The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
There have been two junior ice hockey franchises known as the Quebec Remparts that played in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. The first edition played from 1969 to 1985. Both franchises were based out of Quebec City, Canada; the current team plays at Videotron Centre. The team is named after the Ramparts of Quebec City; the Remparts have developed notable National Hockey League players, including Simon Gagné, Kevin Lowe, Mike Ribeiro, Antoine Vermette, Marc-Édouard Vlasic and Hall of Famers Michel Goulet and Guy Lafleur. The original Quebec Remparts team was founded in 1969 by a group of investors who purchased the assets of the junior Quebec Aces team; some of the new owners included Paul Dumont, Gérard Bolduc. The Remparts took up residence in the same arena as the Aces in the Colisée de Québec; the Remparts were finalists for the George Richardson Memorial Trophy in 1969–70, eastern Canadian champions in 1970–71. It was this team, which featured future Hockey Hall of Famer Guy Lafleur, that won a Memorial Cup championship in 1971.
The team won the President's Cup five times. Gilles Courteau was the general manager of the Remparts from 1980 to 1985. After the 1984–85 season, the team went into dormancy for three seasons before being resurrected. After returning to play, then-sponsored by "Le Collège Français", the team moved to Longueuil to become the Longueuil Collège Français; the team played for three seasons before moving to Verdun in 1991 to become the Verdun Collège Français. The franchise ceased operations in 1994; the current Remparts franchise was granted for the 1990–91 season and was known as the Beauport Harfangs, a suburb in the Quebec City metropolitan area. In 1997 the team moved to Quebec City, playing two seasons at PEPS on the campus of Laval University between 1997 and 1999. In 1999 the team moved into the Colisée de Québec, they are considered one of the most popular Canadian Hockey League teams, as they draw over 11,000 spectators per game. Similar to the National Football League's Cleveland Browns, the team claims the history and records of the original Remparts.
On May 28, 2006, the Remparts won the Memorial Cup. Then-Head Coach Patrick Roy became the seventh coach to win the Cup in his first year as head coach, the first to do so since Claude Julien of the Hull Olympiques in 1997, it was the first time in Memorial Cup history that the finals involved two teams from the QMJHL. Quebec won the Cup without winning a League championship and without hosting the event, another first in Memorial Cup history. On November 27, 2014, the Remparts were sold to Quebecor for an estimated price between $20 million and $25 million; the Remparts were chosen to be the host of the 2015 Memorial Cup. They defeated the Rimouski Océanic in tie-breaker 5-2, but got eliminated by the Kelowna Rockets in the semi-finals 9-3; the team moved to Centre Vidéotron on September 12, 2015. Original RempartsMichel Goulet, Guy Lafleur have been inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. Modern Remparts 4 Guy Lafleur 12 Simon Gagné 22 Alexander Radulov 44 Marc-Édouard Vlasic CHRC Quebec Remparts Official Site QMJHL Arena Guide profile
Portland is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers; as of 2017, Portland had an estimated population of 647,805, making it the 26th-largest city in the United States, the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest. 2.4 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area ranks 18th-largest with a population of around 3.2 million. 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail, its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.
After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture; the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its land-use investment in public transportation. Portland is recognized as one of the world's most environmentally conscious cities because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, over 10,000 acres of public parks, its climate is marked by cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would become Montana.
These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people—the Multnomah and the Clackamas; the Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver; this community was referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim.
For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston. In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns; this controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, causing $1.3 million in damage. By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast.
Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road", provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, it grew quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River; the city had its own Japantown, for one, the lumber industry became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas Firs, Western Hemlocks, Red Cedars, Big Leaf Maple trees. Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a gritty port town; some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England. In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world.
