Tehama County, California
Tehama County is a county located in the northern part of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 63,463, the county seat and largest city is Red Bluff. Tehama County comprises the Red Bluff, CA Micropolitan Statistical Area, the county is bisected by the Sacramento River. Tehama County was formed parts of Butte, Colusa. The county is named for the City of Tehama, the origin of the name is not known. Suggested possible roots are the Arabic word تهامة tehama, the Spanish word tejamanil, the first permanent non-indigenous settlers in the area that is now Tehama County were Robert Hasty Thomes, Albert Gallatin Toomes, William George Chard, and Job Francis Dye. The four men were given land grants by the government of Mexico in 1844. Thomes received Rancho Saucos, Toomes received Rancho Rio de los Molinos, Chard received Rancho Las Flores, in the same year Josiah Belden received Rancho Barranca Colorado. Famous early figures include Kit Carson, who took part in a fight that gave name to Bloody Island and Battle Creek, Jedediah Smith, John Fremont, the first and only president of the California Republic.
The history of Tehama County includes the January 1886 relocation of Red Bluffs Chinese population, secret daily anti-Chinese caucuses in Red Bluff were held. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 2,962 square miles. Watercourses in Tehama County include Dye Creek and Paynes Creek, the county is intersected by Sacramento River. A small part of Lassen Volcanic National Park extends into the northeast corner of the county, greyhound buses stop in Red Bluff. Red Bluff Municipal Airport and Corning Municipal Airport are two general aviation airports, the following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. The 2010 United States Census reported that Tehama County had a population of 63,463. The racial makeup of Tehama County was 51,721 White,406 African American,1,644 Native American,656 Asian,76 Pacific Islander,6,258 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13,906 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 56,039 people,21,013 households, the population density was 19 people per square mile.
There were 23,547 housing units at a density of 8 per square mile
Firefighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fires in buildings, woodland, etc. A firefighter suppresses and extinguishes fires to protect lives and to prevent the destruction of property, firefighters may provide other services to their communities. Additional hazards include falls and structural collapse that can exacerbate the problems entailed in a toxic environment, to combat some of these risks, firefighters carry self-contained breathing equipment. The first step in an operation is reconnaissance to search for the origin of the fire, to identify the specific risks. Fires can be extinguished by water, fuel or oxidant removal, the earliest known firefighters were in the city of Rome. In 60 A. D. emperor Nero established a Corps of Vigils to protect Rome after a disastrous fire and it consisted of 7,000 people equipped with buckets and axes, and they fought fires and served as police. In the 4th century B. C. an Alexandrian Greek named Ctesibius made a force pump called a siphona.
As water rose in the chamber, it compressed the air inside, in the 16th century, syringes were used as firefighting tools, the larger ones being mounted on wheels. Another traditional method that survived was the brigade, involving two lines of people formed between the water source and the fire. Typically, men in one of the lines would pass along the full buckets of water toward the fire while in the other women and children would pass back the empty buckets to be refilled. In the 17th century, fire engines were made, notably in Amsterdam, ancient Rome did not have municipal firefighters. Instead, private individuals relied on their slaves or supporters to take action and they would not only form bucket brigades or attempt to smother smaller fires, but would demolish or raze nearby buildings to slow the spread of the fire. However, there is no mention of fires being extinguished, rather they were contained and burned themselves out, ancient Rome did not have an organized firefighting force until the Vigiles were formed in the reign of Augustus.
Prior to the Great Fire of London in 1666, some parishes in the UK had begun to organize rudimentary firefighting, after the Great Fire, Nicholas Barbon introduced the first fire insurance. In order to reduce costs, Barbon formed his own fire brigade. By the start of the 1800s, insured buildings were identified with a badge or mark, in 1833, these companies in London merged to form The London Fire Company Establishment. In World War II, the Auxiliary Fire Service and the National Fire Service were established to supplement local fire services, at that time, there was no countrywide standard for firefighting terms, ranks, or equipment. These were standardized after World War II, in January 1608, a fire destroyed many of the colonists provisions and lodgings in Jamestown, Virginia
United States Department of Agriculture
Approximately 80% of USDAs $140 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, after the resignation of Thomas Vilsack on January 13,2017 and the departure of President Barack Obama from office on January 20,2017, the acting Secretary of Agriculture is Michael Young. Activities in this include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income. The USDA is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and it plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, the Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation, early in its history, the economy of the United States was largely agrarian.
Officials in the government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds, plants. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents and he began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for the collection of agricultural statistics, Ellsworth was called the Father of the Department of Agriculture. In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior, in the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring. Lincoln called it the peoples department, in the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, and farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank, finally, on February 9,1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level.
