Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
In Germanic mythology, a dwarf is a human-shaped entity that dwells in mountains and in the earth, is variously associated with wisdom, smithing and crafting. Dwarfs are sometimes described as short and ugly, although some scholars have questioned whether this is a development stemming from comical portrayals of the beings. Dwarfs continue to be depicted in modern popular culture in a variety of media; the modern English noun dwarf descends from the Old English dweorg. It has a variety of cognates in other Germanic languages, including Old Norse dvergr and Old High German twerg. According to Vladimir Orel, the English noun and its cognates descend from Proto-Germanic *đwerȝaz. A different etymology of dwarf traces it to Proto-Germanic *dwezgaz, with r being the product of Verner's Law. Anatoly Liberman connects the Germanic word with Modern English dizzy: dwarfs inflicted mental diseases on humans, in this respect did not differ from elves and several other supernatural beings. Beyond the Proto-Germanic reconstruction, the etymology of the word dwarf is contested.
Scholars have proposed theories about the origins of the being by way of historical linguistics and comparative mythology, including that dwarfs may have originated as nature spirits, as beings associated with death, or as a mixture of concepts. Competing etymologies include a basis in the Indo-European root *dheur-, the Indo-European root *dhreugh, comparisons have been made with Sanskrit dhvaras. Modern English has two plurals for the word dwarf: dwarves. Dwarfs remains the most employed plural; the minority plural dwarves was recorded as early as 1818, but it was popularized by the fiction of philologist and author J. R. R. Tolkien, originating as a mistake and employed by Tolkien since some time before 1917. Regarding the plural, Tolkien wrote in 1937, "I am afraid it is just a piece of private bad grammar, rather shocking in a philologist. Norse mythology provides different origins for the beings, as recorded in the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda; the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá details that the dwarfs were the product of the primordial blood of the being Brimir and the bones of Bláinn.
The Prose Edda, describes dwarfs as beings similar to maggots that festered in the flesh of Ymir before being gifted with reason by the gods. The Poetic Edda and Prose Edda contain over 100 dwarf names, while the Prose Edda gives the four dwarfs Norðri, Suðri, Austri and Vestri a cosmological role: they hold up the sky. In addition, scholars have noted that the Svartálfar appear to be the same beings as dwarfs, given that both are described in the Prose Edda as the denizens of Svartálfaheimr. Few beings explicitly identifiable as dwarfs appear in the Poetic Edda and Prose Edda, they have quite diverse roles: murderous creators who create the mead of poetry,'reluctant donors' of important artifacts with magical qualities, or sexual predators who lust after goddesses, they are associated with metalsmithing, with death, as in the story of King Sveigðir in Ynglinga saga, the first segment of the Heimskringla — the doorways in the mountains that they guard may be regarded as doors between worlds.
One dwarf named Alvíss claimed the hand of Thor's daughter Þrúðr in marriage, but he was kept talking until daybreak and turned to stone, much like some accounts of trolls. After the Christianization of the Germanic peoples, tales of dwarfs continued to be told in the folklore of areas of Europe where Germanic languages were spoken. In the late legendary sagas, dwarfs demonstrate skill in healing as well as in smithing. In the early Norse sources, there is no mention of their being short. Anatoly Liberman suggests that dwarfs may have been thought of as lesser supernatural beings, which became literal smallness after Christianization. Old Norse dwarf names include Fullangr and Hár, whereas Anglo-Saxon glosses use dweorg to render Latin terms such as nanus and pygmaeus. Dwarfs in folklore are described as old men with long beards. Female dwarfs are hardly mentioned. Dvalinn the dwarf has daughters, the 14th-century romantic saga Þjalar Jóns saga gives the feminine form of Old Norse dyrgja, but the few folklore examples cited by Grimm in Teutonic Mythology may be identified as other beings.
