Back to the Future
Back to the Future is a 1985 American science fiction film directed by Robert Zemeckis and written by Zemeckis and Bob Gale. It stars Michael J. Fox as teenager Marty McFly, who accidentally travels back in time to 1955, where he meets his future parents and becomes his mother's romantic interest. Christopher Lloyd portrays the eccentric scientist Dr. Emmett "Doc" Brown, inventor of the time-traveling DeLorean, who helps Marty repair history and return to 1985. Zemeckis and Gale wrote the script after Gale wondered whether he would have befriended his father if they had attended school together. Film studios rejected it until the financial success of Zemeckis' Romancing the Stone. Zemeckis approached Steven Spielberg, who agreed to produce the project at Amblin Entertainment, with Universal Pictures as distributor. Fox was the first choice to play Marty, but he was busy filming his television series Family Ties, Eric Stoltz was cast. Back to the Future was released on July 3, 1985 and it grossed over $381 million worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing film of 1985.
It won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, the Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film, the Academy Award for Best Sound Effects Editing. It received three Academy Award nominations, five BAFTA nominations, four Golden Globe nominations, including Best Motion Picture. In 2007, the Library of Congress selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry, in June 2008 the American Film Institute's special AFI's 10 Top 10 designated it the 10th-best science fiction film; the film began a franchise including two sequels, Back to the Future Part II and Back to the Future Part III, an animated series, theme park ride, several video games. In 1985 Hill Valley, teenager Marty McFly and his girlfriend, Jennifer Parker, are chastised by the school principal for lateness. Marty is rejected for being too loud. At home, Marty's father George is bullied by his supervisor, Biff Tannen, while his mother Lorraine is an overweight, depressed alcoholic. Lorraine recalls. Marty is invited by his friend, eccentric inventor Dr. Emmett Brown, to meet him in a parking lot in the early hours.
Doc unveils a time machine built from a modified DeLorean and powered by plutonium stolen from terrorists. Preparing to demonstrate the time machine, Doc sets the date to November 5, 1955: the day he conceived a time travel device; the terrorists shoot Doc. Marty inadvertently activates the time machine. Marty finds himself in 1955 without enough plutonium to return, he encounters the teenaged George, bullied by his classmate Biff. After Marty saves George from an oncoming car, he is knocked unconscious and awakens to find himself tended to by Lorraine, infatuated with him. Marty tracks down Doc's younger self for help. With no plutonium, Doc explains that the only power source capable of generating the necessary 1.21 gigawatts of electricity for the time machine is a bolt of lightning. Marty shows Doc a flyer from the future that recounts a lightning strike at the town's courthouse due the coming Saturday night. Doc instructs Marty to not leave his house or interact with anyone, as he could inadvertently alter the future.
When they realize that he has prevented his parents from meeting by saving George from the car, Doc warns Marty that he must find a way to introduce George to Lorraine or he will be erased from existence. Doc formulates a plan to harness the power of the lightning, while Marty sets about introducing his parents. After Lorraine asks Marty to the school dance, Marty concocts a plan: he will feign inappropriate advances on Lorraine, allowing George to "rescue" her; the plan goes awry. George, knocks out Biff, Lorraine accompanies him to the dance floor, where they kiss while Marty performs with the band; as the storm arrives, Marty returns to the clock tower and the lightning strikes, sending Marty back to 1985. Doc has survived the shooting, as he had worn a bullet-proof vest. Doc takes Marty home and departs to the future. Marty awakens the next morning to find that George is a successful author, Lorraine is fit and happy, Biff is now an obsequious auto valet; as Marty reunites with Jennifer, the DeLorean appears with Doc, insisting they accompany him to 2015 to resolve a problem with their future children.