In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state. The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, with these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state. During the Great Depression, farming remained a way of life for millions of Americans. The Department of Agricultures Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther. USDA helped ensure that continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners. The Department of Agriculture was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $139.7 billion, the Washington Post reports that he said There are days when I have literally nothing to do, he recalled thinking as he weighed his decision to quit
Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii
In Oregon and Washington its range is continuous from the Cascades crest west to the Pacific Coast Ranges and Pacific Ocean. In California, it is found in the Klamath and California Coast Ranges as far south as the Santa Lucia Mountains with a stand as far south as the Purisima Hills. In the Sierra Nevada it ranges as far south as the Yosemite region and it occurs from near sea level along the coast to 1,800 metres in the California Mountains. Further inland, coast Douglas-fir is replaced by Rocky Mountain or interior Douglas-fir, interior Douglas-fir intergrades with coast Douglas-fir in the Cascades of northern Washington and southern British Columbia. Coast Douglas-fir is the second-tallest conifer in the world, and the third-tallest of all trees, Coast Douglas-fir commonly lives more than 500 years and occasionally more than 1,000 years. The bark on trees is thin, gray. On mature trees, it is thick and corky, the shoots are brown to olive-green, turning gray-brown with age, though not as smooth as fir shoots, and finely pubescent with short dark hairs.
The buds are a distinctive narrow conic shape, 4–8 mm long. Unlike the Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir, coast Douglas-fir foliage has a noticeable sweet fruity-resinous scent, the mature female seed cones are pendent, 5–8 centimetres long, 2–3 cm broad when closed, opening to 4 cm broad. They are produced in spring, green at first, maturing orange-brown in the autumn 6–7 months later, the seeds are 5–6 mm long and 3–4 mm broad, with a 12–15 mm wing. The male cones are 2–3 cm long, dispersing yellow pollen in spring, in forest conditions, old individuals typically have a narrow, cylindric crown beginning 20–40 metres above a branch-free trunk. Self-pruning is generally slow and trees retain their lower limbs for a long period, open-grown trees typically have branches down to near ground level. It often takes 70–80 years for the trunk to be clear to a height of 5 metres and 100 years to be clear to a height of 10 metres, appreciable seed production begins at 20–30 years in open-grown coast Douglas-fir.
Seed production is irregular, over a 5-7 year period, stands usually produce one crop, a few light or medium crops. Even during heavy seed crop years, only about 25 percent of trees in closed stands produce a number of cones. Each cone contains around 25 to 50 seeds, seed size varies, average number of cleaned seeds varies from 70-88/g. Seeds from the portion of coast Douglas-firs range tend to be larger than seed from the south. Some roots are found in organic soil layers or near the mineral soil surface
The tule elk is a subspecies of elk found only in California, ranging from the grasslands and marshlands of the Central Valley to the grassy hills on the coast. The subspecies name derives from the tule, a species of native to freshwater marshes on which the Tule elk feeds. When the Europeans first arrived, an estimated 500,000 tule elk roamed these regions, however, in 1874-1875 a single breeding pair was discovered in the tule marshes of Buena Vista Lake in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Conservation measures were taken to protect the species in the 1970s, the wild population exceeds 4,000. Considered the smallest of the wapiti in North America, the elk were the dominant large ungulate in California prior to the arrival of the Spanish. It is typically described as the smallest subspecies of all American elks, with the weight of adult males only 450 to 550 lb. California Department of Fish and Wildlife records show recent bull elk on Grizzly Island in Suisun Bay weigh up to 900 pounds and this is a similar size to Roosevelt elk bulls which weigh between 700 pounds and 1,100 pounds.
Wildlife biologist Dale McCullough described an elk transplanted from Buttonwillow in the San Joaquin Valley to a course in Monterey that grew to the size of a Rocky Mountain elk. The calves are similar to deer fawns, with brown coats, genetic studies based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA confirm that Tule elk, Roosevelt elk and Rocky Mountain elk should be considered distinct subspecies. Tibbet, or there were three surviving tule elk at the genetic bottleneck, the arrival of the Spanish in the late 18th century introduced cattle and horses to the grasslands of the Central Valley, competing with the native elk. Unrestricted hunting further reduced the herds, by the time elk hunting was banned by the State Legislature in 1873, the tule elk was believed to be extinct. California cattle baron Henry Miller protected tule elk after a pair was discovered on his ranch in the marshes near Buena Vista Lake by game warden A. C. Miller ordered his men to protect the elk and is credited for the survival of the subspecies, after his death, the huge Miller-Lux ranch was subdivided and the hunting of the elk resumed.
The population was reduced to 72 head, by 1895, habitat loss and poaching had reduced the elk population to only 28. In the years followed, the elk were transplanted 21 times. In 1933, rancher Walter Dow took a group of penned elk to his ranch in Owens Valley. Although not native habitat for the elk, they thrived, in the same year, the state put a small herd at Cache Creek. This herd has not fared well due to poor range conditions and this herd may have interbred with the Rocky Mountain elk which were introduced near Mount Shasta
Herbert Clark Hoover was an American politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression. He was defeated in a landslide in 1932 by Democrat Franklin D, a lifelong Quaker, he became a successful mining engineer around the globe and retired in 1912. In the First World War he built a reputation as a humanitarian by leading relief efforts in Belgium during the war. He headed the U. S. Food Administration during World War I and his reputation as a Progressive businessman fighting for efficiency and elimination of waste was built as the Secretary of Commerce 1921-28. Hoover was a leader in the Efficiency Movement, which held that every institution public and they all could be improved by experts who could identify the problems and solve them. He believed in the importance of volunteerism and of the role of individuals in society, in the presidential election of 1928, Hoover easily won the Republican nomination, despite having no elected-office experience.
