Collectiones canonum Dionysianae
The Collectiones canonum Dionysianae are the several collections of ancient canons prepared by the Scythian monk Dionysius'the humble'. They include the Collectio conciliorum Dionysiana I, the Collectio conciliorum Dionysiana II, the Collectio decretalium Dionysiana, they are of the utmost importance for the development of the canon law tradition in the West. Towards 500 a Scythian monk, known as Dionysius Exiguus, who had come to Rome after the death of Pope Gelasius, and, well skilled in both Latin and Greek, undertook to bring out a more exact translation of the canons of the Greek councils. In a second effort he collected papal decretals from Siricius to Anastasius II, anterior therefore, to Pope Symmachus. By order of Pope Hormisdas, Dionysius made a third collection, in which he included the original text of all the canons of the Greek councils, together with a Latin version of the same, he combined the first and second in one collection, which thus united the canons of the councils and the papal decretals.
This collection opens with a table or list of titles, each of, afterwards repeated before the respective canons. This first part of the collection is closed by a letter of Pope Boniface I, read at the same council, letters of Cyril of Alexandria and Atticus of Constantinople to the African Fathers, a letter of Pope Celestine I; the second part of the collection opens with a preface, in the shape of a letter to the priest Julian, a table of titles. The additions met with in Voel and Justel are taken from inferior manuscripts. Shortly after the year 500, during the pontificate of Pope Symmachus, Dionysius collected and translated into Latin the canons of the major eastern councils, including the so-called Canones apostolorum, the decrees of the councils of Nicaea, Neocaesarea, Antioch, Constantinople, Sardica and the so-called Codex Apiarii causae, the last being a collection of dossiers that includes the canons and acts pertaining to the council held in Carthage on 25 May, 419. Dionysius did this at the request of Stephen, bishop of Salona, a certain'dearest brother Laurence' who had been'offended by the awkwardness of the older translation'.
It is not certain, but it may have been within the context of the Symmachan-Laurentian dispute that these requests were made of Dionysius. Eckhard Wirbelauer, reviving several older arguments, has argued that Dionysius's collection was meant to stand in direct opposition to the views of Pope Symmachus, thus it was to have won neither the favour nor acceptance of that pope, nor his immediate successor and strong supporter, Pope Hormisdas. Shortly after preparing his first collection of conciliar canons, Dionysius prepared a second recension of the same name, to which he made important changes, he updated his translations, altered rubrics, most introduced a system of numbering the canons in sequence. In the Dionysiana II the Canones apostolorum were still numbered separately from 1 to 50, but now the canons of Nicaea to Constantinople were numbered in sequence from I to CLXV,'just"as is found in the Greek authority', in Dionysius’s Greek exemplar. Dionysius altered the position of Chalcedon, moving it from after the Codex Apiarii to before Sardica, removed the versio Attici of the canons of Nicaea from Codex Apiarii.
He added an important collection of African canons to his second recension. Known today as the Registri ecclesiae Carthaginensis excerpta, this'large body of conciliar legislation from the earlier Aurelian councils' was inserted by Dionysius into the middle of the Codex Apiarii ―, between the canons and the letters of the 419 Council of Carthage ― with the fabricated prefatory statement:'and in that synod were recited the various councils of the African province, celebrated in bygone days of Bishop Aurelius'. Thus, the 137'African' canons that make up Registri ecclesiae Carthaginensis excerpta in the Dionysiana II are a concoction of Dionysius's, a conflation of two earlier canonical collections of the African church; the existence of a third bilingual collection of conciliar canons, in which Dionysius removed the spurious Canones apostolorum along with the'African' canons and the problematic canons of Sardica, can be deduced from a preface now extant in Novara, Biblioteca Capitolare, XXX.
No copies of the text of this recension have survived. The fact that Pope Hormisdas, noted supporter of the previous pope Symmachus, commissioned this collection from Dionysius is sign
The title canon Episcopi is conventionally given to a certain passage found in medieval canon law. The text originates in an early 10th-century penitential, recorded by Regino of Prüm, it is an important source on folk belief and surviving pagan customs in Francia on the eve of the formation of the Holy Roman Empire. The folk beliefs described in the text reflect the residue of pre-Christian beliefs at about one century after the Carolingian Empire had been Christianized, its condemnation of the belief in witchcraft was an important argument used by the opponents of the witch trials during the 16th century, such as Johann Weyer. The conventional title "canon Episcopi" is based on the text's incipit, was current from at least the 17th century, it is first attested in the Libri de synodalibus causis et disciplinis ecclesiasticis composed by Regino of Prüm around 906. It was included in Burchard of an early attempt at collecting all of Canon law; the text was adopted in the Decretum of Ivo of Chartres and in Gratian's authoritative Corpus juris canonici of c.
