Kejawèn or Javanism called Kebatinan, Agama Jawa, Kepercayaan, is a Javanese religious tradition, consisting of an amalgam of animistic, Buddhist and Islamic Sufi and practices. It is rooted in syncretizing aspects of different religions; the term kebatinan is being used interchangeably with kejawèn, Agama Jawa and Kepercayaan, although they are not the same: Kebatinan: "the science of the inner", "inwardness", derived from the Arabic word batin, meaning "inner" or "hidden". Kejawèn: "Javanism", the culture and religious beliefs and practices of the Javanese people of Central Java and East Java, it is "not a religious category, but refers to an ethic and a style of life, inspired by Javanist thinking". Agama Jawa: "the Javanese religion" Kepercayaan: "belief", "faith", full term: Kepercayaan kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, "Believer in One Mighty God". "Kepercayaan" is an official cover term for various forms of mysticism in Indonesia. According to Caldarola, it "is not an apt characterization of what the mystical groups have in common".
It includes kebatinan and kerohanian. Kebatinan is the inner-directed cultivation of inner peace, rooted in pre-Islamic traditions, whereas kejawèn is outer-directed and community-oriented, manifesting in rituals and practices. Java has been a melting pot of religions and cultures, which has created a broad range of religious belief, including animism, spirit cults, cosmology. Indian influences came firstly in the form of Hinduism, which reached the Indonesian Archipelago as early as the first century. By the fourth century, the kingdom of Kutai in East Kalimantan, Tarumanagara in West Java, Holing in Central Java, were among the early Hindu states established in the region. Several notable ancient Indonesian Hindu kingdoms are Mataram, famous for the construction of the majestic Prambanan temple, followed by Kediri and Singhasari. Since Hinduism, along with Buddhism, spread across the archipelago and reached the peak of its influence in the fourteenth century; the last and largest of the Hindu-Buddhist Javanese empires, that of the Majapahit, influenced the entire Indonesian archipelago.
Hinduism and Buddhism penetrated into all aspects of society, blending with the indigenous tradition and culture. One conduit for this were the ascetics, called "resi,". A resi lived surrounded by students. Resi's authorities were ceremonial. At the courts, Brahmin clerics and pudjangga legitimized rulers and linked Hindu cosmology to their political needs. Presently, small Hindu enclaves are scattered throughout Java, but there is a large Hindu population along the eastern coast nearest Bali around the town of Banyuwangi. Java adopted Islam around 1500 CE. Islam was first accepted by the elites and upper echelons of society, which contributed to the further spread and acceptance. Sufism and other versions of Folk Islam were most integrated into the existing folk religion of Java; the learned versions of Sufi Islam and Shari`a-oriented Islam were integrated at the courts, blending with the rituals and myths of the existing Hindu-Buddhist culture. Clifford Geertz described this as priyayi; the Kyai, the Muslim scholar of the writ became the new religious elite.
Islam recognises no hierarchy of religious leaders nor a formal priesthood, but the Dutch colonial government established an elaborate rank order for mosque and other Islamic preaching schools. In Javanese pesantren, The Kyai perpetuated the tradition of the resi. Students around him provided his needs peasants around the school. Christianity was brought to Java by Portuguese traders and missionaries, from the Dutch Reformed Church, in the 20th century by Roman Catholics, such as the Jesuits and the Divine Word Missionaries. Nowadays there are Christian communities Reformed in the larger cities, though some rural areas of south-central Java are Roman Catholic. Roman Catholics and other Christian groups have been persecuted for their beliefs such as a ban on Christmas services or decorations. Nowadays more than 90 percent of the people of Java are Muslims, on a broad continuum between abangan and santri. Although Java is nominally Islamitic, the syncretic Javanese culture, is a strong undercurrent.