However, in the Swedish ballad "Herr Peder och Dvärgens Dotter", the role of supernatural temptress is played by a dwarf's daughter. The Anglo-Saxon charm Wið Dweorh appears to relate to sleep disturbances; this may indicate that the dwarf antagonist is similar to the oppressive supernatural figure the mare, the etymological source of the word "nightmare", or that the word had come to be used to mean "fever". In the Old English Herbal, it translates warts. In Middle High German heroic poetry, most dwarfs are portrayed as having long beards, but some may have a childish appearance. In some stories, the dwarf takes on the attributes of a knight, he is most separated from normal humans by his small size, in some cases only reaching up to the knees. Despite their small size, dwarfs have superhuman strength, either by nature or through magical means
United Airlines, Inc. referred to as just United, is a major American airline headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. United operates a large domestic and international route network, with an extensive presence in the Asia-Pacific region. United is a founding member of the Star Alliance, the world's largest airline alliance with a total of 28 member airlines. Regional service is operated by independent carriers under the brand name United Express. United was established by the amalgamation of several airlines in the late 1920s, the oldest of these being Varney Air Lines, founded in 1926. United has seven hubs, with Chicago–O'Hare being its largest in terms of passengers carried and the number of departures; the company employs over 86,000 people while maintaining its headquarters in Chicago's Willis Tower. Through the airline's parent company, United Continental Holdings, it is publicly traded under NYSE: UAL with a market capitalization of over US$21 billion as of January 2018. United traces its roots to Varney Air Lines, which Walter Varney founded in 1926 in Idaho.
Continental Airlines is the successor to Speed Lanes, which Varney had founded by 1932 and whose name changed to Varney Speed Lines in 1934. VAL flew the first contracted air mail flight in the U. S. on April 6, 1926. In 1927, William Boeing founded Boeing Air Transport to operate air mail routes under contract with the United States Post Office Department. In 1929, Boeing merged his company with Pratt & Whitney to form the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation which set about buying, in the space of just 28 months, Pacific Air Transport, Stout Air Services, VAL, National Air Transport, as well as numerous equipment manufacturers at the same time. On March 28, 1931, UATC formed United Air Lines, Inc. as a holding company for its airline subsidiaries. In late 2006, Continental Airlines and United had preliminary merger discussions. On April 16, 2010, those discussions resumed; the board of directors of Continental and UAL Corporation agreed on May 2, 2010, to combine operations, contingent upon shareholder and regulatory approval.
On October 1, 2010, the UAL Corporation changed its name to Inc.. The carriers planned to begin merging their operations in 2011; the merged airline began operating under a single air operator's certificate from the Federal Aviation Administration on November 30, 2011. On March 3, 2012, United and Continental merged their passenger service systems, frequent-flier programs, websites, which eliminated the Continental brand with the exception of its logo. United operates to 231 destinations and 125 international destinations in 48 countries across five continents. United operates seven hubs. Chicago–O'Hare – United's largest hub and its hub for the Midwest. United flies 36 million passengers through O'Hare every year, about 99,000 people per day, making it the busiest airline at the airport. United's corporate headquarters are in Chicago. Denver – United's hub for the central and western United States. In 2017, United flew 25.9 million passengers through DIA or about 71,000 people per day. As of December 2017, United has about 42% of the market share at DIA making it the airport's largest airline.
Houston–Intercontinental – United's hub for the Southern United States and primary gateway to Latin America. About 33.5 million passengers fly through Houston on United every year, or about 91,000 people per day. United has about 78% of the seat share at Bush, making it the airport's largest tenant. Los Angeles – United's secondary hub for the West Coast and gateway to Asia and Australia. About 10 million passengers fly through LAX on about 28,000 people per day. United has 15% of the market share at LAX, making it the third-biggest carrier at the airport. Newark – United's primary hub for the East Coast and a gateway to Europe, Latin America and Asia. About 28.5 million passengers fly on United through Newark every year, or about 78,000 people per day. United controls about 81% of the slots at Newark and carries about 68% of all passengers at the airport. United uses part of Terminal A for United Express Flights. San Francisco – United's primary hub for the West Coast and gateway to Asia and Australia.
About 22 million passengers pass through SFO every year on United, about 60,000 people per day. United has about 46% of the market share at San Francisco International, making it the biggest airline at the airport. Washington–Dulles – United's secondary hub for the East Coast and gateway to Europe. United has about 65% of the market share at Washington Dulles, making it the largest airline at the airport. About 14 million passengers fly through Dulles every year on United, about 38,465 people per day. United Airlines is a member of the Star Alliance and has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: In addition to the above codeshares, United has entered into joint ventures with the following airlines: Air Canada Air New Zealand All Nippon Airways Austrian Airlines Brussels Airlines Lufthansa Swiss International Air Lines As of March 2019, United Airlines operated a fleet of 778 aircraft. On July 20, 2011, American Airlines announced an order for 460 narrowbody jets, including 260 Airbus A320s.
