Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in southwestern Shelby County, United States. The 2018 city population was 650,618, making Memphis the largest city on the Mississippi River, the second most populous city in Tennessee, as well as the 26th largest city in the United States. Greater Memphis is the 42nd largest metropolitan area in the United States, with a population of 1,348,260 in 2017; the city is the anchor of West Tennessee and the greater Mid-South region, which includes portions of neighboring Arkansas and Mississippi. Memphis is the seat of the most populous county in Tennessee; as one of the more historic and culturally significant cities of the southern United States, the city features a wide variety of landscapes and distinct neighborhoods. The first European explorer to visit the area of present-day Memphis was Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto in 1541 with his expedition into the New World; the high Chickasaw Bluffs protecting the location from the waters of the Mississippi would be contested between the Spanish and the English as Memphis took shape.
Modern Memphis was founded in 1819 by three prominent Americans: John Overton, James Winchester, future president Andrew Jackson. Memphis grew into one of the largest cities of the Antebellum South as a market for agricultural goods, natural resources like lumber, the American slave trade. After the American Civil War and the end of slavery, the city experienced faster growth into the 20th century as it became among the largest world markets for cotton and lumber. Home to Tennessee's largest African-American population, Memphis played a prominent role in the American civil rights movement and was the site of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s 1968 assassination. The city now hosts the National Civil Rights Museum—a Smithsonian affiliate institution. Since the civil rights era, Memphis has grown to become one of the nation's leading commercial centers in transportation and logistics; the city's largest employer is the multinational courier corporation FedEx, which maintains its global air hub at Memphis International Airport, making it the second-busiest cargo airport in the world.
In addition to being a global air cargo leader, the International Port of Memphis hosts the 5th busiest inland water port in America with access to the Mississippi River, allowing shipments to arrive by ship from around the world for conversion to train and trucking transport throughout the United States, making Memphis a multi-modal hub for trading goods for imports and exports in the United States despite its inland location. Today, Memphis is a regional center for commerce, media and entertainment; the city has long had a prominent music scene, with historic blues clubs on Beale Street originating the unique Memphis blues sound during early 20th century. The city's music has continued to be shaped by a multi-cultural mix of influences across the blues, rock n' roll and hip-hop genres. Memphis barbecue has achieved international prominence, the city hosts the World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest, which attracts over 100,000 visitors to the city annually. Occupying a substantial bluff rising from the Mississippi River, the site of Memphis has been a natural location for human settlement by varying cultures over thousands of years.
The area was known to be settled in the first millennium A. D. by people of the Mississippian Culture, who had a network of communities throughout the Mississippi River Valley and its tributaries. They built complexes with large earthwork ceremonial and burial mounds as expressions of their sophisticated culture; the historic Chickasaw Indian tribe, believed to be their descendants occupied the site. French explorers led by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto encountered the Chickasaw tribe in that area in the 16th century. J. D. L. Holmes, writing in Hudson's Four Centuries of Southern Indians, notes that this site was a third strategic point in the late 18th century through which European powers could control United States encroachment and their interference with Indian matters—after Fort Nogales and Fort Confederación: "... Chickasaw Bluffs, located on the Mississippi River at the present-day location of Memphis. Spain and the United States vied for control of this site, a favorite of the Chickasaws."In 1795 the Spanish Governor-General of Louisiana, Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet sent his Lieutenant Governor, Manuel Gayoso de Lemos, to negotiate and secure consent from the local Chickasaw so that a Spanish fort could be erected on the bluff.
Holmes notes that consent was reached despite opposition from "disappointed Americans and a pro-American faction of the Chickasaws", when the "pro-Spanish faction signed the Chickasaw Bluffs Cession and Spain provided the Chickasaws with a trading post…". Fort San Fernando de las Barrancas remained a focal point of Spanish activity until, as Holmes summarizes: he Treaty of San Lorenzo or Pinckney's Treaty of 1795, all of the careful, diplomatic work by Spanish officials in Louisiana and West Florida, which has succeeded for a decade in controlling the Indians, was undone; the United States gained the right to navigate the Mississippi River and won control over the Yazoo Strip north of the thirty-first parallel. The Spanish dismantled the fort, shipping its iron to their locations in Arkansas. In 1796, the site became the westernmost point of the newly admitted state of Tennessee, located in what was called the Southwest United States; the area was still occupied and controlled by the Chickasaw nation.
The Church of St Mary is a 13th century church in the grounds of the Orchardleigh Estate. The church sits on an island in the 11.23-hectare artificial Orchardleigh Lake in the grounds of the Orchardleigh Estate within the parish of Lullington, England. It was built in the 13th century, was restored by Sir George Gilbert Scott for the Rev. W. A. Duckworth in 1878, whose relations held the estate at that period, it has since been designated a Grade I listed building. The church has retained its sculptures and stained glass from the 14th and 15th centuries respectively. Around 1800 Thomas Champneys of the Mostyn-Champneys Baronets who owned the estate had a moat dug around the church; the church has the grave of the poet Henry Newbolt and his wife, a member of the Duckworth family. Weddings are performed at the church, which has capacity for 120 guests, it is linked from the mainland via a footbridge, a public footpath runs nearby over another bridge across the lake. The church does not have an electricity supply and therefore services are candlelit.
The organ is pumped by hand. The Anglican parish is part of the benefice of Beckington with Standerwick, Berkley and Orchardleigh within the Frome deanery. Services are held on mornings of the second and fourth Sundays of each month, while those on the first and fifth are held at the nearby Church of All Saints, Lullington. List of Grade I listed buildings in Mendip List of towers in Somerset List of ecclesiastical parishes in the Diocese of Bath and Wells
Lester Atwell was a novelist, short-story writer and US veteran from Brooklyn. His most notable works include Private, Love is Just Around the Corner and Life with its Sorrow, Life with its Tear. At the age of 34 Atwell was drafted in the Army to serve in World War II; as an infantryman in the 87th Infantry Division he was active in the European theater, fought in Ardennes as part of the Battle of the Bulge. Atwell's 1958 book Private serves as his personal war diary, recounts his service in World War II; the work has been described as being "as complete and accurate a picture of men in and awaiting combat as one is to find." The work was runner-up for the National Book Critics Circle Award in 1959 in the nonfiction category. Atwell's Love is Just Around the Corner served as the basis for the Broadway musical Flora the Red Menace, his third book Life With Its Sorrow, Life With Its Tear was published in 1971, his short stories have appeared in publications including The Saturday Evening Post and Collier's.
His last novel The Other Dear Charmer was written at the age of 82. Atwell died peacefully of natural causes at the age of 92 in North Carolina. Lester Atwell at Find a Grave