The city housed a large number of saloons
George Parsons Trophy
The George Parsons Trophy is awarded annually to the player judged to be the most sportsmanlike at the Memorial Cup tournament. It was first awarded in 1974; the trophy is named for George Parsons, a former Ontario Hockey Association player whose career was ended prematurely in 1939, due to an eye injury in a National Hockey League game. Parsons appeared in the 1933 Memorial Cup as a member of the West Toronto Nationals, the 1934 Memorial Cup as a member of the Toronto Young Rangers. Parsons became involved with CCM hockey, helping to develop hockey helmets and facial protection for player safety, that were approved by the Canadian Standards Association and endorsed by the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association in 1976. List of winners of the George Parsons Trophy. List of Canadian Hockey League awards History – Awards – Mastercard Memorial Cup
James T. Sutherland
James Thomas Sutherland was a Canadian ice hockey administrator, founding father of the game in Canada. Sutherland was a pioneer of hockey's early years, helping to developing amateur hockey, spread the game's popularity throughout the country, into the United States, he played in the inaugural season of the Ontario Hockey Association, coached and refereed the game. He founded the original Kingston Frontenacs, became president of the Ontario Hockey Association, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association, he was instrumental in founding the Memorial Cup in 1919, was at the forefront of the discussion on the origins of hockey. Sutherland was born into a military family, was a travelling shoe salesman by trade, he served overseas in the Canadian Expeditionary Force during World War I, reaching the rank of Captain. Sutherland was the driving force behind the creation of the Hall of Fame, the International Hockey Hall of Fame, his many writings helped preserve the history of ice hockey in Canada, his arguments for Kingston being the birthplace of hockey, is a major reason why the National Hockey League and the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association selected Kingston as the original home of the Hockey Hall of Fame.
He was one of the original inductees into the Hockey Hall of Fame, referred to as the "Father of Hockey". Sutherland was born and raised in Kingston, Ontario, as the youngest of eight children, to Alexander and Margaret Sutherland, who had Scottish and Irish roots; the family owned a custom shoemaking business at the lower end of Princess Street, that made boots for troops at Fort Henry. At age 15, Sutherland attempted to follow his father's military footsteps, volunteered for service with the Midand Regiment for the North-West Rebellion, but was rejected for being too young. Sutherland attended Kingston Collegiate and Vocational Institute, became a bookkeeper for a family-owned hardware store, he was accepted for military service into Kingston's 14th Regiment two years in 1887. He was cast as chorus member in the opera, the Royal Cadet. at age 20, his father died two years in 1892. He grew up playing hockey on the frozen Cataraqui River in downtown Kingston. Sutherland witnessed the first recorded hockey game in Canada, on March 10, 1886, between Queen's University and the Royal Military College of Canada.
Sutherland was one of hockey's first captains, he played as a defenceman for the Athletic Club of Kingston in winter of 1890–91, during the inaugural season of the Ontario Hockey Association. In 1897, Sutherland married Ethel Mary Metcalfe, helped organize the Frontenac Hockey Club of Kingston, he no longer played, but was involved with the club as a referee, timekeeper and coach. Sutherland was first inspired to provide his own views on how hockey began, after reading the 1899 book Hockey: Canada's Royal Winter Game. In 1902–03, he was appointed a convenor for the eastern group of the Ontario Hockey Association. In 1904, he resigned as a commissioned lieutenant officer began refereeing ice hockey throughout Ontario, travelled as a shoe salesman as far as Florida and Georgia. Sutherland coached the Frontenac team which included future Hall of Famers Scotty Davidson, George Richardson, that won OHA junior championships in 1910, 1911. In 1911, he was appointed to the OHA executive, passed a rule change where the positions of point, cover-point where changed to right and left defence.
Sutherland was credited with further rule changes to allow substitutions, to switch from two thirty-minute periods, to three twenty-minute periods. He became second vice president of the OHA in 1913, its first vice president in 1914. Sutherland was elected president of the Ontario Hockey Association in 1915, was elected president of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association on December 10, 1915. In 1916, he enlisted for the World War I effort with the Canadian Army Service Corps, rejoined Kingston's 14th Regiment after a 12-year absence. Sutherland encouraged Canadian hockey players to join the war effort, used his position with the CAHA to issue a recruiting message across the nation, he promoted the teamwork of hockey, compared it to war against a common enemy. Sutherland deployed to Europe in 1916, as a captain in the 146th Battalion in the Canadian Expeditionary Force, his battalion was absorbed into the 95th battalion, he was reelected OHA president for another year, while serving overseas as quartermaster of the Casualty Training Battalion.