The trio board the DeLorean, upgraded with hover technology, warp to the future. Michael J. Fox as Marty McFly Christopher Lloyd as Dr. Emmett "Doc" Brown Lea Thompson as Lorraine Baines-McFly Crispin Glover as George McFly Thomas F. Wilson as Biff Tannen Claudia Wells as Jennifer Parker James Tolkan as Gerald Strickland Marc McClure as Dave McFly Wendie Jo Sperber as Linda McFly Billy Zane as henchman Writer and producer Bob Gale conceived Back to the Future after he visited his parents in St. Louis, Missouri after the release of Used Cars. Searching their basement, Gale found his father's high school yearbook and discovered he was president of his graduating class. Gale had not known the president of his own graduating class, wondered whether he would have been friends with his father if they went to high school together; when he returned to California, Gale told director Robert Zemeckis about the idea. Zemeckis thought of a mother claiming she never kissed a boy at school when, in fact, she had been promiscuous.
The two to
The Hollywood Bowl is an amphitheater in the Hollywood Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. It was named one of the 10 best live music venues in America by Rolling Stone Magazine in 2018; the Hollywood Bowl is known for its band shell, a distinctive set of concentric arches that graced the site from 1929 through 2003, before being replaced with a larger one beginning in the 2004 season. The shell is set against the backdrop of the Hollywood Hills and the famous Hollywood Sign to the northeast; the "bowl" refers to the shape of the concave hillside. The Bowl is owned by the County of Los Angeles and is the home of the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra, the summer home of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the host venue to hundreds of musical events each year, it is located at 2301 North Highland Avenue, west of the French Village, north of Hollywood Boulevard and the Hollywood/Highland subway station, south of Route 101. The site of the Hollywood Bowl was chosen in 1919 by William Reed and his son H. Ellis Reed, who were dispatched to find a suitable location for outdoor performances by the members of the newly formed Theatre Arts Alliance headed by Christine Wetherill Stevenson.
The Reeds selected a natural amphitheater, a shaded canyon and popular picnic spot known as'Daisy Dell' in Bolton Canyon, chosen for its natural acoustics and its proximity to downtown Hollywood. The Community Park and Art Association headed by F. W. Blanchard, was the first organization to begin the building the Bowl. One of the earliest performances at the Bowl was Hollywood High School’s Performance of Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night; the Women’s World Peace Concert was held on November 11, 1921. On November 11, 1921 the first Sunrise Service took place at the bowl, in one of its first major events. With the building of the first actual stage, consisting of little more than wooden platforms in and canvas, The Bowl opened on July 11, 1922; the Bowl began as a community space rather than a owned establishment. Proceeds from the early events at the Bowl went to financing the construction of new elements of the bowl such as a stage and seating in 1922 and 1923 respectively. In 1924, a backdrop to the stage was added.
During the early years of the Bowl’s existence, concert tickets were kept at the lowest available price of 25 cents using the slogan popular prices will prevail, coined by F. W. Blanchard. While serving as the venue for concerts by the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the Bowl served as a community space, being used for Easter services, the Hollywood Community Chorus, as well as Young Artists Nights where younger musicians could perform well known classical music. Children were invited to perform at community events with the Los Angeles Philharmonic and the Hollywood Community Chorus, beginning with Sibelius’ Finlandia in 1921; the Bowl was home to much more than western music, hosting a variety of Native American tribal events, as well as international music ensembles. In 1924, the land was deeded to the County of Los Angeles. Many of the key influential figures in the founding of the Hollywood Bowl were women, most notably the pianist Artie Mason Carter, whose connections with the Los Angeles arts patrons were vital in the early days of the Bowls existence.
Christine Wetherill Stevenson and Marie Rankin Clarke, who both donated $21,000 to purchase the land on which the bowl was built. E. J. Wakeman, Leiland Atherton Irish, Harriet Clay Penman, composers Gertrude Ross and Carrie Jacobs Bond all contributed to the Bowl through fundraising drives. Lloyd Wright designed the third band shells; the original 1926 shell, designed by the Allied Architects group, was considered unacceptable both visually and acoustically. Wright's 1927 shell had a pyramidal shape and a design reminiscent of southwest American Indian architecture, its acoustics were regarded as the best of any shell in Bowl history. But its appearance was considered too avant-garde, or only ugly, it was demolished at the end of the season, his 1928 wooden shell had the now-familiar concentric ring motif, covered a 120-degree arc, was designed to be dismantled. It was neglected and ruined by water damage. For the 1929 season, the Allied Architects built the shell that stood until 2003, using a transite skin over a metal frame.
