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Mencius or Mengzi was a Chinese Confucian philosopher, described as the "second Sage", after only Confucius himself. Living during the Warring States period, he is said to have spent much of his life travelling around China offering counsel to different rulers. Conversations with these rulers form the basis of the Mencius, which would be canonised as a Confucian classic. A key belief of his was that humans are innately good, but that this quality requires cultivation and the right environment to flourish, he taught that rulers must justify their position of power by acting benevolently towards their subjects, in this sense they are subordinate to the masses. Mencius known by his birth name Meng Ke, was born in the State of Zou, now forming the territory of the county-level city of Zoucheng, Shandong Province, only thirty kilometres south of Qufu, Confucius's birthplace, he was an itinerant Chinese philosopher and sage, one of the principal interpreters of Confucianism. He was a pupil of Confucius's grandson, Zisi.

Like Confucius, according to legend, he travelled throughout China for forty years to offer advice to rulers for reform. During the Warring States period, Mencius served as an official and scholar at the Jixia Academy in the State of Qi from 319 to 312 BC, he expressed his filial devotion when he took three years leave of absence from his official duties for Qi to mourn his mother's death. Disappointed at his failure to effect changes in his contemporary world, he retired from public life. Mencius is buried in the "Mencius Cemetery", located 12 km to the northeast of Zoucheng's central urban area. A stele carried by a giant stone tortoise and crowned with dragons stands in front of his grave. Mencius's mother is held up as an exemplary female figure in Chinese culture. One of the most famous traditional Chinese four-character idioms is 孟母三遷; as an expression, the idiom refers to the importance of finding the proper environment for raising children. Mencius's father died when Mencius was young, his mother Zhǎng raised her son alone.

They were poor. At first they lived by a cemetery, where the mother found her son imitating the paid mourners in funeral processions. Therefore, the mother decided to move; the next house was near a market in the town. There the boy began to imitate the cries of merchants. So the mother moved to a house next to a school. Inspired by the scholars and students, Mencius began to study, his mother decided to remain, Mencius became a scholar. Another story further illustrates the emphasis; as the story goes, once when Mencius was young, he was truant from school. His mother responded to his apparent disregard for his education by taking up a pair of scissors and cutting the cloth she had been weaving in front of him; this was intended to illustrate that one cannot stop a task midway, her example inspired Mencius to diligence in his studies. There is another legend about his mother and his wife, involving a time when his wife was at home alone and was discovered by Mencius not to be sitting properly. Mencius thought his wife had violated a rite, demanded a divorce.

His mother claimed that it was written in The Book of Rites that before a person entered a room, he should announce his imminent presence loudly to let others prepare for his arrival. Mencius admitted his fault, she is one of 125 women of which biographies have been included in the Lienü zhuan, written by Liu Xiang. Duke Huan of Lu's son through Qingfu was the ancestor of Mencius, he was descended from Duke Yang of the State of Lu. Duke Yang was the son of Bo Qin, the son of the Duke of Zhou of the Zhou dynasty royal family; the genealogy is found in the Mencius family tree. Mencius's descendants lived in Zoucheng in the Mencius Family Mansion, where the Mencius Temple was built and a cemetery for Mencius's descendants. Meng Haoran and Meng Jiao were descendants of Mencius. During the Ming dynasty, one of Mencius's descendants was given a hereditary title at the Hanlin Academy by the Emperor; the title they held was Wujing Boshi. In 1452 Wujing Boshi was bestowed upon the offspring of Mengzi-Meng Xiwen 56th generation and Yan Hui-Yan Xihui 59th generation, the same was bestowed on the offspring of Zhou Dunyi-Zhou Mian 12th generation, the two Cheng brothers, Zhu Xi-Zhu Ting 9th generation, in 1456–1457, in 1539 the same was awarded to Zeng Can's offspring-Zeng Zhicui 60th generation, in 1622 the offspring of Zhang Zai received the title and in 1630 the offspring of Shao Yong.

One of Mencius's direct descendants was Dr. Meng Chih former director of China House, director of the China Institute in 1944. Time magazine reported Dr. Meng's age that year as 44. Dr. Meng died in Arizona in 1990 at the age of 90. North Carolina's Davidson College and Columbia University were his alma mater, he was attending a speech along with Confucius descendant H. H. Kung. In the Republic of China there is an office called the "Sacrificial Official to Mencius" w


Venjaramoodu is a north-east suburb of capital city Trivandrum in Kerala. It is situated 12km east of Attingal, 15km north-west of Nedumangad, 22km north-east of Trivandrum City and 26km south-east of Varkala. Venjaramoodu is a town in the district of Kerala, it is located 25 km north of Thiruvananthapuram on MC Road. It comes under Nedumangad Taluk; the kazhakkuttam bypass ends here. Nearest airport is Thiruvananthapuram International Airport and railway station is Chirayinkeezhu Railway station. Kerala State Road Transport Corporation operates a bus depot at Venjarammoodu, it is well connected to all parts of the state by state road transport buses. Gokulam Medical College and Muslim Association College of Engineering are located here. Venjaramoodu Government higher secondary school is located besides the Main Central road. Two dedicated bus depots are available in the forms of a Kerala State Road Transport Corporation bus depot and one Private Bus Terminal, both in the heart of the town. KSRTC operate local bus service and fast passenger.