The OHA elected a new president in 1917, however the CAHA did not hold elections from 1916-1918 during the war. While overseas due to WWI, J. F. Paston acted as CAHA president, until Sutherland's return in 1918. Sutherland was in Paris on Armistice Day, made sure to visit the grave of George Richardson, before he returned to Canada, the CAHA, the Frontenacs after the war. Sutherland continued to serve as CAHA president until 1919, he was known as an authoritative source for information on the history of hockey and introduced preseason exercises, a coaching system. He worked to create a trophy to honour all of the soldiers who died during World War I, many of whom played junior hockey, responded to Sutherland's call to arms; the deaths of two former Frontenacs, Scotty Davidson, George Richardson served as inspiration for the trophy. Sutherland, with the help of businessman Liam Carr purchased a trophy, donated by the Ontario Hockey Association; the Memorial Cup was known as the OHA Memorial Cup, was first awarded in 1919 to the best junior hockey team in Canada each year.
Sutherland served as a long-time member of the OHA executive committee after being president. He recom
The Halifax Mooseheads are a Canadian major junior ice hockey club in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League based out of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. The team was founded in 1994 and began play in the Dilio Division of the QMJHL from the 1994–95 season, they have appeared in the President's Cup Finals three times, winning in 2013. The other two appearances were in 2003 and 2005, they hosted the Memorial Cup tournament in 2000, won the Memorial Cup in 2013. The team plays their home games in the Scotiabank Centre with a capacity of 10,595 seats; the team was first envisioned by Moosehead Brewery Vice President of Sales and Marketing Harold MacKay in 1993, who believed that Halifax could host a QMJHL team. The QMJHL had teams located in the Province of Quebec, so adding a team in the Maritimes would add to travel costs for the other teams. MacKay was confident that the Halifax franchise could be successful and received financial backing from Moosehead Breweries President and CEO Derek Oland. After careful negotiations by MacKay, the QMJHL expanded to the city of Halifax for the 1994–95 season.
In their first year, in 1994, the Mooseheads finished in sixth place and lost in the first round of the playoffs to the Beauport Harfangs, taking the first-placed team to seven games. The Mooseheads and MacKay are considered pioneers for the QMJHL; the QMJHL has franchises in Sydney, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, New Brunswick, Saint John, New Brunswick and Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. While the League has had success with most of its Atlantic franchises, only the St. John's Fog Devils moved to Verdun, after the 2007–08 season, only their third season in existence. In 2013, the Mooseheads won the President's Cup as champions of the QMJHL; the Mooseheads went on to compete in the Memorial Cup final in Saskatoon, where they faced and defeated the Portland Winterhawks on May 26, 2013 by a score of 6–4, with Nathan MacKinnon recording a hat-trick into an empty net with only 22 seconds left in the game. They made history at the 2016 QMJHL Draft by being the first team to have the 1st and 2nd overall picks where they selected touted prospects Benoit-Olivier Groulx and Truro's Jared McIsaac.
*interim 18 Alex Tanguay 25 Jody Shelley 47 Jean-Sébastien Giguère Pat Connolly Legend: OTL = Overtime loss, SL = Shootout loss Mooseheads official web site The Q Files Metro Halifax's Mooseheads Blog
Hockey Hall of Fame
The Hockey Hall of Fame is an ice hockey museum located in Toronto, Canada. Dedicated to the history of ice hockey, it is a hall of fame, it holds exhibits about players, National Hockey League records, memorabilia and NHL trophies, including the Stanley Cup. Founded in Kingston, the Hockey Hall of Fame was established in 1943 under the leadership of James T. Sutherland; the first class of honoured members was inducted in 1945, before the Hall of Fame had a permanent location. It moved to Toronto in 1958 after the NHL withdrew its support for the International Hockey Hall of Fame in Kingston, Ontario, its first permanent building opened at Exhibition Place in 1961. The hall was relocated in 1993, is now in downtown Toronto, inside Brookfield Place, a historic Bank of Montreal building. An 18-person committee of players and others meets annually in June to select new honourees, who are inducted as players, builders or on-ice officials. In 2010, a subcategory was established for female players; the builders' category includes coaches, general managers, team owners and others who have helped build the game.