The order broke Boeing's monopoly with the airline and forced Boeing into the re-engined 737 MAX. This sale included a Most-Favoured-Customer Clause, which requires Airbus to refund to American any difference between the price paid by American and a lower price paid by United or another airline; this perpetuates United's having a Boeing-skewed fleet. On September 22, 2012, United became the first American airline to take delivery of Boeing 787 aircraft. Un
Kauaʻi, anglicized as Kauai, is geologically the oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands. With an area of 562.3 square miles, it is the fourth-largest of these islands and the 21st largest island in the United States. Known as the "Garden Isle", Kauaʻi lies 105 miles across the Kauaʻi Channel, northwest of Oʻahu; this island is the site of Waimea Canyon State Park. The United States Census Bureau defines Kauaʻi as census tracts 401 through 409 of Kauai County, Hawaiʻi, which comprises all of the county except for the islands of Kaʻula, Lehua and Niʻihau; the 2010 United States Census population of the island was 67,091. The most populous town was Kapaʻa. In 1778, Captain James Cook arrived at Waimea Bay, the first European known to have reached the Hawaiʻian islands, he named the archipelago after his patron the 6th Earl of George Montagu. During the reign of King Kamehameha, the islands of Kauaʻi and Niʻihau were the last Hawaiʻian Islands to join his Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, their ruler, Kaumualiʻi, resisted Kamehameha for years.
King Kamehameha twice prepared a huge armada of ships and canoes to take the islands by force, twice failed. In the face of the threat of a further invasion, Kaumualiʻi decided to join the kingdom without bloodshed, became Kamehameha's vassal in 1810, he ceded the island to the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi upon his death in 1824. In 1815, a ship from the Russian-American Company was wrecked on the island. In 1816, an agreement was signed by Kaumualiʻi to allow the Russians to build Fort Elizabeth, it was an attempt by Kaumuali’i to gain support from the Russians against Kamehameha I. Construction was begun in 1817, but in July of that year under mounting resistance of Native Hawaiians and American traders the Russians were expelled; the settlement on Kauai has been considered an abrupt instance of a Pacific outpost of the Russian Empire per se. Valdemar Emil Knudsen was a Norwegian plantation pioneer who arrived on Kauai in 1857. Knudsen, or "Kanuka" arrived in Koloa where he managed Grove Farm, but sought a warmer land and purchased the leases to Mana and Kekaha, where he became a successful sugarcane plantation owner.
Knudsen settled in Waiawa, between Mana and Kekaha across the channel from Niʻihau Island. His son, Eric Alfred Knudsen, was born in Waiawa. Knudsen was appointed land administrator by King Kamehameha for an area covering 400 km2, was given the title konohiki as well as a position as a nobility under the king. Knudsen, who spoke fluent Hawaiian became an elected representative and an influential politician on the island. Knudsen lends his name to the Knudsen Gap, a narrow pass between the Kahili Ridge, its primary function was as a sugar farm planted by the Knudsen family. In 1835, Old Koloa Town opened a sugar mill. From 1906 to 1934 the office of County Clerk was held by John Mahiʻai Kāneakua, active in attempts to restore Queen Liliuokalani to the throne after the United States takeover of Hawaiʻi in 1893. Hawaiian narrative locates the name's origin in the legend of Hawaiʻiloa, the Polynesian navigator credited with discovery of the Hawaiʻian Islands; the story relates. Another possible translation is "food season".
Kauaʻi was known for its distinct dialect of the Hawaiian language. While the standard language today adopts the dialect of Hawaiʻi island, which has the sound, the Kauaʻi dialect was known for pronouncing this as. In effect, Kauaʻi dialect retained the old pan-Polynesian /t/, while "standard" Hawaiʻi dialect has changed it to the. Therefore, the native name for Kauaʻi was said as Tauaʻi, the major settlement of Kapaʻa would have been pronounced as Tapaʻa. Kauaʻi's origins are volcanic, the island having been formed by the passage of the Pacific Plate over the Hawaii hotspot. At five million years old, it is the oldest of the main islands; the highest peak on this mountainous island is Kawaikini at 5,243 feet. The second highest peak is Mount Waiʻaleʻale near the center of the island, 5,148 ft above sea level. One of the wettest spots on earth, with an annual average rainfall of 460 inches, is located on the east side of Mount Waiʻaleʻale; the high annual rainfall has eroded deep valleys in the central mountains, carving out canyons with many scenic waterfalls.