1140. Because it was included in Gratian's compilation the text was treated as canon law for the remaining part of the High Middle Ages, until Roman Catholic views on European witchcraft began to change in the late medieval period; the text of Gratian is not the same as the one used by Burchard, the distinctive features of the Corrector text were thus not transmitted to times. The text of Regino of Prüm was edited in Patrologia Latina, volume 132; the text of Burchard's Corrector has been separately edited by Wasserschleben, again by Schmitz. The incipit of Gratian's text, which gave rise to the title of "canon Episcopi" reads: Episcopi, eorumque ministri omnibus modis elaborare studeant, ut perniciosam et a diabolo inventam sortilegam et magicam artem ex parochiis suis penitus eradicent, et si aliquem virum aut mulierem hujuscemodi sceleris sectatorem invenerint, turpiter dehonestatum de parochiis suis ejiciant. "The bishops and their ministers should by all means make great effort so that they may eradicate the pernicious art of divination and magic, invented by the devil, from their parishes, if they find any man or woman adhering to such a crime, they should eject them, turpidly dishonoured, from their parishes."This condemnation the "pernicious art of divination and magic" is justified by a reference to Titus 3:10-11 on heresy.
Follows a description of the errors of "certain wicked women", who deceived by Satan believe themselves to join the train of the pagan goddess Diana during the hours of the night, to cover great distances within a multitude of women riding on beasts, during certain nights to be called to the service of their mistress. Those holding such beliefs are condemned by the text in no uncertain terms, deploring the great number of people who "relapse into pagan error" by holding such beliefs; because of this, the text instructs that all priests should teach at every possible instant that such beliefs are phantasms inspired by an evil spirit. The following paragraph presents an account of the means by which Satan takes possession of the minds of these women by appearing to them in numerous forms, how once he holds captive their minds, deludes them by means of dreams; the text emphasizes that the heretic belief is to hold that these transformations occur in the body, while they are in reality dream visions inspired in the mind.
The text proposes that it is normal to have nightly visions in which one sees things that are never seen while awake, but that it is a great stupidity to believe that the events experienced in the dream vision have taken place in the body. Examples are adduced, of Ezechiel having his prophetic visions in spirit, not in body, of the Apocalypse of John, seen in spirit, not in body, of Paul of Tarsus, who describes the events at Damascus as a vision, not as a bodily encounter; the text concludes by repeating that it should be publicly preached that all those holding such beliefs have lost their faith, believing not in God but in the devil, whosoever believes that it is possible to transform themselves into a different kind of creature, is far more wavering than an infidel. The Canon Episcopi has received a great deal of attention from historians of the witch craze period as early documentation of the Catholic church's theological position on the question of witchcraft; the position taken by the author is that these "rides of Diana" did not exist, that they are deceptions, dreams or phantasms.
It is the belief in the reality of such deceptions, considered a heresy worthy of excommunication. The position here is that the devil is real, creating delusions in the mind, but that the delusions do not have bodily reality; this s
Benedictus Deus (Pius IV)
Benedictus Deus is a papal bull written by Pius IV in 1564 which ratified all decrees and definitions of the Council of Trent. It maintains that the decrees of the Council of Trent can be interpreted by the Papal office itself; this was seen by Church contemporaries of Pius IV as an attempt to strengthen the influence of the Papacy against the rise of Conciliarism exemplified by the Council of Trent itself. There is a more minor bull of the same title written by Benedict XII in 1336. Bulla S. D. N. D. Pii Divina Providentia papae generalis concilii Tridentini. Mexicopoli: Ocharte, 1565 Text at archive.org The full text of Benedictus Deus at Wikisource
Indulgentiarum Doctrina is an apostolic constitution about indulgences issued by Pope Paul VI on 1 January 1967. It responds to suggestions made at the Second Vatican Council, it revised the practical application of the traditional doctrine relating to indulgences; the title is taken from the opening words of the original Latin text. According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, "The forgiveness of sin and restoration of communion with God entail the remission of the eternal punishment of sin, but temporal punishment of sin remains."Paul VI explained that sin brings punishments inflicted by God's sanctity and justice, which must be expiated either here on earth or else in the life to come. "These punishments are imposed by the just and merciful judgment of God for the purification of souls, the defense of the sanctity of the moral order and the restoration of the glory of God to its full majesty." Such expiation takes the form of penance, traditionally described as prayers and alms, but includes works of mercy and charity.
