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Memory card

A memory card or memory cartridge is an electronic data storage device used for storing digital information using flash memory. These are used in portable electronic devices, such as digital cameras, mobile phones, tablets, PDAs, portable media players, video game consoles, electronic keyboards and digital pianos; the basis for memory card technology is flash memory. It was invented by Fujio Masuoka at Toshiba in 1980, commercialized by Toshiba in 1987. PC Cards were the first commercial memory card formats to come out, but are now used in industrial applications and to connect I/O devices such as modems. Since 1994, a number of memory card formats smaller than the PC Card arrived, the first one was CompactFlash and SmartMedia and Miniature Card; the desire for smaller cards for cell-phones, PDAs, compact digital cameras drove a trend that left the previous generation of "compact" cards looking big. In 2001, SM alone captured 50% of the digital camera market and CF had captured the professional digital camera market.

By 2005 however, SD/MMC had nearly taken over SmartMedia's spot, though not to the same level and with stiff competition coming from Memory Stick variants, as well CompactFlash. In industrial and embedded fields the venerable PC card memory cards still manage to maintain a niche, while in mobile phones and PDAs, the memory card has become smaller. Since 2010, new products of Sony and Olympus have been offered with an additional SD-Card slot; the format war has turned in SD-Card's favor. PCMCIA ATA Type I Card PCMCIA Type II, Type III cards CompactFlash Card, CompactFlash High-Speed CompactFlash Type II, CF+, CF3.0 Microdrive CFexpress MiniCard SmartMedia Card xD-Picture Card, xD-Picture Card Type M Memory Stick, MagicGate Memory Stick. MU-Flash C-Flash SIM card Smart card UFC FISH Universal Transportable Memory Card Standard Intelligent Stick SxS memory card, a new memory card specification developed by Sandisk and Sony. SxS complies to the ExpressCard industry standard. Nexflash Winbond Serial Flash Module cards, size range 2 mb and 4 mb.

Many older video game consoles used memory cards to hold saved game data. Cartridge-based systems used battery-backed volatile RAM within each individual cartridge to hold saves for that game. Cartridges without this RAM wouldn't save progress at all; the Neo Geo AES, released in 1990 by SNK, was the first video game console able to use a memory card. AES memory cards were compatible with Neo-Geo MVS arcade cabinets, allowing players to migrate saves between home and arcade systems and vice versa. Memory cards became commonplace when home consoles moved to read-only optical discs for storing the game program, beginning with systems such as the TurboGrafx-CD and Sega-CD; until the sixth generation of video game consoles, memory cards were based on proprietary formats. Home consoles now use hard disk drive storage for saved games and allow the use of generic USB flash drives or other card formats via a memory card reader to transport game saves and other game information, along with cloud storage saving, though most portable gaming systems still rely on custom memory cartridges to store program data, due to their low power consumption, smaller physical size and reduced mechanical complexity.

Comparison of memory cards Hot swapping

Teddy Gleason

Thomas William "Teddy" Gleason was president of the International Longshoremen's Association from 1963 to 1987. Gleason was born in the oldest of 13 children. Coming from a family of longshoremen, he left school after the seventh grade and started working in the docks; when wages were cut in 1931 in the wake of the Great Depression and several co-workers were blacklisted for stopping work. This led to the eviction of Gleason, his wife and their two children from their home when they could not pay the rent; when he was blacklisted, he pushed a hand truck in a sugar factory during the day and he sold hot dogs on Coney Island at night. When the New Deal allowed him to resume work in the docks, he became an ILA member and rose to the rank of ILA organizer in 1947, as a protegee of ILA president Joseph Ryan. Gleason supported William Bradley when he replaced Ryan in 1953. In 1963, during the Kennedy administration, he opposed Kennedy's proposal to sell surplus wheat to the Soviet Union, but relented when the government agreed that half of the grain ships would be American ships.