City service using Anathapuri bus, Low floor AC/ Non Ac, Venad. Venjaramoodu- East fort via Pothenkodu/ Kaniyapuram- Kzhakootam- Technopark-Chakka- General hospital/ Enchakal. Venjaramoodu- East fort Via Vembayam- Mannathala/ Sreekaryam- pottom. Local Bus Route Attingal, Medical College, Pothenkodu,Varkala, Kilimanoor, Vembayam, Palode,Thempamoodu.etc. All Supper Fast, Express, Scnia bus through MC road passing through Venjaramoodu KSRTC Bus dippo. Private Bus operate to Attingal, Kadakkavour, Paravour town. Nearest railway stations Murukkumpuzha Railway station Chirayinkeezhu railway station Kadakkavoor railway station Varkala Railway Station Thiruvananthapuram Central Railway station Trivandrum International Airport is at a distance of 27 km; the population in Venjaramoodu practices Hinduism and Islam. Venjaramoodu is famous for Manikkodu Mahadeva temple which held every year 10 day festival with Manikkodu carnival. Here is a list of important religious places:- Manikkodu Mahadeva temple Vayyatte Pirappankodu Sree krishna Temple Thiru Vamanamoothi temple Anakudy Venkamala temple Kavara Bhagavathi Temple Mukkunur Sreekanda Shatha Temple Alanthara Uruttumandapam Alanthara Shastha Temple Vettur Mahavishnu Temple Subramanya Temple Thandrampoika Gokulathamma Temle, Gokulam Medical College Amundirath Devi Temple Mudakal Vidaynkavu Temple, Velavur Parameswram Temple Kottukunnam Mahadeva Temple Aliyadu Oorootumandapam temple Venjaramoodu Muslim Juma Masjid Manikkal Juma Masjid Keezhayikonam Masjid St.

Joseph's Church Kottapuram, Pirappancode Koppam CSI Church Seventh Day Adventist Church Thumpara, Pirappancode Priyanka Nair, actress Thulasidas, film director Suraj Venjaramoodu, actor State Bank of Travancore State Bank of India Central Bank of India Federal Bank South Indian Bank Indian Overseas Bank Syndicate bank Kerala Grameen Bank ICICI Bank Union Bank Pirapankodu Thiruvanathapuram Dist Co-Operative Bank Venjaramoodu service Co-Operative Bank Venjaramoodu has significant rainfall most months, with a short dry season. This location is classified as Am by Geiger; the temperature here averages 26.8 °C. About 1952 mm of precipitation falls annually; the driest month is January. There is 23 mm of precipitation in January. In June, the precipitation reaches its peak, with an average of 355 mm. With an average of 28.4 °C, April is the warmest month. At 25.7 °C on average, December is the coldest month of the year

Microregion of GoiĆ¢nia

The Goiânia Microregion is a region in central Goiás state, Brazil. It includes 17 municipalities with a population of 2,032,305 in a total area of 6,848.00 km². The most important cities are Goiânia, Aparecida de Goiânia, Trindade; the smallest municipality in population is Santo Antônio de Goiás with 3,893 inhabitants. The largest municipality in area is Bela Vista de Goiás with 1,280.9 km². The smallest is Terezópolis de Goiás with 107.3 km². The microregion consists of the following municipalities: Abadia de Goiás Aparecida de Goiânia Aragoiânia Bela Vista de Goiás Bonfinópolis Caldazinha Goianápolis Goiânia Goianira Guapó Hidrolândia Leopoldo de Bulhões Nerópolis Santo Antônio de Goiás Senador Canedo Terezópolis de Goiás Trindade List of municipalities in Goiás Microregions of Goiás

Peach (fruit)

A peach is a soft and fleshy stone fruit produced by a peach tree. Peaches were cultivated in China as far back as 8,000 years ago, with domestication at least 4,000 years ago. Hundreds of peach and nectarine cultivars are known; these are classified into two categories — the freestones and the clingstones, depending on whether the flesh sticks to the stone or not. Freestones are those whose flesh separates from the pit. Clingstones are those whose flesh clings to the pit; some cultivars are freestone and clingstone, so are called semifree. Freestone types are preferred for eating fresh; the fruit flesh may be creamy white to dark red. Peaches with white flesh are sweet with little acidity, while yellow-fleshed peaches have an acidic tang coupled with a sweet floral taste, red fleshed varieties are flavourful and tangy but with a tart skin, though this varies greatly. Yellow peaches have a sturdier flesh, not as bruised. Both colors have some red on their skin. Low-acid white-fleshed peaches are the most popular kinds in China and neighbouring Asian countries, while Europeans and North Americans have favoured the acidic, yellow-fleshed cultivars.