Honoured members are inducted into the Hall of Fame in an annual ceremony held at the Hall of Fame building in November, followed by a special "Hockey Hall of Fame Game" between the Toronto Maple Leafs and a visiting team. As of 2018, 280 players, 109 builders and 16 on-ice officials have been inducted into the Hall of Fame; the Hall of Fame has been criticized for focusing on players from the National Hockey League and ignoring players from other North American and international leagues. The Hockey Hall of Fame was established through the efforts of James T. Sutherland, a former President of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association. Sutherland sought to establish it in Kingston, Ontario as he believed that the city was the birthplace of hockey. In 1943, the NHL and CAHA reached an agreement. Called the "International Hockey Hall of Fame", its mandate was to honour great hockey players and to raise funds for a permanent location; the first nine "honoured members" were inducted on April 30, 1945, although the Hall of Fame still did not have a permanent home.
The first board of governors consisted of Red Dutton, Art Ross, Frank Sargent, Lester Patrick, Abbie E. H. Coo, Wes McKnight, Basil E. O'Meara, J. P. Fitzgerald and W. A. Hewitt. Kingston lost its most influential advocate as permanent site of the Hockey Hall of Fame when Sutherland died in 1955. By 1958, the Hockey Hall of Fame had still not raised sufficient funds to construct a permanent building in Kingston. Clarence Campbell President of the NHL, grew tired of waiting for the construction to begin and withdrew the NHL's support to situate the hall in Kingston. In the same year, the NHL and the Canadian National Exhibition reached an agreement to establish a new Hall of Fame building in Toronto, in the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame located at Exhibition Place; the temporary Hockey Hall of Fame opened as an exhibit within the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame in August 1958, 350,000 people visited it during the 1958 CNE fair. Due to the success of the exhibit, NHL and CNE decided that a permanent home in the Exhibition Place was needed.
The NHL agreed to fund the building of the new facility on the grounds of Exhibition Place, construction began in 1960. The first permanent Hockey Hall of Fame, which shared a building with the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame, was opened on August 26, 1961, by Canadian Prime Minister John Diefenbaker. Over 750,000 people visited the Hall in its inaugural year. Admission to the Hockey Hall of Fame was free until 1980, when the Hockey Hall of Fame facilities underwent expansion. By 1986, the Hall of Fame was running out of room in its existing facilities and the Board of Directors decided that a new home was needed; the Hall vacated the Exhibition Place building in 1992, its half was taken over by the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame. (The building was demolished. Development of the new location in the BCE Place complex, featuring the former Bank of Montreal at the corner of Yonge and Front Streets in Toronto, began soon after; the design was by S. George Curry; the new Hockey Hall of Fame opened on June 18, 1993.
The new location has 4,700 m2 of exhibition space, seven times larger. The Hockey Hall of Fame now hosts more than 300,000 visitors each year; the first curator of the new Hall of Fame was Bobby Hewitson. Following Hewitson's retirement in 1967, Lefty Reid was appointed to the position. Reid was curator of the Hockey Hall of Fame for the next 25 years, retiring in 1992. Following Reid's retirement, former NHL referee-in-chief Scotty Morrison, the president of the Hockey Hall of Fame since 1986, was appointed curator. Morrison supervised the relocation of the Hall of its exhibits; the current curator is Phil Pritchard. The Hockey Hall of Fame is led by Lanny McDonald, Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer, Jeff Denommé, it is operated as a non-profit business called the "Hockey Hall of Fame and Museum", independent of the National Hockey League. The Hall of Fame was sponsored by the NHL and Hockey Canada and revenue is generated through admissions; the Hockey Hall of Fame has 15 exhibit areas covering 60,000 square feet.
Visitors can view tr