Pre-Islamic Javan traditions have encouraged Islam in a mystical direction. Some Javanese texts relate stories about Syekh Siti Jenar who had conflicts with Wali Sanga, the nine Islamic scholars in Java, the Sultanate of Demak. Although Syekh Siti Jenar was a sufi whose teaching were similar with Al-Hallaj, most of his followers come from Kebatinan; some historians have doubted the existence of Syekh Siti Jenar, suggesting the stories represent conflicts between Kebatinan and Islam in the past. With the Islamisation of Java there emerged a loosely structured society of religious leadership, revolving around kyais, Islamic experts possessing various degrees of proficiency in pre-Islamic and Islamic lore and practice; the kyais are the principal intermediaries between the villages masses and the realm of the supernatural. However, this looseneess of kyai leadership structure has promoted schism. There were sharp divisions between orthodox kyais, who instructed in Islamic law, with those who taught mysticism and those who sought reformed Islam with modern scientific concepts.
As a result, the Javanese recognize two broad streams of religious commitment: Santri or putihan, those who pray, performing the five o
Pawon is a Buddhist temple in Central Java, Indonesia. Located between two other Buddhist temples and Mendut, Pawon is connected with the other two temples, all of which were built during the Sailendra dynasty. Examines the detail and style of its carving this temple is older than Borobudur; the three temples were located on a straight line, suggesting there was a symbolic meaning that binds these temples. "Between Mendut and Borobudur stands a jewel of Javanese temple architecture. Most this temple served to purify the mind prior to ascending Borobudur." The original name of this Buddhist shrine is uncertain. Pawon means "kitchen" in Javanese language, derived from the root word awu or dust; the connection to the word "dust" suggests that this temple was built as a tomb or mortuary temple for a king. Pawon from the word Per-awu-an, a temple that houses the dust of cremated king. However, the personage that entombed here is still unknown. Local people name this temple as "Bajranalan" based on the name of the village.
Bajranalan is derived from Anala. In the contemporary era during the full moon in May or June, Buddhists in Indonesia observe Vesak annual ritual by walking from Mendut passing through Pawon and ends at Borobudur; the temple faces northwest and stands on a square base. Each sides of the stairs and the top of the gates are adorned with carved Kala-Makara found in classic Javanese temples; the outer wall of Pawon is carved with reliefs of taras. There are reliefs of kalpataru, flanked between Kinnara-Kinnari; the square chamber inside is empty with a square basin in the center of it. Rectangular small windows were found for ventilation; the roof section of is crowned with four small ratnas. Because of its relative simplicity and harmony, the historians dubbed this small temple as "the jewel of Javanese temple architecture", in contrast with tall-slender East Javanese style counterparts as found in Singhasari and Majapahit period. Ancient temples of Java Candi of Indonesia
Makara (Hindu mythology)
Makara is a sea-creature in Hindu culture. It is depicted as half terrestrial animal in the frontal part and half aquatic animal in the hind part. Though Makara may take many different forms throughout Hindu culture, in today's modern world, its form is always related to the Marsh Crocodile or a Water Monitor. In Hindu astrology, Makara is equivalent to the sign of Capricorn, tenth of the twelve symbols of the Zodiac. Makara appears of the sea god Varuna. Makara are considered guardians of gateways and thresholds, protecting throne rooms as well as entryways to temples. Makara-shaped earrings called Makarakundalas are sometimes worn by the Hindu gods, for example Shiva, the Destroyer, or the Preserver-god Vishnu, the Sun god Surya, the Mother Goddess Chandi. Makara is the insignia of the love god Kamadeva, who has no dedicated temples and is known as Makaradhvaja, "one whose flag depicts a makara". Makara is a Sanskrit word which means "sea dragon" or "water-monster", it is the origin of the Hindi word for crocodile, मगर, which has in turn been loaned into English as the name of the Mugger crocodile, the most common crocodile in India.
Josef Friedrich Kohl of Würzburg University and several German scientists claimed that makara is based on dugong instead, based on his reading of Jain text of Sūryaprajñapti. The South Asian river dolphin may have contributed to the image of the makara. In Tibetan it is called the "chu-srin", denotes a hybrid creature. During the Vedic times when Indra was the God of heaven, Varuna became the God of the seas and rode on makara, called "the water monster vehicle". Makara has been depicted as half mammal and half fish. In many temples, the depiction is in the form of half seal with head of an elephant, it is shown in an anthropomorphic with head and jaws of a crocodile, an elephant trunk with scales of fish and a peacock tail. Lakshmi sitting on a lotus is a depiction in which she pulls the tongue of the elephant shaped makara is meant to project Lakshmi's image as the goddess of prosperity and well being, it represents a necessary state of chaos before the emergence of a new state of order. Makara is the emblem of Kamadeva, the god of love and desire.
