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The Mellotron is an electro-mechanical musical instrument developed in Birmingham, England, in 1963. It could be mass-produced more effectively; the instrument is played by pressing its keys, each of which pushes a length of magnetic tape against a capstan, which pulls it across a playback head. As the key is released, the tape is retracted by a spring to its initial position. Different portions of the tape can be played to access different sounds; the first models were designed to be used in the home and contained a variety of sounds, including automatic accompaniments. Bandleader Eric Robinson and television personality David Nixon were involved in introductory promotion of the instruments. A number of other celebrities such as Princess Margaret were early adopters; the instrument began to be used by pop groups in the mid to late 1960s. The Moody Blues' keyboardist Mike Pinder used it extensively on the band's 1967 orchestral collaboration Days of Future Passed; the Beatles used the instrument on several tracks, including the hit single "Strawberry Fields Forever".

The Mellotron was subsequently used by groups like King Crimson and Genesis, becoming a common instrument in progressive rock. Models such as the best selling M400, dispensed with the accompaniments and some sound selection controls so it could be used by touring musicians; the instrument's popularity declined in the 1980s after the introduction of polyphonic synthesizers and samplers, despite a number of high-profile users like Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark and XTC. Production of the Mellotron ceased in 1986, but it regained popularity in the 1990s and was used by several notable bands; this led to the resurrection of Streetly Electronics. In 2007, Streetly produced the M4000, which combined the layout of the M400 with the bank selection of earlier models; the Mellotron use the same concept as a sampler, but generates its sound using analogue samples recorded on audio tape rather than digital samples. When a key is pressed, a tape connected to it is pushed against a playback head, as in a tape deck.

While the key remains depressed, the tape is drawn over the head, a sound is played. When the key is released, a spring pulls the tape back to its original position. A variety of sounds are available on the instrument. On earlier models, the instrument is split into "rhythm" sections. There is a choice of six "stations" of rhythm sounds, each containing three rhythm tracks and three fill tracks; the fill tracks can be mixed together. There is a choice of six lead stations, each containing three lead instruments which can be mixed. In the centre of the Mellotron, there is a tuning button that allows a variation in both pitch and tempo. Models do not have the concept of stations and have a single knob to select a sound, along with the tuning control. However, the frame containing the tapes is designed to be removed, replaced with one with different sounds. Although the Mellotron was designed to reproduce the sound of the original instrument, replaying a tape creates minor fluctuations in pitch and amplitude, so a note sounds different each time it is played.

Pressing a key harder allows the head to come into contact under greater pressure, to the extent that the Mellotron responds to aftertouch. Another factor in the Mellotron's sound is. For a musician accustomed to playing in an orchestral setting, this was unusual, meant that they had nothing against which to intonate. Noted cellist Reginald Kirby refused to downtune his cello to cover the lower range of the Mellotron, so the bottom notes are performed on a double bass. According to Mellotron author Nick Awde, one note of the string sounds contains the sound of a chair being scraped in the background; the original Mellotrons were intended to be used in the home or in clubs and were not designed for touring bands. The M400, designed to be as portable as possible, weighed over 122 pounds. Smoke, variations in temperature, humidity were detrimental to the instrument's reliability. Moving the instrument between cold storage rooms and brightly lit stages could cause the tapes to stretch and stick on the capstan.

Leslie Bradley recalls receiving some Mellotrons in for a repair "looking like a blacksmith had shaped horseshoes on top". Pressing too many keys at once caused the motor to drag, resulting in the notes sounding flat. Robert Fripp stated that "uning a Mellotron doesn't". Dave Kean, an expert Mellotron repairer, recommends that older Mellotrons should not be used after a period of inactivity, as the tape heads can become magnetised in storage and destroy the recordings on them if played. Although tape samplers had been explored in research studios, the first commercially available keyboard-driven tape instruments were built and sold by California-based Harry Chamberlin; the concept of the Mellotron originated when Chamberlin's sales agent, Bill Fransen, brought two of Chamberlin's Musicmaster 600 instruments to England in 1962 to search for someone who could manufacture 70 matching tape heads for future Chamberlins. He met Frank and Les Bradley of tape engineering company Bradmatic Ltd, who said they could improve on the original design.