Its acoustics, though not nearly as good as those of the Lloyd Wright shells, were deemed satisfactory at first, its clean lines and white, semicircular arches were copied for music shells elsewhere. As the acoustics deteriorated, various measures were used to mitigate the problems, starting in the 1970s with an inner shell made from large cardboard tubes, which were replaced in the early 1980s by large fiberglass spheres that remained until 2003; these dampened out the unfavorable acoustics, but required massive use of electronic amplification to reach the full audience since the background noise level had risen since the 1920s. The appearance underwent other, purely visual, changes as well, including the addition of a broad outer arch where it had once had only a narrow rim, a reflecting pool in front of the stage that lasted from 1953 till 1972. Sculptor George Stanley, designer of the Oscar statuette, designed the Muse Fountain which has stood outside the Hollywood Bowl's main entrance since 1940.
Shortly after the end of the 2003 summer season the 1929 shell was replaced with a new, somewhat larger, acoustically improved shell, which had its debut in the 2004 summer season. Preservationists fiercely opposed the demolition for many years; however when it was built, the 1929 shell was (at least aco
Les Misérables (musical)
Les Misérables, colloquially known in English-speaking countries as Les Mis, is a sung-through musical based on the 1862 novel of the same name by French poet and novelist Victor Hugo. The musical premiered in Paris in 1980, has music by Claude-Michel Schönberg and original French-language lyrics by Alain Boublil and Jean-Marc Natel. An English-language libretto was written by Herbert Kretzmer; the London production has run continuously since October 1985, making it the longest-running musical in the West End and the second longest-running musical in the world after the original Off-Broadway run of The Fantasticks. Set in early 19th-century France, Les Misérables is the story of Jean Valjean, a French peasant, his desire for redemption after serving nineteen years in jail for having stolen a loaf of bread for his sister's starving child. Valjean decides to break his parole and start his life anew after a bishop inspires him by a tremendous act of mercy, but he is relentlessly tracked down by a police inspector named Javert.
Transformed by the bishop's generosity, Valjean's restored humanity moves him to adopt the orphaned girl Cosette and makes a vow to her dying mother that he will protect her with his life. Still pursued by Javert, he must lead a cautious life in Paris. Along the way, Valjean and a slew of characters are swept into a revolutionary period in France, where a group of young idealists attempt to overthrow the government at a street barricade. Les Misérables was released as a French-language concept album, the first musical-stage adaptation of Les Misérables was presented at the Palais des Sports in 1980. However, the production closed after three months due to that expiry of the booking contract. In 1983, about six months after producer Cameron Mackintosh had opened Cats on Broadway, he received a copy of the French concept album from director Peter Farago. Farago had been impressed by the work and asked Mackintosh to produce an English-language version of the show. Reluctant, Mackintosh agreed. Mackintosh, in conjunction with the Royal Shakespeare Company, assembled a production team to adapt the French musical for a British audience.
After two years in development, the English-language version opened in London on 8 October 1985, by the Royal Shakespeare Company at the Barbican Centre the London home of the RSC. The success of the West End musical led to a Broadway production. Critical reviews for Les Misérables were negative. At the opening of the London production, The Sunday Telegraph's Francis King described the musical as "a lurid Victorian melodrama produced with Victorian lavishness" and Michael Ratcliffe of The Observer considered the show "a witless and synthetic entertainment", while literary scholars condemned the project for converting classic literature into a musical. Public opinion differed: the box office received record orders; the three-month engagement sold out, reviews improved. The London production has run continuously since October 1985, making it the second longest-running musical in the world after The Fantasticks, the second longest-running West End show after The Mousetrap, the longest-running musical in the West End.