Kamadeva is known as'Makara-Ketu' which means "having the makara for an emblem" It is the tenth sign of the Zodiac, called rāśi in Sanskrit, equivalent to the zodiacal sign of Capricorn. In Hindu iconography, Makara is represented as the vahana of the river goddess. A row of makara may run along the wall of a Hindu temple, act as the hand rail of a staircase, or form an arch above a doorway; the leading Hindu temple architect and builder Ganapati Sthapati describes Makara as a mythical animal with the body of a fish, trunk of an elephant, feet of a lion, eyes of a monkey, ears of a pig, the tail of a peacock. A more succinct explanation is provided: "An ancient mythological symbol, the hybrid creature is formed from a number of animals such that collectively possess the nature of a crocodile, it has the lower jaw of a crocodile, the snout or trunk of an elephant, the tusks and ears of a wild boar, the darting eyes of a monkey, the scales and the flexible body of a fish, the swirling tailing feathers of a peacock."Traditionally, a makara is considered to be an aquatic mythical creature.
Makara has been depicted as half mammal and half fish. Some traditional accounts identify it with a crocodile Marsh Crocodile because of its etymological roots, it is depicted with the forequarters of the hindquarters as a fish tail. Crocodile was a form, used in the earlier days, shown with human body. In many temples, the depiction is in the form of half seal with head of an elephant, it is shown with head and jaws resembling a crocodile, an elephant trunk with scales of fish and a peacock tail. Other accounts identify it with Gangetic Dolphin having striking resemblances with the latter, now found in Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary. Others portray it as a fish body with an elephant's head; the tradition identifies the makara with the source of all existence and fertility. In the medieval era of South India, Makara was shown as a fifth stage of development, symbolized in the form of an elephant head and body with an elaborately foliated fish tail. Most myths maintain this symbolism of this stage in the evolution of life.
In a Hindu temple, the Makara serves as the structural bookends of a thoranam or archway around a deity. The arch emerges up from the jaws of one Makara, rises to its peak, the Kirtimukha, descends into the gaping jaws of another Makara. Varuna is depicted as a white man sitting on the monster makara; as a marine monster, it is shown with the head and legs of an antelope, the body and tail of a fish. A makara made in iron shows the monster in the form of half stag and half fish; these elements are variously joined to form one of the most common recurring themes in Indian temple iconography. In Indian art, the makara finds expression in the form of many motifs, has been portrayed in different styles. Makara figures are placed on the entry points of several Buddhist monuments, including the stupa of Sanchi, a world heritage
Circumambulation is the act of moving around a sacred object or idol. Circumambulation of temples or deity images is an integral part of Hindu and Buddhist devotional practice, it is present in other religions, including Christianity and Islam. In many Hindu temples, the temple structure reflects the symbolism of the Hindu association of the spiritual transition from daily life to spiritual perfection as a journey through stages. Ambulatory passageways for circumambulation are present through which worshipers move in a clockwise direction, starting at the sanctuary doorway and moving inward toward the inner sanctum where the deity is enshrined; this is a translation of the spiritual concept of transition through levels in life into bodily movements by the worshipers as they move inwardly through ambulatory halls to the most sacred centre of spiritual energy of the deity. Circumambulation is done in a clockwise direction and in an odd rather than number of times. Circumbulatory walking around the shrine, by keeping time, is a common form of Hindu prayer.
The circumbulary pathway made of stone around the shrine is called the Pradakshina path. In the Catholic Church, a priest sometimes circumambulates an altar while incensing it with a thurible. At some Catholic shrines, it is a tradition to circumambulate around the cult object of the place relics of a saint or an image of Jesus or the Virgin Mary; this is performed three times, as a reference to the Trinity. In Romania, there is an Easter custom to circumambulate the church three times by singing priests leading the people, just before finishing Easter Mass, it symbolizes the funerary procession of the burial of Jesus Christ. Circumambulation is common in many Eastern Oriental Orthodox services. In the Coptic tradition, during the liturgy, the priest circumambulates while an acolyte holds a cross high on the opposite side of the altar. Tawaf is one of the Islamic rituals of pilgrimage. During the Hajj and Umrah, Muslims are to circumambulate the Kaaba seven times, in a counter-clockwise direction.