The Bradleys subsequently met bandleader Eric Robinson, who agreed to help finance the recording of the necessary instruments and sounds. Together with the Bradleys and television celebrity David Nixon, they formed a company, Mellotronics, in order to market the instrument. Robinson was enthusiastic about the Mellotron, because he felt it would revitalise his career, on the wane, he arranged the recording sessions at IBC S

Anna Ornstein

Anna Ornstein is an Auschwitz survivor and psychiatrist, author and scholar. Anna Brünn was born into a wealthy Jewish family in Szendro, which at the time had a total of 4,000 residents; because the small town only had 40 Jewish families, Anna felt the presence of anti-semitism while growing up. When German Army took over Hungary in 1944, Jews in Szendro were identified, forced to wear yellow stars, were sought out for extermination. Anna's two brothers were sent to forced labor camps, while she and the rest of her family were sent to Auschwitz, her two brothers died at the camps, the Germans killed her father and extended family when they arrived at Auschwitz in June 1944. However and her mother survived deportation, ghetto imprisonment, the Parschnitz labor camp; the two returned to Hungary in July 1945. Upon returning to Hungary, Anna finished high school and her mother ran an orphanage for Jewish children whose parents did not come back from the Holocaust, she was reunited with Paul Ornstein, whom she had met several years before and who had survived the Holocaust.

The two married in March 1946, the two of them escaped Hungary into West Germany and enrolled in medical school there. After earning their medical degrees in 1952 from Heidelberg University School of Medicine, where some of their classmates were Nazi soldiers and Paul immigrated to the United States; the two are graduates of the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis. Ornstein served as a long-time Professor and Emerita Professor of Child Psychiatry at University of Cincinnati Medical School and as a Lecturer in Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, she was a Training and Supervising Analyst at the Cincinnati Psychoanalytic Institute and a Supervising Analyst at the Boston Psychoanalytic Society and Institute and Massachusetts Institute for Psychoanalysis. She and her husband co-founded and was the Co-Director of the International Center for the Study of Psychoanalytic Self-Psychology. At the University of Cincinnati and Paul were instrumental in developing and leading the self psychology movement, "a post-Freudian method developed by Heinz Kohut, which stresses empathy and a relational approach in order to enhance the bond between patient and therapist and provide an analytic cure."

They worked closely with Kohut. Ornstein has written over 100 publications that cover a wide range of topics, including the interpretive process in psychoanalysis, psychoanalytic psychotherapy, child psychotherapy, treatment of children and families, recovery after traumatic experiences. Ornstein is an educator on the Holocaust and talks to universities, secondary schools, organizations and groups around the world about the Holocaust, her experiences, anti-Semitism, she has a presence within the Boston area and has spoken to students at colleges including Tufts University, Northeastern University, Brandeis University. She has been interviewed by The Washington Post, featured in The Jewish Journal, interviewed on Boston's National Public Radio station WGBH, featured in numerous other publications, she served as a staff member of Facing History and Ourselves and the Terezin Music Foundation. In 2004, she published her memoir, My Mother’s Eyes: Holocaust Memories of a Young Girl, a collection of short stories of her life during the war.

Ornstein has been the recipient of numerous awards, related to both her work in medicine and in Holocaust education: American Psychiatric Association's Distinguished Psychiatrist Lecturer Award Rosenberry Award for Dedication to the care of children University of Cincinnati Award for Excellence in Research and Scholarship American Psychiatric Association’s Special Presidential Commendation Boston Psychoanalytic Society and Institute's Arthur R. Kravitz Award for Community Action and Humanitarian Contributions "in recognition of a lifetime of dedication to teaching about the Holocaust" Reading Select Board presented her a Certificate of Gratitude for her work with schools in Reading, Massachusetts on Holocaust and anti-semitism education In their address honoring Ornstein with the Kravitz Award in 2018, BPSI wrote:"As a leader of American psychoanalysis, Dr. Ornstein has woven together the roles of scholar, clinician and voice of conscience. There is no one who more fits the description of humanitarian psychoanalyst and activist than Dr. Ornstein.