"That punishment or the vestiges of sin may remain to be expiated or cleansed and that they in fact do after the remission of guilt is demonstrated by the doctrine on purgatory. In purgatory, in fact, the souls of those'who died in the charity of God and repentant, but before satisfying with worthy fruits of penance for sins committed and for omissions' are cleansed after death with purgatorial punishments"; the document stressed that the Church's aim was not to help the faithful make due satisfaction for their sins, but chiefly to bring them to greater fervour of charity. For this purpose, Paul VI decreed that partial indulgences granted as the equivalent of a certain number of days, quarantines, or years of canonical penance supplement, to the same degree, the remission that those performing the indulgenced action gain by the charity and contrition with which they do it. "For all men who walk this earth daily commit at least venial sins. "Indulgences cannot be gained without a sincere conversion of outlook and unity with God".
An indulgence is the remission before God of the temporal punishment due sins forgiven as far as their guilt is concerned. "The aim pursued by ecclesiastical authority in granting indulgences is not only that of helping the faithful to expiate the punishment due to sin but that of urging them to perform works of piety and charity—particularly those which lead to growth in faith and which favor the common good."An indulgence is partial or plenary accordingly, as it removes either part or all of the temporal punishment due sin. Indulgences can always be applied to the dead by way of suffrage; the apostolic constitution ordered a revision of the official list of indulgenced prayers and good works, called the Raccolta, "with a view to attaching indulgences only to the most important prayers and works of piety and penance". This removed from the list of indulgenced prayers and good works, now called the Enchiridion Indulgentiarum, many prayers for which various religious institutes and similar groups had succeeded in the course of centuries in obtaining grants of indulgences, but which could not be classified as among "the most important".
Religious institutes and the like, to which grants of plenary indulgences, for instance for visiting a particular church or shrine, had been made, were given a year from the date of promulgation of Indulgentiarum Doctrina to have them confirmed, any that were not confirmed within two years became null and void. The Enchiridion Indulgentiarum reached its fourth edition in Latin in 1999, is available on the Holy See's website. An English translation of the second edition is available online; the Enchiridion Indulgentiarum differs from the Raccolta in that it lists "only the most important prayers and works of piety and penance". On the other hand, it includes new general grants of partial indulgences that apply to a wide range of prayerful actions, it indicates that the prayers that it does list as deserving veneration on account of divine inspiration or antiquity or as being in widespread use are only examples of those to which the first these general grants applies: "Raising the mind to God with humble trust while performing one's duties and bearing life's difficulties, adding, at least mentally, some pious invocation".
In this way, the Enchiridion Indulgentiarum, in spite of its smaller size, classifies as indulgenced an immensely greater number of prayers than were treated as such in the Raccolta. There are four general grants of indulgence, which are meant to encourage the faithful to infuse a Christian spirit into the actions of their daily lives and to strive for perfection of charity; these indulgences are partial, their worth therefore depends on the fervour with which the person performs the recommended actions: Raising the mind to God with humble trust while performing one's duties and bearing life's difficulties, adding, at least mentally, some pious invocation. Devoting oneself or one's goods compassionately in a spirit of faith to the service of one's brothers and sisters in need. Abstaining in a spirit of penance from something licit and pleasant. Giving open witness to one's faith before others in particular circumstances of everyday life. Among the particula
Sacrosanctum Concilium, the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, is one of the constitutions of the Second Vatican Council. It was approved by the assembled bishops by a vote of 2,147 to 4 and promulgated by Pope Paul VI on 4 December 1963; the main aim was to achieve greater lay participation in the Catholic Church's liturgy. The title is taken from the opening lines of the document and means "this Sacred Council"; the numbers given correspond to section numbers within the text. Introduction General Principles for the Restoration and Promotion of the Sacred Liturgy The Nature of the Sacred Liturgy and Its Importance in the Church's Life The Promotion of Liturgical Instruction and Active Participation The Reform of the Sacred Liturgy General Norms Norms Drawn from the Hierarchic and Communal Nature of the Liturgy Norms Based Upon the Didactic and Pastoral Nature of the Liturgy Norms for Adapting the Liturgy to the Culture and Traditions of Peoples Promotion of Liturgical Life in Diocese and Parish The Promotion of Pastoral-Liturgical Action The Most Sacred Mystery of the Eucharist The Other Sacraments and the Sacramentals The Divine Office The Liturgical Year Sacred Music Sacred Art and Sacred Furnishings Appendix: A Declaration of the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican on Revision of the Calendar As is customary with Catholic documents, the name of this constitution, "Sacred Council" in Latin, is taken from the first line of the document: 1.