In 2010, it played its ten-thousandth performance at Queen's Theatre. On 3 October 2010, the show celebrated its 25th anniversary with three productions running in London: the original production at the Queen's Theatre; the Broadway production opened 12 March 1987 and ran until 18 May 2003, closing after 6,680 performances. It was the second-longest at the time; the show was nominated for 12 Tony Awards and won eight, including Best Musical and Best Original Score. Subsequently, numerous tours and international and regional productions have been staged, as well as concert and broadcast productions. Several recordings have been made. A Broadway revival opened in 2006 at the Broadhurst Theatre and closed in 2008, a second Broadway revival opened in 2014 at the Imperial Theatre and closed in September 2016; the show was placed first in a BBC Radio 2 listener poll of Britain's "Number One Essential Musicals" in 2005, receiving more than forty percent of the votes. A film version directed by Tom Hooper was released at the end of 2012 to positive reviews as well as numerous awards nominations, winning three Academy Awards, three Golden Globe Awards and four British Academy Film Awards.
The musical's emblem is a picture of the waif Cosette sweeping the Thénardiers' inn. It is cropped to a head-and-shoulders portrait, superimposed on the French flag; the image is based on an etching by Gustave Brion based on the drawing by Émile Bayard. It appeared in several of the novel's earliest French-language editions. In 1815 France, prisoners work at hard labour. After 19 years in prison, Jean Valjean, "prisoner 24601", is released on parole by the prison guard Javert. By law, Valjean must display a yellow ticket of leave; as a convict, Valjean is shunned wherever he goes and cannot find regular work with decent wages or lodging, but the Bishop of Digne offers him food and shelter. Desperate and embittered, Valjean steals the Bishop's silver and flees, he is captured by the police, but rather than turn him in, the Bishop lies and tells the police that the silver was a gift, giving Valjean a pair of silver candlesticks in addition
Lambada (1990 American film)
Lambada is a 1990 dramatic film starring J. Eddie Peck, Melora Hardin, Adolfo "Shabba-doo" Quinones, Ricky Paull Goldin, Dennis Burkley, Keene Curtis. Lambada was choreographed by Shabba-Doo; the film was released with rival film The Forbidden Dance. A Beverly Hills school teacher by day, Kevin Laird, journeys at night to a warehouse in East L. A, where a group of barrio kids gather to dance the lambada. Using his dazzling dance moves to earn the kids' respect and acceptance, Kevin teaches them academics in an informal backroom study hall. One of his students, Sandy sees him at the club; the next morning at school while Kevin is teaching, Sandy daydreams that she and Kevin are dancing and he madly kisses her on his motorcycle. It's the best of both worlds, but Sandy becomes a jealous and lovestruck student and she exposes Kevin's double life, his two worlds collide, threatening his job and reputation. J. Eddie Peck - Kevin Laird/Blade/Carlos Gutierrez Melora Hardin - Sandy Thomas Adolfo "Shabba-doo" Quinones - Ramone Leticia Vasquez - Pink Toes Dennis Burkley - Uncle Big Rita Bland - Lesley Jimmy Locust - Ricochet Kayla Blake - Bookworm Richard Giorla - Double J Debra Hopkins - Muriel Eddie Garcia - Chili Kristina Starman - Linda Laird Keene Curtis - Principal Singleton Basil Hofman - Supt. Leland Ricky Paull Goldin - Dean Eric Taslitz - Egghead Thalmus Rasulala - Wesley Wilson Gina Ravera - Funk Queen Lambada opened on March 16, 1990, at #8 and earned $2,031,181 to 1117 theaters.