She most demonstrated this after a series of anti-Semitic events in the Reading schools this fall. Dr. Ornstein felt it was urgent to respond, both to the specific events and to the general political situation in our country. In particular, she felt it was critical to draw attention to the dangers of accepting unthinkable repression and of normalizing outrageous intolerance, she met with Reading town officials and teachers and helped organize a group called Reading Embraces Diversity. She talked to several hundred sixth and eighth graders in Reading schools, presenting a piece on Kristallnacht that looked at similarities and differences between the situation in Europe in the 1930s and the current situation in the United States. After her presentation, the students asked questions about what had happened in Europe and whether it could happen here." She met Paul Ornstein, who she would marry years as a young girl and they fell in love. Although the Holocaust separated the two of them, they reunited after the war.

After embarking upon similar careers, the couple completed much research together and were frequent collaborators. Anna and Paul raised three children, all of whom became psychiatrists and two of whom became psychoanalysts, have seven grandchildren

SS Stakesby (1930)

Stakesby was a 4,026 GRT cargo ship, built in 1930 by William Pickersgill & Sons Ltd, Sunderland, Co Durham, United Kingdom. She was torpedoed by U-124 in 1940 and sank. Raised in 1943, she was repaired, passed to the Ministry of War Transport and renamed Empire Derwent, she was sold into merchant service in 1946 and renamed Swan Point, serving until she was wrecked in 1949. The ship was built in 1930 by Sunderland, Co Durham; the ship was 365 feet 5 inches long, with a beam of 51 feet 0 inches. She had a depth of a draught of 22 feet 5 3⁄4 inches, she was assessed at 4,026 GRT, 2,339 NRT. The ship was propelled by a 277 nhp compound steam engine, which had two cylinders of 18 3⁄4 inches and two cylinders of 39 3⁄4 inches diameter by 39 2⁄8 inches stroke; the engine was built by Sunderland. Stakesby was built for Whitby, she was operated under the management of Whitby. The Official Number 161017 and Code Letters LGDK were allocated. On 15 May 1933, Stakesby ran aground at Argentina, she was on a voyage from Glamorgan to Villa Constitución.

She was refloated on 19 May. With the change of Code Letters in 1934, Stakesby was allocated GPWM. On 23 June 1939, Stakesby ran aground near Puerto Obligado, whilst outward bound for Sharpness, Gloucestershire, she was refloated on 25 June. With the onset of World War II, Stakesby was armed with a 12-pounder gun, she departed from Kingston, Jamaica on 24 September 1939 for Newport, where she arrived on 15 October. She sailed to Avonmouth, arriving on 19 October, she left Avonmouth on 25 October for Newport, from where she departed on 7 November for Milford Haven, arriving two days later. On 11 November, she sailed from Milford Haven to join Convoy OB 33, which departed from Liverpool, Lancashire, on 10 November and dispersed at sea on 15 November, she was carrying a cargo of coal with a stated destination of Buenos Aires, where she arrived on 20 December. Stakesby departed from Buenos Aires on 8 January 1940 and sailed to Freetown, Sierra Leone, arriving on 30 January. Carrying a cargo of maize and pollards, she departed from Freetown on 10 February as a member of Convoy SL 20, which joined Convoy SL 20F at sea on 25 February.

The combined convoy arrived at Liverpool on 28 February. Stakesby detached from the convoy and sailed to The Downs, off the coast of Kent, she arrived on 28 February and sailed that day to Southend, Essex, to join Convoy FN 106, which arrived at Methil, Fife, on 1 March. She sailed to Aberdeen, arriving the next day. Stakesby departed from Aberdeen on 16 March for the Tyne, arriving two days later, she departed from the Tyne on 17 April as a member of Convoy FS 148, which arrived at Southend on 19 April. She detached from the convoy and put into Immingham, arriving on 18 April and leaving two days to join Convoy FS 151 which departed from the Tyne that day and arrived at Southend on 22 April, she departed from Southend on 24 April as a member of Convoy OA 135G, which formed Convoy OG 27 on 26 April. Her destination was Saint John's, Newfoundland. Convoy OG 27 arrived at Gibraltar on 3 May. Stakesby detached from the convoy and sailed to Saint John's, arriving on 10 May. Five days she sailed to Halifax, Nova Scotia, arriving on 19 May.