When the Johnson Administration went back on this promise, Gleason led an eight-day-long dockworkers' boycott of the Soviet-bound wheat. During the Vietnam War, Gleason made four trips to Saigon to relieve congestion in the ports there, he performed similar duties at Mombasa in Kenya. Gleason handed over the presidency to his vice president John Bowers in 1987. Gleason died in the Cabrini Medical Center in Manhattan on Christmas Eve of 1992 at the age of 92. A historical dictionary of the U. S. merchant marine and shipping industry

Bhandari caste

The Bhandari community is a caste that inhabits the western coast of India. They form the largest caste group in the state of Goa being over 30% of that state's Hindu population, play a major role in deciding the future of any political party there. Bhandaris are included in the list of Other Backward Classes in Goa; this provides them with certain rights under India's scheme of affirmative action, such as reservation of positions in government employment and admission to professional colleges. They are classified as OBCs in Maharashtra.. Whereas, in Northern region Uttarakhand Bhandari are among Brahmins and Rajput caste. Bhandaris exist in large numbers in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra, their main occupation is agriculture, they are situated in coastal areas. People of the Konkan Division Bhandari Militia Rege, Sharmila. Writing Caste, Writing Gender: Reading Dalit Women's Testimonies. Zubaan. ISBN 978-8-18901-301-1


Malonne is part of the Belgian city of Namur, located in the Namur province in Wallonia. It stood as an independent municipality until 1977 with their unification process. Malonne lies on the shore of the Sambre, upstream of its confluent in Namur with the Meuse, making it the first village in the Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse region on the Sambre's side, Wepion being its mirror on the Meuse's side. Neighboring villages include Flawinne to the north, on the western shore of the Sambre, Salzinnes to the north-east, Wepion to the south-east and Floreffe to the south and east. Malonne is a village composed of many neighborhoods and localities, more or less distant from one another and sometimes separated by woods; the main church, the old abbey, the current tomb of Saint Mutien-Marie and the different schools are found in the old heart of the village, buried in a val dug over time by the Landoir. This part of the village is therefore called the Bottom of Malonne, or the Bottom; the area is hilly, with a 220 meters highest point while its lowest, flows at 85 meters.

Except for a few abandoned quarries, the terrain has been untouched. Streams, have been more affected; the Sambre's natural flow was rectified to allow for easier navigation and the Landoir has been hidden under roads and houses in its lower part. The surroundings of Malonne have been inhabited for a long time, well into Prehistory. In the valleys of the Sambre and the Meuse, in the middle of which Malonne lies, several digging sites have revealed signs of dwelling as soon as the Paleolithic and throughout prehistory. Namur developed in the Roman Era, a few kilometers from Malonne, having a strategical position between two streams. Proofs of Roman presence have been confirmed in the village, through a cemetery and an agricultural holding in the locality of Reumont dating to the Roman High-Empire. Malonne would have been founded around the year 600, or at least it's at this date that it enters history, its founder, Saint-Berthuin, was an Anglo-Saxon Bishop. Legend says an angel visited him in his dreams, asked him to leave all his goods behind and establish a village between the Meuse and the Landoir.

He is warmly welcomed by the landlords: Roga, the squire of Flawinne hands over her domain of Malonne, on which Saint-Berthuin builds his oratory. These generous donations were commonplace during the Merovingian period. In exchange for poor or hard-to-defend lands, the mighty ensured good relations with the Church both on earth and -hopefully- in the heavens; the Vita Bertuini is the biggest source of information on the Saint's life. During the Middle Ages, Malonne was under the authority of Liège, it seems Saint-Berthuin's ownership lost its strength, was replaced by a group of canons in charge of the domain

Lawrence of Durham

Lawrence of Durham was a 12th-century English prelate, Latin poet and hagiographer. Born in southern England, at Waltham in Essex, Lawrence was given a religious education, excelled at singing and poetry composition. In his youth Lawrence became a Benedictine monk. In the 1130s Lawrence became a courtier of bishop of Durham. After the latter's death, Lawrence was a leading opponent of William Cumin, claimant to the vacant episcopate during the first half of the decade, suffered brief exile from the monastery. After Cumin's defeat and the accession of William de Ste Barbe, Lawrence became sub-prior and prior of Durham. During his lifetime as a monk of Durham, Lawrence wrote several important works in Latin, including the Dialogi, the Hypognosticon, a hagiography of Saint Brigd for Ailred of Rievaulx. Lawrence was born at a place that Lawrence claimed was renowned for its poets. A date of around 1114 has been suggested for his birth. 1100. Growing taller than average, he was educated at the church of Waltham Abbey, the church of the Holy Cross, before entering Durham Cathedral Priory as a novice during the episcopate of Ranulf Flambard.