It fell from the box office with a scant of $4,263,112. It received mixed reviews, holds a 47% on Rotten Tomatoes. Lambada was released on DVD on Apr 15, 2003. Set Night On Fire - Sweet Obsession This Moment In Time - Absolute Perfect - Dina D! Tease Me, Please Me - Tony Terry Lambada Dancing - Kathy Sledge Gotta Lambada - Absolute I Like The Rhythm - Carrie Lucas Rock Lambada - Johnny Thomas Jr. Wes Groove - Billy Wolfer Sata - Brenda K. Starr Give It Up - Judette Warren In The Heat Of The Night - Soul II Soul Official website Lambada on IMDb Lambada at Box Office Mojo Lambada at Rotten Tomatoes
Sarah Lawrence College
Sarah Lawrence College is a private liberal arts college in Yonkers, New York. It is known for its low student-to-faculty ratio and individualized course of study; the school models its approach to education after the Oxford/Cambridge system of one-on-one student-faculty tutorials, which are a key component in all areas of study. Sarah Lawrence emphasizes scholarship in the humanities, performing arts, writing, places high value on independent study. Sarah Lawrence College is ranked 53rd in the National Liberal Arts Colleges category in 2018 by U. S. News & World Report. Sarah Lawrence was named the higher education institution with the "best classroom experience" in all of America by Princeton Review in 2016. Sarah Lawrence College was established by real-estate mogul William Van Duzer Lawrence on the grounds of his estate in Westchester County and was named in honor of his wife, Sarah Bates Lawrence; the College was intended to provide instruction in the arts and humanities for women. A major component of the College's early curriculum was "productive leisure," wherein students were required to work for eight hours weekly in such fields as modeling, typewriting, applying makeup, gardening.
Its pedagogy, modeled on the tutorial system of Oxford University, combined independent research projects, individually supervised by the teaching faculty, seminars with low student-to-faculty ratio—a pattern it retains to the present, despite its cost. Sarah Lawrence was the first liberal arts college in the United States to incorporate a rigorous approach to the arts with the principles of progressive education, focusing on the primacy of teaching and the concentration of curricular efforts on individual needs. In addition to founding Sarah Lawrence College, William Lawrence played a critical role in the development of the neighboring community of Bronxville, New York, his name can be found on the affluent Lawrence Park and Lawrence Park West neighborhoods, the Houlihan Lawrence Real Estate Corporation, on Lawrence Hospital in downtown Bronxville, an institution, created when Lawrence's son, nearly died en route to a hospital in neighboring New York City. Lawrence embodied ideas from the Progressivist movement of the 1890s his view that the arts were a crucial element in the social evolution of individuals and families, in developing both private and public sensibilities, in creating equal relations between men and women.
Harold Taylor, President of Sarah Lawrence College from 1945 to 1959 influenced the college. Taylor, elected president at age 30, maintained a friendship with educational philosopher John Dewey, worked to employ the Dewey method at Sarah Lawrence. Taylor spent much of his career calling for educational reform in the United States, using the success of his own College as an example of the possibilities of a personalized and rigorous approach to higher education. Sarah Lawrence became a coeducational institution in 1968. Prior to this transition, there were discussions about relocating the school and merging it with Princeton University, but the administration opted to remain independent. At the undergraduate level, Sarah Lawrence offers an alternative to traditional majors. Students pursue a wide variety of courses in four different curricular distributions: the Creative Arts. Classes are structured around a seminar-conference system through which students learn in small interactive seminars and private tutorials with professors.
Each student is assigned to a faculty advisor, known as a "don," who helps the student plan a course of study and provides ongoing academic guidance. Most courses, apart from those in the performing arts, consist of two parts: the seminar, limited to 15 students, conferences, a meeting with a seminar professor. In these conferences, students develop individual projects that extend the course material and link it to their personal interests. Sarah Lawrence has no required courses, traditional examinations have been supplanted by research papers. Additionally, grades are recorded only for transcript purposes—narrative evaluations are given in lieu of grades; the College sponsors international programs in Florence, at Wadham College, Oxford, at Reid Hall in Paris, at the British American Drama Academy in London. Sarah Lawrence has the longest-running study abroad program in Havana, Cuba. Sarah Lawrence offers Master's-level programs in Writing, the Art of Teaching, Child Development, Theatre and Dance/Movement Therapy and is home to the nation's oldest graduate program in Women's History and the nation's first master's degree programs in Human Genetics and Health Advocacy.