Laden with a cargo of lumber, she departed from Halifax on 25 May as a member of Convoy HX 49, which arrived at Liverpool on 24 June. She detached from the convoy and sailed to Southend, arriving on 24 June, departing the next day with Convoy FN 201, which arrived at Methil on 27 June, she sailed to Dundee, Perthshire. Stakesby sailed to Methil, she departed from Methil on 20 July as a member of Convoy OA 187. Her destination was Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, where she arrived on 2 August, she departed the next day for New Brunswick. She returned to Sydney on 10 August, departing two days as a member of Convoy HX 65, which arrived at Liverpool on 27 August. Stakesby was carrying a cargo of pit props, destined for the Tyne. At about 23:55 hrs on 25 August, Stakesby was hit by a torpedo fired by U-124, under the command of Kapitänleutnant Georg-Wilhelm Schulz, she was hit in the No.1 hold. Her cargo provided sufficient buoyancy to keep her afloat, although a fire developed at the forward end of the ship.

At the time, Stakesby was 23 nautical miles north of the Butt of Lewis. After an hour, the 36 crew abandoned ship, they were rescued by the Norwegian merchant ship Cetus which took them to Outer Hebrides. HMS Thames was despatched to the aid of Stakesby, she was towed to Glumaig Bay, on west coast of Isle of Skye in Scotland, but sank after the tow broke. In January 1942, Stakesby was raised and temporary repairs were carried out, she arrived at Rothesay Bay, Bute, on 12 June. She was towed to the Clyde where more temporary repairs were made. Stakesby was towed to Sunderland for permanent repairs to be made, she was taken over by the MoWT, renamed Empire Derwent and placed under the management of Neill & Pandelis Ltd, London. She retained her Code Letters GPWM and Official Number 161017, her port of registry was changed to Sunderland. The repair of Empire Derwent took until 30 April 1943 to complete, she sailed to Methil, arriving the next day. She joined Convoy EN 223, which arrived at Oban on 5 May.

She left Oban a week late

Scotty Bowers

George Albert "Scotty" Bowers was an American, a United States Marine and, from the 1940s to the 1980s, a Hollywood pimp. Stories of his exploits circulated for many years and were alluded to in books such as Hollywood Babylon. Bowers' claims were met with both skepticism. Bowers decided to talk publicly about his life when most of the people involved were dead and, in his words, "The truth can’t hurt them anymore." In 2012, the publication of his memoir Full Service, written by Lionel Friedberg from 150 hours of interviews, drew publicity, including a profile in The New York Times, a feature on CBS News Sunday Morning. One journalist wrote, "He has a savant-like quality: a result of his refusal to be embarrassed by sex." Bowers was born in Ottawa, the son of Edna and Glen Bowers. After working his way through the Depression in Chicago, he fought in the Pacific, including at the Battle of Iwo Jima, as a Paramarine in the Marine Corps during World War II, losing his brother and two close friends.

According to his memoir, his sexual career began in 1946 while he was working as an attendant at the Richfield Oil gas station located at 5777 Hollywood Boulevard, at the corner of Van Ness Avenue. In 1950 Bowers stopped working at the service station and began working as a party bartender, while continuing his sexual services, he claimed to have provided women prostitutes, to Alfred Kinsey as interview subjects for his study on human sexuality. Bowers was never prosecuted by the authorities for his activities; the actor Beach Dickerson willed three houses to Bowers and cinematographer Néstor Almendros bequeathed him his Oscar. In 1984, he married ten years his junior, she died in 2018. Bowers died at his home in Los Angeles on October 13, 2019 at the age of 96; the cause of death was kidney failure. According to film critic Peter Debruge, writing for Variety in 2006: "Everyone knows Scotty. After all, he’s been serving drinks to the Beverly Hills crowd for 60 years, working a different party every night of the week, sometimes two a day."