On the west side of the island, Waimea town is located at the mouth of the Waimea River, whose flow formed Waimea Canyon, one of the world's most scenic canyons, part of Waimea Canyon State Park. At three thousand feet deep, Waimea Canyon is referred to as "The Grand Canyon of the Pacific". Kokeo Point lies on the south side of the island; the Na Pali Coast is a center for recreation in a wild setting, including kayaking past the beaches, or hiking on the trail along the coastal cliffs. The headland, Kuahonu Point, is on the south-east of the island. Kauaʻi’s climate is tropical, with humid and stable conditions year round, although weather phenomena and infrequent storms have caused instances of extreme weather. At the lower elevations the annual precipitation varies from an average of about 50 inches on the windward shore, to less than 20 inches on the leeward side of the island. Average temperature in Lihu'e, the county seat, ranges from 78 °F in February to 85 °F in August and September. Kauaʻi’s mountainous regions offer cooler temperatures and provide a pleasant contrast to the warm coastal areas.
At the Kōkeʻe state park, 3,200–4,200 ft (980–1
Little people (mythology)
Little people have been part of the folklore of many cultures in human history, including Ireland, the Philippines, the Hawaiian Islands, New Zealand, Flores Island and Native Americans. The Native peoples of North America told legends of a race of "little people" who lived in the woods near sandy hills and sometimes near rocks located along large bodies of water, such as the Great Lakes. Described as "hairy-faced dwarfs" in stories, petroglyph illustrations show them with horns on their head and traveling in a group of 5 to 7 per canoe. Native legends talk of the little people playing pranks on people, such as singing and hiding when an inquisitive person searches for the music, it is said that the little people love children and would take them away from bad or abusive parents or if the child was without parents and left in the woods to fend for themselves. Other legends say the little people if seen by an adult human would beg them not to say anything of their existence and would reward those who kept their word by helping them and their family out in times of need.
From tribe to tribe there are variations of what the little people's mannerisms were like, whether they were good or evil may be different. One of the common beliefs is, they were believed to be gods by some. One North American Native tribe believed; the caves were never entered for fear of disturbing the little people. Legends of physical remains of tiny people being found in various locations in the western United States Montana and Wyoming describe the remains as being found in caves with various details such as descriptions that they were "perfectly formed", dwarf-size, etc. Archeologist Lawrence L. Loendorf notes that "The burials, of course, are always sent to a local university or to the Smithsonian for analysis, only to have both the specimens and research results disappear." Loendorf suggests that the discovery of two mummies of anencephalic infants in the first half of the twentieth century with deformities that caused some people to believe they were adults has "contributed to public belief in the existence of a group of tiny prehistoric people."A graveyard unearthed in the 1830s in Coshocton County, was believed to contain skeletons belonging to a pygmy race.
In fact, the graves were "bone burials" containing bent bones packed together. Chaneque - Aztec Geow-lud-mo-sis-ing Ircinraq - Yup'ik Ishigaq - Inuit Jogahoh - Iroquois Mannegishi - Cree Memegwesi/Memegawensi/Memengweshii/Pa'iins - Anishinaabe Nimerigar - Shoshone Nirumbee or Awwakkulé - Crow Nunnupi - Comanche Pukwudgie - Wampanoag Yehasuri - Catawba Yunwi Tsundi - Cherokee Canotila - Lakota Popo-li or Kowi Anukasha Choctaw The Native American little people have been said to reside in the Pryor Mountains of Montana and Wyoming; the Pryors are famous for strange happenings. Some members of the Crow tribe consider the little people to be sacred ancestors and require leaving an offering for them upon entry to the area. Nunnupi - Comanche Ojibwe myths bring up a creature known as the Memegwaans, or Memegwaanswag, which seems to be different from the more common Little People variation of Memegwesi. According to Basil Johnson, a Memegwaans is a little person without definitive form, terrified of adult humans.
However, it seems to have a soft spot for children and will approach in the guise of a child any young person who seems upset, scared or lonely and either protect them or keep them company until help arrives. If an adult sees one, they will cower on the ground and crying hysterically before vanishing in the blink of an eye, they were known as protectors of copper mines & were prayed to as patron saints of lost children. This is more specific & different from the Memegwesi, simply described as a short, hairy man. Fairies Brownies / Tomte / Tonttu / Domovoi / Kobolds Alfar / Dwarves Di sma undar jordi Gnomes Nimerigar Goblins / Gremlins Laminak Leprechauns Pixies Menehune Trows Pygmies Abatwa Ebu Gogo Ta'ai, or 小黑人 - in the mythology of, or remembered by, the Saisiyat people of Taiwan Patupaiarehe Hobbits / Halflings / Kenders Tcho-Tcho Lilliputian Pygmy peoples Homo floresiensis Dwarfism San Pedro Mountains Mummy Daniels, Cora Linn and Stevens, C. M. Encyclopaedia of Superstitions and the Occult Sciences of the World.