Peach breeding has favored cultivars with more firmness, more red color, shorter fuzz on the fruit surface. These characteristics improve supermarket sales due to eye appeal. However, this selection process has not led to increased flavor. Peaches have a short shelf life, so commercial growers plant a mix of different cultivars to have fruit to ship all season long; the variety P. persica var. nucipersica called nectarine, has a smooth skin. It is on occasion referred to as a "shaved peach" or "fuzzless peach", due to its lack of fuzz or short hairs. Though fuzzy peaches and nectarines are regarded commercially as different fruits, with nectarines erroneously believed to be a crossbreed between peaches and plums, or a "peach with a plum skin", nectarines belong to the same species as peaches. Several genetic studies have concluded nectarines are produced due to a recessive allele, whereas a fuzzy peach skin is dominant. Nectarines have arisen many times from peach trees as bud sports; as with peaches, nectarines can be white or yellow, clingstone or freestone.

On average, nectarines are smaller and sweeter than peaches, but with much overlap. The lack of skin fuzz can make nectarine skins appear more reddish than those of peaches, contributing to the fruit's plum-like appearance; the lack of down on nectarines' skin means their skin is more bruised than peaches. The history of the nectarine is unclear. Although one source states that nectarines were introduced into the United States by David Fairchild of the Department of Agriculture in 1906, a number of colonial-era newspaper articles make reference to nectarines being grown in the United States prior to the Revolutionary War. 28 March 1768 edition of the New York Gazette, for example, mentions a farm in Jamaica, Long Island, New York, where nectarines were grown. Peacherine is claimed to be a cross between a peach and a nectarine, are marketed in Australia and New Zealand; the fruit is intermediate in appearance between a peach and a nectarine and brightly colored like a red peach. The flesh of the fruit is yellow, but white varieties exist.

The Koanga Institute lists varieties that ripen in the Southern Hemisphere in March. In 1909, Pacific Monthly mentioned peacherines in a news bulletin for California. Louise Pound, in 1920, claimed. Flat peaches or pan-tao have a flattened shape in contrast to ordinary rounded peaches. In 2017, world production of peaches was 24.7 million tonnes, led by China with 58% of the total. Spain and Italy each produced more than one million tonnes. Raw peach flesh is 89% water, 10% carbohydrates, 1% protein, contains negligible fat. A medium raw peach, weighing 100 g, supplies 39 calories, contains small amounts of essential nutrients, but none is a significant proportion of the Daily Value. A raw nectarine has similar low content of nutrients; the glycemic load of an average peach is 5, similar to other low-sugar fruits. Total polyphenols in mg per 100 g of fresh weight were 14–102 in white-flesh nectarines, 18–54 in yellow-flesh nectarines, 28–111 in white-flesh peaches, 21–61 mg per 100 g in yellow-flesh peaches.

The major phenolic compounds identified in peach are chlorogenic acid and epicatechins, with other compounds, identified by HPLC, including gallic acid and ellagic acid. Rutin and isoquercetin are the primary flavonols found in clingstone peaches. Red-fleshed peaches are rich in anthocyanins cyanidin glucosides in six peach and six nectarine cultivars and malvin glycosides in clingstone peaches; as with many other members of the rose family, peach seeds contain cyanogenic glycosides, including amygdalin. These substances are capable of decomposing into a sugar hydrogen cyanide gas. While peach seeds are not the most toxic within the rose family, large consumption of these chemicals from any source is hazardous to animal and human health. Peach allergy or intolerance is a common form of hypersensitivity t

Dent's disease

Dent's disease is a rare X-linked recessive inherited condition that affects the proximal renal tubules of the kidney. It is one cause of Fanconi syndrome, is characterized by tubular proteinuria, excess calcium in the urine, formation of calcium kidney stones and chronic kidney failure. "Dent's disease" is used to describe an entire group of familial disorders, including X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis with kidney failure, X-linked recessive hypophosphatemic rickets, both Japanese and idiopathic low-molecular-weight proteinuria. About 60% of patients have mutations in the CLCN5 gene, which encodes a kidney-specific chloride/proton antiporter, 15% of patients have mutations in the OCRL1 gene. Dent's disease produces the following signs and symptoms: Extreme thirst combined with dehydration, which leads to frequent urination Nephrolithiasis Hypercalciuria with normal levels blood/serum calcium) Aminoaciduria Phosphaturia Glycosuria Kaliuresis Hyperuricosuria Impaired urinary acidification RicketsIn a study of 25 patients with Dent's disease, 9 of 15 men, one of 10 women suffered end-stage kidney disease by the age of 47.