Two teachers of the Waltham school—Athelard and his son Peter—are known from this era, it is that one of them was Lawrence's instructor. Waltham, founded by in the first half of the 11th century, had been a property of Durham from the episcopate of William Walcher until its acquisition by Queen Matilda early in the reign of Henry I. According to his own account, he continued his education at Durham, learning the trivium and quadrivium, with Virgil and Plotinus among his favourite authors. If Lawrence's own testimony is to be believed, he was held in high acclaim in his early years for his poetry and fine singing. In Lawrence's time as a teacher, he may have taught Ailred abbot of Rievaulx. Lawrence took up a place in the bishop's court during the episcopate of Geoffrey Rufus. An episcopal chaplain, Lawrence was cantor and may have held the post of receiver general in Bishop Geoffrey's exchequer. After Bishop Geoffrey's death, one of Geoffrey's former courtiers, William Cumin, arranged to have himself made the new bishop.

Although winning support from most local potentates, Cumin failed to secure the consent of the monastic chapter or the archdeacon, who insisted on a canonical election. For two years William had the support of earl of Northumberland Henry and his father the Scottish king, along with other Matildines, making his struggle for recognition part of The Anarchy, the wider struggle between Stephen de Blois and the Empress Matilda for the throne of England. Cumin lost most of this support by the end of 1142, neutralising the dispute, in 1143 William de Ste Barbe was elected at York as the new bishop. Cumin subsequently ejected the monks, including Lawrence. Lawrence's opposition, as expressed in his writings, was vehement, he has been described as "one of the most persistent opponents of Cumin". Subsequently, Lawrence rose in station within the hierarchy of the priory. Lawrence held the office of sub-prior by November 1147. Following the death of Prior Roger in either 1148 or 1149, Lawrence took over the leadership of the priory itself, is named for the first time in such capacity in 1149.

As prior of Durham, the most important ecclesiastical office in the diocese after the bishop, he remained until his death. Lawrence died on either 16 March or 18 March 1154. Lawrence had gone to Rome to seek confirmation of the election of Hugh du Puiset as bishop of Durham, the replacement of William de Ste Barbe who had died in 1152, it was on his return. His body was taken and buried at Durham, his earliest work appears to be his Vita Sanctae Brigidae, a Latin hagiography of the Irish Gaelic saint Brigid of Kildare. The story, Lawrence tells us, was that Lawrence had received from Ailred's father a hagiography of the saint written in a "half-barbaric" style. Lawrence polished it up, sent it to Ailred while the latter was a member of the court of David I, King of the Scots. Lawrence's letter to Ailred survives. Lawrence's most famous work in the Middle Ages—surviving in at least 17 manuscript copies—was the Hypognosticon; this he wrote during his years at Bishop Geoffrey's court. It is a nine-book epic of unrhymed couplets, recounting the biblical tale of mankind from the creation to the present.

Lawrence had been composing a metrical version of the Bible, though becoming a member of the episcopal court meant he was only able to compose 40 lines per day. He managed to get the work up to a good size when it disappeared one Christmas, Lawrence thought, by a maid-servant; the Hypognosticon, an improved version of what he could remember of this work, was written in the space of one month. Another major work, the Dialogi, has been hailed as Lawrence's "most original work"; the work is a set of dialogues, in four books, averaging c. 550 lines of elegiacs. The dialogues feature Lawrence, another monk of Durham, a Breton named Peter. In the first two books, where Lawrence and Philip are in exile, Lawrence describes his longing for the good times of Bishop Geoffrey's era, describes the great things of Durham, disparages Cumin and the behaviour of his soldiers. In books iii and iv, when the two Durham monks have been allowed to return by Cumin, Lawrence recounts his own upbringing, the characters debate various moral points.

Another work attributed to La

Château de Bouvées

The Château de Bouvées is a ruined castle in the commune of Labrihe in the Gers département of France. The castle was built between 1530 and 1560 by Monseigneur de Saint-Julien, Bishop of Aire-sur-Adour, on the ruins of an earlier structure. At the time of the French Revolution, it was sold as a national asset; the building consisted of three wings enclosing an inner courtyard, flanked in the corners by round towers. Only the east and south parts remain, the agricultural buildings attached to the ancient walls reproducing the earlier layout. Of the towers, all that remain are traces of the south-west; the pigeon loft was built on the base of a tower. A demolished wall near the chapel reveals the former gatehouse; the chapel still has two mullioned windows decorated with mouldings. Attached is a round tower standing on a base with four floors. A vaulted cellar gave surveillance of the surrounding area by spy holes. Inside are 15th and 18th century chimneys, earthenware paving, beamed ceilings and visible joists.

The castle is owned. It has been listed since 1990 as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture. List of castles in France Ministry of Culture listing for Château de Bouvées