Milwaukee, Wisc.: J. H. Tewdai & Sons, 1903. Frey, Rodney; the World of the Crow Indians: As Driftwood Lodges. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993
The Hawaiian Islands are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles from the island of Hawaiʻi in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll. The group was known to Europeans and Americans as the Sandwich Islands, a name chosen by James Cook in honor of the First Lord of the Admiralty John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich; the contemporary name is derived from the name of Hawaii Island. The U. S. state of Hawaii now occupies the archipelago in its entirety, with the sole exception of Midway Island, which instead separately belongs to the United States as one of its unincorporated territories within the United States Minor Outlying Islands. The Hawaiian Islands are the exposed peaks of a great undersea mountain range known as the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, formed by volcanic activity over a hotspot in the Earth's mantle; the islands are about 1,860 miles from the nearest continent. Captain James Cook visited the islands on January 18, 1778, named them the "Sandwich Islands" in honor of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, one of his sponsors as the First Lord of the Admiralty.
This name was in use until the 1840s, when the local name "Hawaii" began to take precedence. The Hawaiian Islands have a total land area of 6,423.4 square miles. Except for Midway, an unincorporated territory of the United States, these islands and islets are administered as Hawaii—the 50th state of the United States; the eight main islands of Hawaii are listed here. All except Kahoolawe are inhabited. Smaller islands and reefs form the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, or Hawaiian Leeward Islands: Nihoa Necker French Frigate Shoals Gardner Pinnacles Maro Reef Laysan Lisianski Island Pearl and Hermes Atoll Midway Atoll Kure Atoll The state of Hawaii counts 137 "islands" in the Hawaiian chain; this number includes all minor islands and islets, or small islands, offshore of the main islands and individual islets in each atoll. These are just a few: Ford Island Lehua Ka'ula Kaohikaipu Mānana Mōkōlea Rock Nā Mokulua Molokini Mokoliʻi Moku Manu Moku Ola Moku o Loʻe Sand Island Grass Island This chain of islands, or archipelago, developed as the Pacific Plate moved northwestward over a hotspot in the Earth's mantle at a rate of 32 miles per million years.
Thus, the southeast island is volcanically active, whereas the islands on the northwest end of the archipelago are older and smaller, due to longer exposure to erosion. The age of the archipelago has been estimated using potassium-argon dating methods. From this study and others, it is estimated that the northwesternmost island, Kure Atoll, is the oldest at 28 million years; the only active volcanism in the last 200 years has been on the southeastern island, Hawaiʻi, on the submerged but growing volcano to the extreme southeast, Loʻihi. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory of the USGS documents recent volcanic activity and provides images and interpretations of the volcanism. Kīlauea has been erupting nearly continuously since 1983. All of the magma of the hotspot has the composition of basalt, so the Hawaiian volcanoes are composed entirely of this igneous rock. There is little coarser-grained gabbro and diabase. Nephelinite is exposed on the islands but is rare; the majority of eruptions in Hawaiʻi are Hawaiian-type eruptions because basaltic magma is fluid compared with magmas involved in more explosive eruptions, such as the andesitic magmas that produce some of the spectacular and dangerous eruptions around the margins of the Pacific basin.
Hawaiʻi island is the youngest island in the chain, built from five volcanoes. Mauna Loa, taking up over half of the Big Island, is the largest shield volcano on the Earth; the measurement from sea level to summit is more than 2.5 miles, from sea level to sea floor about 3.1 miles.. The Hawaiian Islands have many earthquakes caused by volcanic activity. Most of the early earthquake monitoring took place in Hilo, by missionaries Titus Coan, Sarah J. Lyman and her family. From 1833 to 1896 4 or 5 earthquakes were reported per year. Hawaii accounted for 7.3% of the United States' reported earthquakes with a magnitude 3.5 or greater from 1974 to 2003, with a total 1533 earthquakes. Hawaii ranked as the state with the third most earthquakes over this time period, after Alaska and California. On October 15, 2006, there was an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.7 off the northwest coast of the island of Hawaii, near the Kona area of the big island. The initial earthquake was followed five minutes by a magnitude 5.7 aftershock.
Minor-to-moderate damage was reported on most of the Big Island. Several major roadways became impassable from rock slides, effects were felt as far away as Honolulu, nearly 150 miles from the epicenter. Power outages lasted for several hours to days. Several water mains ruptured. No deaths or life-threatening injuries were reported. On May 4, 2018 there was a 6.9 earthquake in the zone of volcanic activity from Kīlauea. Earthquakes are monitored by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory run by the USGS; the Hawaiian Islands are subjec