Sarah Lawrence offers a program for people wishing to seek a B. A. or a Master have been out of school for any period. Eugene Lang College Exchange Program: In 1996 the college began its exchange program with Eugene Lang College, the undergraduate division of the New School in New York City. Eugene Lang has particular strengths in the social sciences. Qualified students may cross-register in courses in other divisions of the New School, including the graduate divisions. Students must have completed the first and sophomore years. Qualified students have the opportunity to participate in Lang's exchange program at the Universi
Jimmy Smits is an American actor best known for playing attorney Victor Sifuentes on the 1980s legal drama L. A. Law, NYPD Detective Bobby Simone on the 1990s police drama NYPD Blue and Matt Santos on the 1999–2006 serial political drama The West Wing, he appeared as Bail Organa in the Star Wars prequel trilogy, as ADA Miguel Prado in Dexter. From 2012 to 2014, he joined the main cast of Sons of Anarchy as Nero Padilla. Smits was born in New York. "Jimmy" is the name. It is not a stage name or derived from "James". Smits's father, Cornelis Leendert Smits, was from Paramaribo and was of Dutch descent. Smits's mother, was Puerto Rican, born in Peñuelas, he and his two sisters and Diana, grew up in a working-class neighborhood. He spent time in Puerto Rico during his childhood. Smits was raised in a devout Roman Catholic family, he identifies as Puerto Rican and visits Puerto Rico. In 2001, he was arrested for his participation in protests against U. S. Navy bombing practices on the Puerto Rican offshore island of Vieques.
Smits was an athlete in his youth. He graduated from Thomas Jefferson High School, he earned a bachelor's degree from Brooklyn College in 1980 and an MFA from Cornell University in 1982. An early role played by Smits was that of Eddie Rivera in the two-hour series premiere of Miami Vice, in 1984. In the episode, he portrayed Sonny Crockett's original partner, killed in a sting gone wrong. Beginning in 1986, Smits played Victor Sifuentes in the first five seasons of the NBC television Steven Bochco legal drama L. A. Law. Additionally, Smits played a repairman on Pee-wee's Playhouse, he starred in the multigenerational story of a Chicano family in the film My Family, alongside Edward James Olmos and Jennifer Lopez. One of Smits's most acclaimed roles was that of Detective Bobby Simone on the ABC television program NYPD Blue, in which he starred from 1994 to 1998, he received several Emmy nominations for his performance on the series and was reunited with his former co-star Dennis Franz at the 2016 Emmy Awards presentation.
He won the ALMA award twice. In 1999, Smits received the HOLA Award for Excellence from the Hispanic Organization of Latin Actors. Smits was scheduled to host the 2001 Latin Grammy Awards broadcast on September 11, 2001, it was canceled due to continuous news coverage, in respect to the victims, of the terrorist attacks earlier that day. He did host a non-televised press conference to announce the winners. Smits appeared as Senator Bail Organa of Alderaan in Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, in which the character becomes Princess Leia's adoptive father, he reappeared as Bail Organa in the game Star Wars: The Force Unleashed and the spinoff movie Rogue One. Smits played the role of Congressman Matt Santos of Houston, Texas, in the final two seasons of the NBC television drama The West Wing, joining fellow L. A. Law alumnus John Spencer, his character ran for and won the U. S. presidency. In Dexter season 3, Smits played the role of Miguel Prado, an assistant district attorney who befriends the title character.
Smits was nominated for an Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series for the role. Additionally, Smits portrayed the character Alex Vega in the CBS TV series Cane, which aired from September 25, 2007, to December 18, 2007, was subsequently cancelled by the network due to the 2007 Screen Writer's Guild strike. Smits joined the Sons of Anarchy cast in season 5 as Nero Padilla, a high-level pimp who refers to himself as a "companionator", he builds a relationship with Gemma Teller Morrow and forms an alliance and mentorship with Gemma's son, the central character Jax Teller. Smits starred in a musical drama television series which debuted in 2016 on Netflix. In 2016, Smits returned to his role as Senator Bail Organa in Rogue One: A Star Wars Story. In the mid-1980s, Smits acted in numerous performances at the Hangar Theatre in Ithaca, New York, Cornell's summer repertory program. In 1982 at the Hangar his roles included Max in Cabaret, Paul in Loose Ends, the lead in Pudd'nhead Wilson.
