2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Logan County, Illinois
Logan County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 30,305, its county seat is Lincoln. Logan County comprises the Lincoln, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Springfield-Jacksonville-Lincoln, IL Combined Statistical Area. Established in 1839, Logan County was named after physician and State Representative John Logan, father of Union General John Alexander Logan. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 619 square miles, of which 618 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Lincoln have ranged from a low of 15 °F in January to a high of 86 °F in July, although a record low of −29 °F was recorded in December 1914 and a record high of 113 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.55 inches in February to 4.42 inches in May. Interstate 55 Interstate 155 U. S. Highway 136 Illinois Route 10 Illinois Route 54 Illinois Route 121 Tazewell County - north McLean County - northeast De Witt County - east Macon County - southeast Sangamon County - south Menard County - west Mason County - northwest The 2010 census reports there were 30,305 people.
The population density was 49 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the county included the following percentages non-Hispanic: 87.7% White, 7.4% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 5 persons Pacific Islander, 12 persons from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. 2.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 11,070 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.3% were non-families. 29.4 % of all households contained individuals who were 65 years of older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.85. 14.4% of the population were living in group quarters including 11.4% of the population institutionalized. According to the 2010 United States Census, there were 30,305 people, 11,070 households, 7,274 families residing in the county; the population density was 49.0 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 12,107 housing units at an average density of 19.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 89.1% white, 7.5% black or African American, 0.6% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.2% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 30.9% were German, 17.4% were American, 13.1% were Irish, 10.8% were English. Of the 11,070 households, 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.3% were non-families, 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.85. The median age was 39.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $48,999 and the median income for a family was $63,245. Males had a median income of $43,940 versus $31,783 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,063. About 6.8% of families and 9.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over.
Atlanta Lincoln Mount Pulaski Beason Chestnut Cornland The Illinois Department of Corrections Logan Correctional Center is located in unincorporated Logan County, near Lincoln. In the period following the Civil, War Logan was a swing county, following the popular vote winner in every election up to 1936 except those of 1900 and 1916. Since 1940, when its isolationist sentiment drove voters to Wendell Willkie, Logan has become a Republican county. No Democratic Presidential candidate has won Logan County since Lyndon Johnson’s 1964 landslide over Barry Goldwater. In fact, apart from Johnson, Illinoian Barack Obama in 2008 is the solitary Democrat to reach forty percent in the past nineteen elections. Brian Cook, NBA player Norm Cook, NBA player Terry Kinney, actor Edward Madigan, Former United States Secretary of Agriculture William Keepers Maxwell, Jr. editor, short story writer National Register of Historic Places listings in Logan County, Illinois Official website
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
Cass County, Illinois
Cass County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 13,642, its county seat is Virginia. It is the home of Wildlife Area. Cass County was formed in 1837 out of Morgan County, it was named for Lewis Cass, a general in the War of 1812, Governor of the Michigan Territory, United States Secretary of State in 1860. Cass was serving as Andrew Jackson's Secretary of War. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 384 square miles, of which 376 square miles is land and 7.9 square miles is water. Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge Illinois River Little Sangamon River Sangamon River In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Virginia have ranged from a low of 15 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −28 °F was recorded in February 1934 and a record high of 114 °F was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.35 inches in January to 4.86 inches in May.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 13,642 people, 5,270 households, 3,561 families residing in the county. The population density was 36.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,836 housing units at an average density of 15.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.3% white, 3.1% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 8.7% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 16.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 22.6% were German, 21.0% were American, 10.6% were Irish, 9.5% were English. Of the 5,270 households, 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families, 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.06. The median age was 38.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,544 and the median income for a family was $51,624.
Males had a median income of $37,267 versus $26,634 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,825. About 10.1% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.2% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over. For German-settled western Central Illinois, Cass County opposed the Civil War and became solidly Democratic for the next six decades. Only hatred of Woodrow Wilson’s policies towards Germany following World War I drove the county into Republican hands in the 1920 landslide. Between 1924 and 2008, the county was something of a bellwether, missing the national winner only in the close 1960 election and the drought- and farm crisis-influenced election of 1988. In the 2010s, the county has become powerfully Republican due to opposition to the Democratic Party's social liberalism. Cass County is located in Illinois's 18th Congressional District and is represented by Republican Davin LaHood. For the Illinois House of Representatives, the county is located in the 93rd district and is represented by Republican Norine Hammond.