Gore Vidal, spoke at the official launch of the memoir. Robert Benevides, the partner of actor Raymond Burr, said to the LA Weekly: "Scotty just liked to make people happy." Film director John Schlesinger and investigative reporter and novelist Dominick Dunne backed Bowers’ claims. Joan Allemand, a former arts director of the Beverly Hills Unified School District, who knew Bowers for more than 20 years and introduced him to his subsequent co-writer, Lionel Friedberg, said: "Scotty doesn't lie about anything. He's a poor kid from a farm in Illinois, when he got here, his two assets were his big penis and charming personality. That's what he used to feed his family." Cecil Beaton wrote of his sexual encounters with Bowers in his published diary of the 1960s, while Debbie Reynolds wrote in her memoirs of Milton Berle employing him for a party prank. Bowers appears in John Rechy's 1973 roman-à-clef City of Night as the character'Smitty'. A profile in the New York Social Diary stated: "Clients all agreed that he was'very good' at what he did, agreeable...

And discreet. He did not discriminate, he had one regular longtime client... who had no arms and no legs... The Scotty I knew was a guy who always seemed to be enjoying his life working morning and night, with never a gripe. After a lifetime in Hollywood, that's a remarkable feat and its own kind of Zen."It has been suggested that Bowers' claims were dismissed by some not because "virtually everyone he talks about has died", but because "many in the industry still cling to a prudish and manufactured version of the past." According to Matt Tyrnauer, director of a documentary on Bowers, it is proof of "the enduring power of the myth machine... created there—by outsiders, Jewish immigrants themselves who were furriers and glove manufacturers projecting a lie of a made-up image of white Americanism... I think there are a lot of people who want to cling to that."Author William J. Mann, who interviewed Bowers for a biography of Katharine Hepburn, said, "I found him forthright and honest and not interested in personal fame or gain."

At that time he turned down Mann's offer to introduce him to a literary agent. Author and journalist Tim Teeman, who interviewed Bowers, wrote that "as candid as Bowers was, he was respectful, when it came to sex and sexuality utterly without shame and judgment." Bowers authored the introduction to a collection of archival photographs of male affection in the military, My Buddy: World War II Laid Bare. In March 2016 he wrote a profile of himself for the Guest of a Guest blog, he appears in Sir Cecil Beaton's published diary for the 1960s, Beaton terming him "a phenomenon", the biography In Bed With Gore Vidal. Bowers has assisted a number of authors, including Vincente Minnelli biographer Mark Griffin and William J. Mann, author of Behind the Screen: How Gays and Lesbians Shaped Hollywood. Bowers is the subject of the documentary Scotty and the Secret History of Hollywood, directed by Matt Tyrnauer. In The Hollywood Reporter, its reviewer commented: "At a certain point, anyone who reads Bowers’ book or sees this film has to decide whether to believe him or not.

At this stage, there is no reason not to. When Scotty says he likes to make people happy, he includes himself, that he seems to have done in spades." Hollywood Babylon Schulman, Michael

Billion Oyster Project

The Billion Oyster Project is a citizen science project co-ordinated by the New York Harbor School with the goal of restoring one billion live oysters to New York Harbor by 2035. The project aims to engage hundreds of thousands of school children during its lifetime in marine restoration-based STEM education programs; the project grew out of the activities of students at the New York Harbor School who started growing and restoring oysters in New York Harbor in 2008. The project was inspired by the success of the Oyster Recovery Project based in Chesapeake Bay which has to date replanted more than 6.7 billion oysters on 2,200 acres of oyster reefs. Oyster reefs are thought to have covered more than 220,000 acres of the Hudson River estuary and filtered water, provided habitat for other marine species and attenuated wave energy but are now functionally extinct in the Harbor due to over harvesting and pollution; the project was the brainchild of educators Murray Fisher and Peter Malinowski who are both associated with New York Harbor School and its foundation and was formally established in 2014.