The circling is believed to demonstrate the unity of the believers in the worship of the One God, as they move in harmony together around the Kaaba, while supplicating to Allah. The Kaaba is the most circumambulated structure in this world; the Kaaba is circumambulated by pilgrims at all times except for the time of prayers, when small birds and angels are said to circumambulate the Kaaba. Judaism uses circumambulation in the Hakafot ritual during the Festival of Sukkot culminating in seven Hakafot on Hoshanah Rabbah, the end of the Festival; the circumambulations are performed during Hakaphot on Simchat Torah, where Jews dance by circumambulating the Torah Scrolls. Traditionally, Jewish brides circumambulate their grooms during the wedding ceremony under the chuppah and much Jewish dancing at weddings and Bar Mitzvahs is done by moving in a circle. In Zen Buddhism, ` jundo' can mean circumambulation. At Tassajara each morning, the Doshi visits four different altars on his/her way to the zendo, to make bows and offerings of incense.
This jundo begins with the first rolldown of the han, ends as the Doshi enters the zendo with the third rolldown. After offering incense and bowing at the altar, the Doshi walks around the zendo behind the meditators, in what is called the ‘kentan’, or ‘inspection of the sitting platform’; as the Doshi passes, each resident raises his/her hands in gassho without bowing. In Lavan Pheras, performed during wedding ceremonies, the four rounds of pheras symbolize a sancrosanct bond by circumambulating a purifying and transforming object, in this case the holy book, Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Bahá'ís perform circumambulation of both the Shrines of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh during their pilgrimage to Haifa and Bahjí, in Israel. While circumambulating, observance of these Manifestations of God is done in complete silence and performed on holy days such as the birth and ascension of Bahá'u'lláh as well as the birth and martyrdom of the Báb; the Bönpo in the Tibet traditionally circumambulate in a counter-clockwise direction, a direction that runs counter to the apparent movement of the Sun.
Candidates for the three principle degrees of Freemasonry circumambulate the altar in the lodge room. This part of the ritual is distinct from many other world rituals in that it is done in a clock-wise fashion; the number of times which candidates ambulate around the altar depends on which degree is being presented. Sunwise Widdershins Circle dance Parikrama Svastika Sauvastika Stupa
Kalpavriksha known as kalpataru, karpaga viruksham,kalpadruma or kalpapādapa, is a wish-fulfilling divine tree in Hindu mythology and Buddhism. It is mentioned in Sanskrit literature from the earliest sources, it is a popular theme in Jain cosmology and Buddhism. The Kalpavriksha originated during the Samudra manthan or "churning of the ocean" along with the Kamadhenu, the divine cow providing for all needs; the king of the gods, returned with this tree to his paradise. Kalpavriksha is identified with many trees such as Parijata, Ficus benghalensis, coconut tree, Madhuca longifolia, Prosopis cineraria, Bassia butyracea, mulberry tree; the tree is extolled in iconography and literature. Kalpavriksha is an artistic and literary theme common to the Hindu Bhagavatas, the Jains and the Buddhists. Kalpavriksha, the tree of life meaning "World Tree" finds mention in the Vedic scriptures. In the earliest account of the Samudra manthan or "churning of the ocean of milk" Kalpavriksha emerged from the primal waters during the ocean churning process along with Kamadhenu, the divine cow that bestows all needs.