This sacred Council has several aims in view: it desires to impart an increasing vigor to the Christian life of the faithful. The Council therefore sees cogent reasons for undertaking the reform and promotion of the liturgy. One of the first issues considered by the council, the matter that had the most immediate effect on the lives of individual Catholics, was the renewal of the liturgy; the central idea was. Mother Church earnestly desires that all the faithful should be led to that conscious and active participation in liturgical celebrations, demanded by the nature of the liturgy; such participation by the Christian people as a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a redeemed people, is their right and duty by reason of their baptism. Popes Pius X, Pius XI, Pius XII asked that the people be taught how to chant the responses at Mass and that they learn the prayers of the Mass in order to participate intelligently. Now the bishops decreed that: "To promote active participation, the people should be encouraged to take part by means of acclamations, psalmody and songs."
Composers should "produce compositions which... for the active participation of the entire assembly of the faithful."After centuries when, with the Mass in Latin, Catholic piety centred around popular devotions, the bishops decreed that "Popular devotions... should be so drawn up that they harmonize with the liturgical seasons, accord with the sacred liturgy, are in some fashion derived from it, lead the people to it, since, in fact, the liturgy by its nature far surpasses any of them."On 24 August 2017 Pope Francis emphasized that "the reform of the liturgy is irreversible" and called for continued efforts to implement the reforms, repeating what Pope Paul VI had said one year before he died: "The time has come, now, to leave aside the disruptive ferments pernicious in one sense or the other, to implement according to its right inspiring criteria, the reform approved by us in application of the decisions of the council." The council fathers established guidelines to govern the renewal of the liturgy, which included and encouraged greater use of the vernacular in addition to Latin for the biblical readings and other prayers.
Implementation of the council's directives on the liturgy was to be carried out under the authority of Pope Paul VI by a special papal commission incorporated in the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, and, in the areas entrusted to them, by national conferences of bishops, which, if they had a shared language, were expected to collaborate in producing a common translation. Magnum principium Mass of Paul VI Musicam sacram
Collectio canonum quadripartita
The Collectio canonum quadripartita is an early medieval canon law collection, written around the year 850 in the ecclesiastical province of Reims. It consists of four books; the Quadripartita is an episcopal manual of penitential law. It was a popular source for knowledge of penitential and canon law in France and Italy in the ninth and tenth centuries, notably influencing Regino's enormously important Libri duo de synodalibus causis. Well into the thirteenth century the Quadripartita was being copied by scribes and quoted by canonists who were compiling their own collections of canon law; this work should not be confused with the early twelfth-century Latin translation of Old English law known as the Quadripartitus. The complementary acts of confession and penance highly ritualized acts undertaken only once in a lifetime and in public fora, developed in the early Middle Ages into a disciplinary system known as private penance, in which the faithful were encouraged to confess their sins and in secret to a priest or confessor, who enjoined an appropriate period of punishment.
Through the Middle Ages the private penitential system became an elaborate and ritualized institution. In its earliest form, however―that is, as it was practiced from around the sixth to eighth centuries―this system was dependent upon the transmission of basic lists of sins and their corresponding punishments; these short lists of sins made up a genre of texts known as the'penitential handbook'. Penitentials were first employed as disciplinary tools by Irish and British monks living in cloistered ascetical religious communities, but soon spread to England and France, where they developed into varied and grander forms. By the eighth century, penitentials had adopted a focus on lay sins, their popularity was rivalled only by their variety. This gave rise during the early ninth century to a backlash against the diversity of penitentials and the diversity of disciplinary and theological'errors' which they propagated. A number of Frankish councils demanded that the laws of the older penitentials be brought into line with the accepted canonical norms of the church, as reflected in the more conservative collectiones canonum being compiled at the time.
As a result of such efforts towards standardization, the older penitentials fell out of use and were replaced by the large collections of penitential and canon law which dominated in France and Italy in the tenth and eleventh centuries. During the Carolingian period there evolved two different yet overlapping contexts in which the penitentials were used; the first of these was the pastoral context of confession between parishioner. The second was an administrative and/or academic context, in which books of penitential law served bishops in their roles as administrators of local dioceses, adjudicators at judicial synods and students of moral philosophy and canon law; the penitential required by a bishop was much different than that required by the confessor-priest, it is within this episcopal context that the penitentials evolved from mere manuals into vast collections of penitential and administrative law. By the ninth century, chapters from penitential manuals had entered many of the influential canon law collections being copied and compiled on the Continent.