The county is located in the 47th district of the Illinois Senate, is represented by Republican Jil Tracy. Beardstown Virginia Gurney Oak Grove Sylvan National Register of Historic Places listings in Cass County, Illinois US Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles US Board on Geographic Names US National Atlas
Mason County, Illinois
Mason County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 14,666, its county seat is Havana. The county is named in honor of George Mason, a member of the Virginia legislature who campaigned for the adoption of the United States Bill of Rights. Mason County was created in 1841 out of portions of Menard counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 563 square miles, of which 539 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water. Mason County is bound on the south by the Sangamon River, on the west by the Illinois River; these rivers join at the county's southwest tip. The soil covering much of Mason County is sandy; this was formed during the melting of the Wisconsin Glacier about 10,000 years ago. Meltwater from the glacier deposited large amounts of sand in a delta region near at the junction of the Sangamon and Illinois Rivers; the sandy soil does not hold water well exposing crops to drought conditions as the water table drops during periods of low precipitation.
However, the soil is good for growing vegetables that are otherwise not common in Illinois. Modern irrigation has made this a productive agricultural area. A sand wetland on the Illinois River is managed by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service as the Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Havana have ranged from a low of 14 °F in January to a high of 88 °F in July, although a record low of −30 °F was recorded in January 1999 and a record high of 106 °F was recorded in July 1983. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.85 inches in January to 4.43 inches in May. U. S. Highway 136 Illinois Route 10 Illinois Route 29 Illinois Route 78 Illinois Route 97 Fulton County - north Tazewell County - northeast Logan County - southeast Menard County - south Cass County - southwest Schuyler County - west Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,666 people, 6,079 households, 4,060 families residing in the county.
The population density was 27.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,077 housing units at an average density of 13.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.1% white, 0.4% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.1% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 33.8% were German, 15.6% were American, 11.1% were English, 10.3% were Irish. Of the 6,079 households, 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.1% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.2% were non-families, 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 44.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $42,461 and the median income for a family was $51,348. Males had a median income of $43,448 versus $31,087 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $23,427. About 13.8% of families and 15.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.6% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over. Havana Mason City Topeka Goofy Ridge Although it voted for the Whig Party in the three elections from 1840 to 1848, Mason County was to be solidly Democratic for the next sixty to seventy years due to its anti-Yankee German-American heritage, it was not until the 1920 election when bitter resentment was felt by German-Americans at Woodrow Wilson’s postwar policies that Mason supported a GOP candidate. In the following eighty years, Mason was a Republican-leaning swing county, although isolationist sentiment did cause it to vote narrowly for Wendell Willkie in 1940 and more convincingly for Thomas E. Dewey in 1944; the past decade or so has seen Mason turn solidly Republican due to opposition to the Democratic Party’s social liberalism and concern over the lack of employment and other economic opportunities in the “Rust Belt” – whose edge Mason County lies on.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Mason County, Illinois
The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn, their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the English descend from two main historical population groups – the earlier Celtic Britons and the Germanic tribes who settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans: the Angles, Saxons and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become the Kingdom of England by the early 10th century, in response to the invasion and minor settlement of Danes beginning in the late 9th century; this was followed by the Norman Conquest and limited settlement of Anglo-Normans in England in the latter 11th century. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth; the English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire; the concept of an'English nation' has become popular after the devolution process in Scotland and Northern Ireland resulted in the four nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself has no devolved government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness; this is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland – which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present.
Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity, they found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". It is unclear. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for'Irish' and for'Scottish', there were none for'English', or'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading'White British'. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to record their English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."
Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably outside the UK. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British", he notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom say'British' when they mean'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is "problematic for the English when it comes to conceiving of their national identity, it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles". In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, "When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word, it meant indiscriminately Wales. Foreigners indeed continue to do so.
Bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests from the Scotch."However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa. In December 2010, Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness. David Reich's laboratory found that 90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool was overturned by a population from North Continental Europe characterized by the Bell Beaker culture around 1200BC who carried a large amount of Yamnaya ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, including the R1b Haplogroup; this population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell Beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people