The tree is said to be the Milky way or the birthplace of the stars Sirius. The king of the gods, Indra returned with this Kalpavriksha to his abode in paradise and planted it there; the tree finds mention in the Sanskrit text Mānāsara, part of Shilpa Shastras. Another myth says that Kalpavriksha was located on earth and was transported to Indra's abode after people started misusing it by wishing evil things. In Indra's "Devaloka" it is said that there are five Kalpavrikshas, which are called Mandana, Santana and Harichandana, all of which fulfill various wishes. Kalpavriksha, in particular, is said to be planted at Mt. Meru peak in the middle of Indra's five paradise gardens, it is on account of these wish-granting trees that the asuras waged a perpetual war with the devas as the heavenly gods who benefited from the "divine flowers and fruits" from the Kalpavriksha, whereas the demigods lived comparatively in penury at the lower part of its "trunk and roots". The Parijata is identified with its terrestrial counterpart, the Indian coral tree, but is most depicted like a magnolia or frangipani tree.
It is described as having roots made of gold, a silver midriff, lapislazuli boughs, coral leaves, pearl flower, gemstone buds, diamond fruit. It is said that Ashokasundari was created from a Kalpavriksha tree to provide relief to Parvati from her loneliness. In Hindu mythology Shiva and Parvati after much painful discussions while parting with their daughter Aranyani gave her away to the divine Kalpavriksha for safe keeping when the demon Andhakasura waged war. Parvati requested Kalpavriksha to bring up her daughter with "safety, wisdom and happiness," and to make her Vana Devi, the protector of forests. In Jain Cosmology Kalpavrikshas are wish-granting trees which fulfill the desires of people in the initial stages of a world cycle. In initial times children don't do any karma. There are 10 Kalpavrikshas which grant 10 distinct wishes such as an abode to reside, utensils, nourishment including fruits and sweets, pleasant music, fragrant flowers, shining lamps and a radiant light at night. According to Jain cosmology, in the three Aras of the descending arc, Kalpavrikshas provided all, needed, but towards the end of the third ara, the yield from them diminished.
Eight types of these trees are described in some texts. Thus from the "Madyanga tree" delicious and nutritious drinks could be obtained. Other trees provided homes, musical devices, table ware, fine garments and scents; the Tiloya Panatti give the following list: Pananga, Bhusananga, Bhoyanga, Diviyanga, Malanga, Tejanga with excellent drinks, ornaments, garments and ready-made dishes, mansions to live in, lamps and garlands of flowers while the last type, namely Tejanga, seems to be self-luminous, serving the purpose of heavenly luminaries. In Buddhism a small wish granting tree is depicted decorating the upper part of the "long-life vase" held by "longevity deities" like Amitayus and Ushnishavijaya; the goddess Shramana devi holds jeweled branch of Kalpavriksha in her left hand. Worship of the Nyagrodha tree as a form of non-human worship is depicted in a Buddhist sculpture at Besnagar; this sculpture in Besnagar known as Vidisa, is dated to third century BC and is exhibited in the Calcutta Museum.
In Myanmar, where Theravada Buddhism is practiced, the significance of the Kalpavriksha is in the form of an annual ritual known as Kathina in which the laity present gifts to the monks in the form of money trees. In different states of India some trees are referred to as the Kalpavriksha; these are stated below. The banyan tree called Nyagrodha tree, which grows throughout the country is referred to as Kalpavriksha or Kaplaptaru because of its ability to amply provide for human needs; the coconut tree found in most regions of the country is called "Kalpavriksha", as every part of it is useful in one way or the other. The coconut water inside the nut is a delicious drink. In dried form it is used to manufacture oil; the coconut husk, called coir, is used to make rope. Leaves are used to make huts, mats. Palm sugar
The Progo River is a river in southern central Java, Indonesia. The river passes through two provinces; the source of the river is on the slopes of Central Java. The river runs to the southeast through the city of Magelang through the historical Kedu Plain passing near the well known Borobudur and Pawon temples. Reaching the province of Yogyakarta the river forms a natural boundary between Sleman Regency, Kulon Progo Regency and Bantul Regency; the mouth of the river is located at Trisik beach on the southern shore of Java facing Indian Ocean. The river flows in the southwest area of Java with predominantly tropical monsoon climate; the annual average temperature in the area is 24 °C. The warmest month is January, when the average temperature is around 27 °C, the coldest is July, at 23 °C; the average annual rainfall is 2970 mm. The wettest month is January, with an average of 537 mm rainfall, the driest is September, with 22 mm rainfall. List of rivers of Java List of rivers of Indonesia