Since at least the fifth and sixth centuries, canon law collections could boast of being repositories of the ancient and authoritative conciliar and papal judgements of the Christian church. As such, these collections had at first stood in stark contrast to the early penitentials, whose lists of sins and corresponding penances was neither ancient nor authoritative. In time, the genres of collectio and penitential blended together; as canon law collections succumbed to revision and abandoned their claims to antique authority by including newer and less authoritative laws, it became more common for them to include penitential canons. The collections began to look more like penitentials as penitentials everywhere were beginning to take on characteristics of the more'formal' collectiones. Problems of textual stability and genre were further exacerbated by the fact that no one code or collection of canon law claimed status as the recognized standard, it was in this context of fluctuating generic and textual boundaries in France that the Quadripartita developed.
The first book treats the life, preaching and duty of priests. Books 3 and 4 are longer than books 1 and 2. Scholars have divided the Quadripartita into a number of component parts, including a dedicatory letter, a brief list of authorities used, a list or register of titles for each book, a general preface, prefaces for books 2–4, the text or canons of the four books and an Epilogue
Collectio canonum Quesnelliana
The Collectio canonum Quesnelliana is a vast collection of canonical and doctrinal documents prepared in Rome sometime between 494 and 610. It was first identified by Pierre Pithou and first edited by Pasquier Quesnel in 1675, whence it takes its modern name; the standard edition used today is that prepared by Girolamo and Pietro Ballerini in 1757. The collection can be divided broadly into three sections according to the nature of its contents: cc. I–V, containing conciliar canons from the major fourth-century eastern and African councils; the entire collection, with its focus on Chalcedon and the letters of Leo, is quite meant as a manifesto against the Acacian schism, in which eastern Bishops led by Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, challenged the decisions of the council of Chalcedon and the Christology set down in Pope Leo's Tomus. The compiler's principal of selection thus seems to have been any and all documents that support doctrinal unity in general and Leonine Christology in particular.
The compiler of the Quesnelliana has avoided inclusion of doubtful or spurious documents, like the so-called Symmachean forgeries and the Decretum Gelasianum de libris recipiendis. But this would seem to be the extent of discrimination exercised in the compilation of the Quesnelliana. Previous scholars have in fact spoken rather disparagingly of the overall organization of the Quesnelliana, characterizing it as something of a hotchpotch, a patchwork of several older and smaller collections that were available to the compiler. Despite its organizational flaws, the Quesnelliana enjoyed some popularity in the Gallic church during the eighth century, much of the ninth as well, until it was superseded by the more comprehensive historical collections that arose in the Carolingian period. Of the large chronological canon collections to have come out of the early Middle Ages, the Quesnelliana is the earliest and, after the Collectio canonum Dionysiana and Collectio canonum Hispana the most influential.
It contains Latin translations of the eastern councils that are taken from a now lost collection of Latin canons made ca. 420. This earliest Latin collection of fourth- and fifth-century conciliar canons was known to scholars as either the versio Isidori or the Collectio Maasseniana, but is today referred to as the Corpus canonum Africano-Romanum; the Africano-Romanum collection/translation predates the competing fifth-century Latin translation that Dionysius Exiguus referred to as the prisca. Both the Africano-Romanum and prisca translations were superseded by the arrival, shortly after 500, of the superior translations of the several collections of Dionysius Exiguus; the exact date of the Quesnelliana’s creation is not yet established, but it could not have been earlier than the appearance of the Africano-Romanum in the first half of the fifth century. Most historians have accepted the Ballerini brothers’ dating of the Quesnelliana to just before the end of the fifth century during the pontificate of Pope Gelasius I.
Older scholarship, beginning with the Ballerinis, argued that the Quesnelliana was a Gallic collection, though one with an admittedly "Roman colour". French historians developed the theory that the collection originated at Arles, thought to have been something of a clearing house for canonical materials in the early sixth century. However, more recent scholarship, making much more of the Quesnelliana’s "Roman colour", has argued for an Italian even Roman origin. Recent work by Joseph Van der Speeten has shown that the Quesnelliana, or at least one of its constituent parts, may have been used as a source for Dionysius's collections. If true, this places the Quesnelliana definitively at Rome during the first decade of the sixth century; the Quesnelliana has been valued by historians for its large complement of correspondence by Pope Leo I. While the exact nature of the compiler's source material for the Leonine letters is still a subject of debate, it seems that at least some of it depended upon a old tradition.
Detlev Jasper remarks that The compiler of the Quesnelliana seems to have been interested in Pope Leo’s writings. He gathered the letters that were available and put them at the end of his collection as numbers LXVII to XCVIIII, although without any recognizable order or organization; the compiler’s main goal seems to have been to maximize the number of Leonine letters in the collection and he placed less stress on order or on the literary shape of his material. Leo's letters represent one of the most important historical sources for the doctrinal controversies that troubled the mid fifth-century church the Eutychian controversy, which centred on a Christological debate that le