Smits has participated in the Public Theater's New York Shakespeare Festival, playing the role of Duke Orsino in Twelfth Night in 2002 and Benedick in'Much Ado about Nothing in 2004. In 2003, Smits starred in the Broadway production of the Pulitzer Prize winning play, Anna in the Tropics, by Nilo Cruz, performed at the Royale Theatre. From November 2009 to February 2010, he appeared opposite Christine Lahti, Annie Potts, Ken Stott in the critically lauded Broadway play God of Carnage, replacing Jeff Daniels. In December 2012 through March 2013, he appeared in Chicago in The Motherfucker with the Hat, at Steppenwolf Theatre Company. Smits was married to high school sweetheart, Barbara Smits, from 1981 until 1987, they have two children and Joaquin. Taina Smits-Beasley lives in Virginia and is a theatre arts teacher at Glasgow Middle School in Fairfax County, VA. Since 1986, he has been in a relationship with actress Wanda De Jesus. Smits was arrested in 1987 for assaulting an officer, after police answered a call for help at his home.
He and De Jesus were arrested for battery on three police officers. The charges were dropped because of conflicting witness statements, he pleaded guilty to the misdemeanor of disturbing the peace, was sentenced to 18 months of unsupervised probation and a $150 fine. De Jesus pleaded guilty to misidentifying herself to a police officer and disturbin
Houston is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles, Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States, it is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties. Houston was founded by land speculators on August 30, 1836, at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5, 1837.
The city is named after former General Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas and had won Texas' independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto 25 miles east of Allen's Landing. After serving as the capital of the Texas Republic in the late 1830s, Houston grew into a regional trading center for the remainder of the 19th century; the arrival of the 20th century saw a convergence of economic factors which fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas' primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, the Texas oil boom. In the mid-20th century, Houston's economy diversified as it became home to the Texas Medical Center—the world's largest concentration of healthcare and research institutions—and NASA's Johnson Space Center, where the Mission Control Center is located. Houston's economy has a broad industrial base in energy, manufacturing and transportation.
Leading in healthcare sectors and building oilfield equipment, Houston has the second most Fortune 500 headquarters of any U. S. municipality within its city limits. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled. Nicknamed the "Space City", Houston is a global city, with strengths in culture and research; the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. Houston is the most diverse metropolitan area in Texas and has been described as the most racially and ethnically diverse major metropolis in the U. S, it is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and offers year-round resident companies in all major performing arts; the Allen brothers—Augustus Chapman and John Kirby—explored town sites on Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay.
According to historian David McComb, "he brothers, on August 26, 1836, bought from Elizabeth E. Parrott, wife of T. F. L. Parrott and widow of John Austin, the south half of the lower league granted to her by her late husband, they paid $5,000 total, but only $1,000 of this in cash. They lobbied the Republic of Texas Congress to designate Houston as the temporary capital, agreeing to provide the new government with a capital building. About a dozen persons resided in the town at the beginning of 1837, but that number grew to about 1,500 by the time the Texas Congress convened in Houston for the first time that May. Houston was granted incorporation with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor. In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County. In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin; the town suffered another setback that year when a yellow fever epidemic claimed about one life out of every eight residents. Yet it persisted as a commercial center, forming a symbiosis with Galveston.
Landlocked farmers brought their produce to Houston, using Buffalo Bayou to gain access to Galveston and the Gulf of Mexico. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston; the great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the domestic slave trade. New Orleans was the center of this trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved blacks lived near the city before the American Civil War. Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. In 1840, the community established a chamber of commerce in part to promote shipping and navigation at the newly created port on Buffalo Bayou. By 1860, Houston had emerged as a commercial and railroad hub for the export of cotton. Railroad spurs from the Texas inland converged in Houston, where they met rail lines to the ports of Galveston and Beaumont.
During the American Civil War, Houston served as a headquarters for General John Magruder, who used the city as an organization point for the Battle of Galveston. After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initia