities may be shared between several dorms.
In some schools, each house has students of all ages, in which case there is a prefect system, which gives older students some privileges and some responsibility for the welfare of the younger ones. In others, separate houses accommodate needs of different classes. In some schools, day students are assigned to a dorm or house for social activities and sports purposes. Most school dormitories have an "in your room by" and a "lights out" time, depending on their age, when the students are required to prepare for bed, after which no talking is permitted; such rules may be difficult to enforce. International students may take advantage of the time difference between countries to contact friends or family. Students sharing study rooms are less to disturb others and may be given more latitude; as well as the usual academic facilities such as classrooms, halls and laboratories, boarding schools provide a wide variety of facilities for extracurricular activities such as music rooms, sports fields and school grounds, squash courts, swimming pools and theatres.
A school chapel is found on site. Day students stay on after school to use these facilities. Many North American boarding schools are located in beautiful rural environments, have a combination of architectural styles that vary from modern to hundreds of years old. Food quality can vary from school to school, but most boarding schools offer diverse menu choices for many kinds of dietary restrictions and preferences; some boarding schools have a Dress Code for specific meals like Dinner or for specific days of the week. Students are free to eat with friends, teammates, as well as with faculty and coaches. Extra curricular activities groups, e.g. the French Club, may have meals together. The Dining Hall serves a central place where lessons and learning can continue between students and teachers or
Armenian General Benevolent Union
The Armenian General Benevolent Union is a non-profit Armenian organization established in Cairo, Egypt, in 1906. With the onset of World War II, headquarters were moved to New York. With an annual international budget of over $47 million, AGBU preserves and promotes the Armenian identity and heritage through educational and humanitarian programs, annually serving some 500,000 Armenians in over 30 countries. In 2006, the AGBU celebrated its centenary in its headquarters in New York City; the Armenian General Benevolent Union was founded on April 15, 1906, in Cairo, Egypt, by the initiative of renowned national figure Boghos Nubar, son of Nubar Pasha and other prominent representatives of the Egyptian-Armenian community to contribute to the spiritual and cultural development of the Armenian people. The goal was to establish a union that would in every way assist the Armenian people, the future of which, as a minority in the Ottoman Empire, was endangered. Between 1906 and 1912, the AGBU provided the villagers of the Western Armenia with seeds, agricultural instruments, etc.
It established schools and orphanages in Western Armenia and other Armenian-populated regions of the Ottoman Empire. In 1914, AGBU had 142 branches in Western Armenia, Cilicia, USA, Argentina and Africa with 8,533 members; the First World War and the Armenian Genocide were turning points for both the Armenian nation and the AGBU. In 1914, Boghos Nubar moved to Paris. Despite the huge losses in different chapters of the union, the AGBU managed to render tangible help to the Genocide survivors. In October 1915, the Sisvan school with 1,222 students an orphanage and a camp for women refugees, was established by the AGBU in the desert near Port Said, Egypt; this camp is. In the years following the Genocide, the AGBU became involved in taking care of orphans. After the war, the AGBU was reformed and founded new branches in Armenian-populated regions of the Near East, France and USA. In 1921, the union’s headquarters was moved from Cairo to Paris. After World War I, the main goal of the AGBU was to preserve and promote Armenian language and heritage through educational and humanitarian programs.
In 1926, AGBU established the Melkonian Educational Institution in Nicosia, Nubarian foundation, which provided scholarships to Armenian youngsters to study in European universities, the Marie Nubar Dormitory in Paris in 1930. After the death of Boghos Nubar in 1930, oil magnate and prominent Armenian figure Galust Gyulbenkian took over the presidency of AGBU. After heading the union for two years, the son of the former, Zareh Bey Nubar, replaced him and headed the union until 1940. During World War II, the AGBU headquarters was moved from Paris to New York as a result of Nazi occupation. In 1942, Arshak Karagyozian became the fourth president of the AGBU; the AGBU's activities aimed at national preservation became more effective during the post-war period in Alex Manoogian’s tenure between 1953–1989. The AGBU expanded and became the biggest and most influential Diaspora-Armenian organization in the world. In 1954 Alex Manoogian founded the ՚՚ "Marie Manoogian" cultural fund. Through these funds, a number of educational and other establishments were built over the next several years.
Today, the AGBU has chapters in 72 cities in 30 countries around the world, with 22,000 members, 120 branches, 27 cultural centers spread worldwide in the USA, Near East, South America and Australia. The AGBU has funds more than 16 educational establishments; the AGBU has one in Paris and the other in New York City. In 1989, Louise Manoogian Simone, the daughter of Alex Manoogian, became the president of the AGBU, it gave a new breath to the strengthening of ties between the Armenians of diaspora. In 1988 following the Spitak earthquake, the AGBU organized the transportation of food and medicine to the disaster zone. In 1990, the AGBU opened a representative office in Yerevan. Restarting its activities in Armenia after a 50-year interval, along with humanitarian assistance, the AGBU carries out projects aimed at and contributing to the development of the country. In 1995, the AGBU founded the first Young Professionals Group in Los Angeles. Since 2002 Berge Setrakian, partner at renowned law firm DLA Piper, is the president of AGBU.
Argentina: Buenos Aires, Córdoba Armenia: Yerevan Australia: Melbourne, Sydney Austria: Vienna Brazil: São Paulo Bulgaria: Burgas, Haskovo, Rousse, Sliven, Sofia and Yambol Canada: Montreal, Vancouver Cyprus: Nicosia, Limassol Egypt: Alexandria, Cairo Ethiopia: Addis Ababa France: Lyon, Nice, Saint-Étienne-Saint-Chamond, Vienne Greece: Athens, Thessaloniki Iraq: Baghdad Iran: Tehran Lebanon: Beirut, Sin El Fil, Zahle, Sayda Italy: Milan South Africa: Johannesburg Switzerland: Geneva Syria: Aleppo, Qamishli, Latakia United Kingdom: London United States: Boston, Canoga Park, Cleveland, Fresno, Glendale, California-San Gabriel, Houston, Manhattan Beach, Los Angeles, New England District, Oakland-San Francisco, Orange County, California, President's Club, San Diego, San Fernando Valley, Silicon Valley, Washington, D. C. Watertown, Massachusetts Uruguay: Mon