A $5 million National Science Foundation grant will allow the program to spread to thousands of public middle school students from 2015. By August 2015, 11.5 million oysters had been grown in NY Harbor, with 1.05 acres of reef area restored. More than 2,150 high school students and 875 middle school students have taken part in the project. 93,600 pounds of oyster shell have been recycled. Co-ordinators estimate the oysters have filtered 10.9 trillion US gallons of water in New York Harbor, removing 6.75 million pounds million pounds of nitrogen. The Living Breakwaters is a project in Staten Island that uses Oysters or oyster-tecture to protect from storm surge, increase biodiversity, clean water, create educational opportunities. Living Breakwaters will work under the guidance of the Billion Oyster Project, a company that has done similar projects many times all over the shores of the world; this project is in part funded by the federal Department of Urban Development. They have contributed $60 million for the purpose of disaster recovery, but to prevent the same disaster in the future.

Staten Island was affected by erosion and flooding in Hurricane Sandy in 2012 the south shore of Staten Island. This project will start in Tottenville. Tottenville used to be famous for their oyster population and this project aims to bring back the presence of that marine life, it is a solution that uses natural reentry of a existing population rather than risking an invasive species. The process that the Billion Oyster Project plans to go through starts with more than 70 New York restaurants saving their oysters shells; those shells are left outside for a year to be cleaned organically and to rid the shells of any human chemicals. Baby oysters are placed in the shells; the oysters won't be able to fight off any chemicals. The larvae are placed in the shells at New York Harbor School; this is a public high school focused on marine life. The oysters will be placed on to a wall made of low acidity permeable concrete. Local Tontenville elementary school teacher, Deb Amoroso, has received training from the Billion Oyster Projects and will monitor the growth of oysters with her class.

They will help collect shells to install as well as watch the progress of the ecosystem. The plan for Living Breakwaters is all encompassing, it includes the steps of reducing risk and fragility, building up ecology leading to greater biodiversity, benefiting the surrounding area through community partnering. The oysters on the wall will create a strong and more natural barrier as a form of risk management for the rise in storm frequency and sea level rise with climate change; the oysters will bring in their prey as well as filter the water making it more attractive to marine life. This growing ecosystem is a large opportunity for local classrooms to get involved and see marine biology in action; the people have a voice in the project too. The Living Breakwaters citizens advisory committee was established in 2015 and looks to gather opinions of the locals on decisions through the project. Project construction is supposed to start in late 2019

Book folding

Book folding is the stage of the book production process in which the pages of the book are folded after printing and before binding. Until the middle of the 19th century, book folding was done by hand, was a trade. In the 1880s and 1890s, book folding machines by Brown and Dexter came onto the market, by the 1910s hand-folding was rare, with one publisher declaring them to be "practically obsolete" in 1914; the folding process is necessary to produce print products other than books—for instance mailings, leaflets etc. Two main types of mechanisms are employed in folding machines: buckle folders and knife folders. In a buckle folder, the paper is first passed through 2 spinning rollers, which feed the paper into a pair of guide plates that redirect the paper at a slight angle, bending the paper. At the far end of the guide plates is a "paper stop"; as the rollers continue to spin, the paper continues to slide in between the guides until it hits the paper stop having nowhere else to go, buckles at the interface between the rollers and the angled guides.

As the rollers continue to spin, the buckle increases, until it is caught by a pair of "nip" rollers, which pull the buckle in and compresses and flattens it into a neat crease. Adjusting the paper stop in a buckle folder determines where the fold will be placed. A buckle folder may contain only 3 rollers, with one shared by both the input rollers and the nip rollers. Although buckle folders are fast, simple and have small folding tolerances, they are not suitable for substrate of low or heavy paper grammage. In a knife folder, a sheet of paper is fed horizontally over 2 unpowered rollers until it hits a paper stop, at which point a dull blade pushes down on the paper and in between the 2 rollers to create the fold. Although the knife folder is slower than buckle folders, it is more precise and can handle extreme grammages well, it has small folding tolerances, but is a more complex machine. Folding a paper more than once in the same direction is called parallel folding. Common examples of this are the half fold, letter fold, gate fold, Z-fold.

A cross fold is when a paper is folded once rotated 90 degrees and folded again. The creases therefore cross each other at right angles; the most basic cross fold is right-angle fold. Other examples include the 12-page letter. Book Book publishing Paper size "Folded Book Art & Patterns For Sale and Free from". Retrieved 2018-05-29