Dent's disease is a X-linked recessive disorder. The males are prone to manifesting symptoms in early adulthood with symptoms of calculi, rickets or with kidney failure in more severe cases. In humans, gene CLCN5 is located on chromosome Xp11.22, has a 2238-bp coding sequence that consists of 11 exons that span 25 to 30 kb of genomic DNA and encode a 746-amino-acid protein. CLCN5 belongs to the family of voltage-gated chloride channel genes that have about 12 transmembrane domains; these chloride channels have an important role in the control of membrane excitability, transepithelial transport, cell volume. The mechanisms by which CLC-5 dysfunction results in hypercalciuria and the other features of Dent's disease remain to be elucidated; the identification of additional CLCN5 mutations may help in these studies. Dent disease 2 is associated with the OCRL gene. Both Lowe syndrome and Dent disease can be caused by truncating or missense mutations in OCRL. Diagnosis is based on genetic study of CNCL5 gene.

As of today, no agreed-upon treatment of Dent's disease is known and no therapy has been formally accepted. Most treatment measures are supportive in nature: Thiazide diuretics have been used with success in reducing the calcium output in urine, but they are known to cause hypokalemia. In rats with diabetes insipidus, thiazide diuretics inhibit the NaCl cotransporter in the renal distal convoluted tubule, leading indirectly to less water and solutes being delivered to the distal tubule; the impairment of Na transport in the distal convoluted tubule induces natriuresis and water loss, while increasing the reabsorption of calcium in this segment in a manner unrelated to sodium transport. Amiloride increases distal tubular calcium reabsorption and has been used as a therapy for idiopathic hypercalciuria. A combination of 25 mg of chlorthalidone plus 5 mg of amiloride daily led to a substantial reduction in urine calcium in Dent's patients, but urine pH was "significantly higher in patients with Dent’s disease than in those with idiopathic hypercalciuria, supersaturation for uric acid was lower."

For patients with osteomalacia, vitamin D or derivatives have been employed with success. Some lab tests on mice with CLC-5-related tubular damage showed a high-citrate diet preserved kidney function and delayed progress of kidney disease. Dent's disease was first described by Charles Enrique Dent and M. Friedman in 1964, when they reported two unrelated British boys with rickets associated with renal tubular damage characterized by hypercalciuria, hyperphosphaturia and aminoaciduria; this set of symptoms was not given a name until 30 years when the nephrologist Oliver Wrong more described the disease. Wrong chose to name the disease after his mentor. Dent's disease is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the gene CLCN5, which encodes a kidney-specific voltage-gated chloride channel, a 746-amino-acid protein with 12 to 13 transmembrane domains, it manifests itself through low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and hypophosphataemia. Because of its rather rare occurrence, Dent's disease is diagnosed as idiopathic hypercalciuria, i.e. excess calcium in urine with undetermined causes.

Genetic Hypercalciuria Dent disease on Orphanet

Senna covesii

Senna covesii is a perennial subshrub in the family Fabaceae, native to the Mojave Desert and Sonoran Desert in southeastern California, southern Nevada, Arizona in the United States, northern Baja California in Mexico. It is found on desert plains and in sandy washes between 500 and 600 m above sea level, is common in Joshua Tree National Park; the specific epithet honors ornithologist Elliott Coues. It grows to 30–60 cm tall, is leafless most of the year; the leaves are 3 -- 7 cm long, with two or three pairs of leaflets. The flowers are yellow with five rounded petals about 12 mm long; this shrub is planted by landscapers and as part of roadside wildflower programs. Flowers are visited by carpenter bumblebees. Sulphur butterflies use the plant as a larval food source. Fiero, Brad: Desert Ecology of Tucson, AZ - Desert Senna. Version of 2001-AUG-01. Retrieved 2007-DEC-20. McClintock, Elizabeth: Senna covesii. In: Hickman, James C.: The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley.

ISBN 0-520-08255-9 HTML fulltext Stewart, Jon Mark: Mojave Desert Wildflowers: p. 73. Jon Stewart Photography. ISBN 0-9634909-1-5 USDA Plants Profile Photo gallery