Although Hoover never raised the issue, some of his supporters did in mobilizing anti-Catholic sentiment against his opponent Al Smith. He reluctantly approved the Smoot–Hawley Tariff of 1930, which sent foreign trade spiralling down and he believed it was essential to balance the budget despite falling tax revenue, so he raised the tax rates. The economy kept falling, and the unemployment rate rose to 25%, with industry, mining. This downward spiral, plus his support for policies that had lost favor, set the stage for Hoovers overwhelming defeat in 1932 by Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt. Most historians agree that Hoovers defeat in the 1932 election was caused primarily by the downward economic spiral, Hoover became a conservative spokesman for opposition to the domestic and foreign policies of the New Deal. He opposed entry into the Second World War and was not given any role to play, in 1946, President Harry S. Truman liked Hoover and appointed him to survey war-torn Germany which produced a number of reports that changed U. S. occupation policy.
In 1947, Truman appointed Hoover to head the Hoover Commission, by the time of his death, he had rehabilitated his image. Nevertheless, Hoover is often ranked by historians as one of the worst U. S. presidents. Herbert Hoover was born on August 10,1874, in West Branch, Iowa, he would become the only President so far born in that state and the first born west of the Mississippi River. His father, Jesse Hoover, was a blacksmith and farm implement store owner, of German, German-Swiss, Jesse Hoover and his father Eli had moved to Iowa from Ohio twenty years previously. Hoovers mother, Hulda Randall Minthorn, was born in Norwich, Canada, both of his parents were Quakers. At about age two he contracted the croup and he was so ill that he was momentarily thought to have died, until he was resuscitated by his uncle, John Minthorn
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
California Gold Rush
The California Gold Rush began on January 24,1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma, California. The news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States, the Gold Rush initiated the California Genocide, with 100,000 Native Californians dying between 1848 and 1868. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory to the state of the first nominee for the Republican Party. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial, whole indigenous societies were attacked and pushed off their lands by the gold-seekers, called forty-niners. The first to hear confirmed information of the rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands, and Latin America. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin America, Australia and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. San Francisco grew from a settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852.
Roads, churches and other towns were built throughout California, in 1849 a state constitution was written. The new constitution was adopted by vote, and the future states interim first governor. In September,1850, California became a state, at the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of staking claims was developed. Prospectors retrieved the gold from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, although the mining caused environmental harm, more sophisticated methods of gold recovery were developed and adopted around the world. New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service, by 1869 railroads were built across the country from California to the eastern United States. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, Gold worth tens of billions of todays dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However, many returned home with more than they had started with.
The Mexican–American War ended on February 3,1848, although California was firmly in American hands before that, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided for, among other things, the formal transfer of Upper California to the United States. The California Gold Rush began at Sutters Mill, near Coloma, on January 24,1848, James W. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River. Marshall brought what he found to John Sutter, and the two tested the metal. However, rumors started to spread and were confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco newspaper publisher
Glenn County, California
Glenn County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,122 and it is located in the California Central Valley. Glenn County was formed in 1891 from parts of Colusa County and it was named for Hugh J. Glenn, who was the largest wheat farmer in the state during his lifetime, and a man of great prominence in political and commercial life in California. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,327 square miles. The racial makeup of Glenn County was 19,990 White,231 African American,619 Native American,722 Asian,24 Pacific Islander,5,522 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10,539 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 26,453 people,9,172 households, the population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 9,982 housing units at a density of 8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 71. 8% White,0. 6% Black or African American,2. 1% Native American,3. 4% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander,18. 2% from other races, and 3. 9% from two or more races. 29.
6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,10. 8% were of German,9. 4% American,6. 2% English and 5. 9% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 69. 5% spoke English,27. 0% Spanish and 2. 1% Hmong as their first language,22. 0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the family size was 3.33. In the county, the population was out with 30. 8% under the age of 18,8. 7% from 18 to 24,26. 8% from 25 to 44,20. 7% from 45 to 64. The median age was 34 years, for every 100 females there were 102.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.5 males, the median income for a household in the county was $32,107, and the median income for a family was $37,023. Males had an income of $29,480 versus $21,766 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,069, about 12. 5% of families and 18. 1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26. 3% of those under age 18 and 7. 6% of those age 65 or over.
Glenn is a strongly Republican county in Presidential and congressional elections, the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Lyndon Johnson in 1964. Glenn County is split between Californias 1st and 3rd congressional districts, represented by Doug LaMalfa and John Garamendi, respectively, in the State Assembly, Glenn County is in the 3rd Assembly District, represented by Republican James Gallagher