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Menggu Ziyun

Menggu Ziyun is a 14th-century rime dictionary of Chinese as written in the'Phags-pa script, used during the Yuan dynasty. The only surviving examplar of this dictionary is an 18th-century manuscript copy that belonged to Stephen Wootton Bushell, is now held at the British Library; as the only known example of a'Phags-pa script dictionary of Chinese, it is important both as an aid for interpreting Yuan dynasty texts and inscriptions written in Chinese using the'Phags-pa script, as a source for the reconstructed pronunciation of Old Mandarin. The British Library manuscript was acquired by the antiquarian and art historian S. W. Bushell when he worked as a physician at the British Legation in Beijing, China from 1868 to 1900 in 1872 during a trip to Inner Mongolia and the ruins of Shangdu, the fabled summer capital of the Yuan emperors known as "Xanadu" in English. In April 1909, a year after his death, Bushell's widow, Florence Bushell, sold the manuscript to the British Museum in London, it is now held by the British Library.

The manuscript is written on thin, brown paper, mounted on white backing paper and bound in two traditional stitched volumes, each 24.7 × 17.3 cm. Each folio of the manuscript is 22.5 × 28.8 cm in size, folded in half as is normal in stitch-bound volumes. The text is written in vertical columns running from left to right across the page, the opposite of traditional Chinese books, but follows the layout of Mongolian script and'Phags-pa texts; the first volume comprises an unnumbered title folio and 33 numbered folios, the second volume comprises an unnumbered title folio and 31 numbered folios, of which page 30b and 31a are blank except for the volume and page numbers. The missing section covers the rimes in -a and -e, as well as the first part of the appended Taboo Characters section, which Junast and Yang Naisi have calculated should take up three full folios; the manuscript does not indicate when and by whom it was copied, there are no ownership seals. However, on the basis of tabooed characters of Qing dynasty emperors, the manuscript has been dated to the Qianlong era.

The manuscript may be a second or third hand copy of an original Yuan dynasty edition, made by someone who did not understand the'Phags-pa script, so the'Phags-pa letters are poorly written or corrupted, there are many transcription errors such as missing and incorrectly written Chinese characters. Based on its format, the British Library manuscript of Menggu Ziyun is thought to be a copy of an earlier printed edition. Although no extant printed editions are known, one mid 19th century writer, Luo Yizhi 羅以智, mentions that he had seen a Yuan dynasty printed edition of the dictionary. Other Qing dynasty writers mention having seen manuscript copies of the text, but the British Library manuscript is now the only known copy; the British Library manuscript includes two prefaces in Chinese dated 1308, one by Liu Geng 劉更 and one by Zhu Zongwen 朱宗文 of Xin'an 信安. The prefaces both indicate that this edition of the dictionary was composed by Zhu Zongwen, but that it is a revised edition based on a collation of several editions that were in circulation at the time, including one edition published in Hubei and one edition published in Eastern Zhejiang.

The original'Phags-pa dictionary, ancestral to the 1308 edition was compiled by imperial order soon after the'Phags-pa script was devised in about 1269, intended for use in teaching the new script to Chinese officials. Two late 13th century books which may be related to Menggu Ziyun are recorded in Yuan dynasty sources, one called Měnggǔ Yùnlüè 蒙古韻略 and one called Měnggǔ Yùnlèi 蒙古韻類, compiled by Li Hongdao 李宏道. Although neither work is extant, it has been conjectured that they could be primary sources used by Zhu Zongwen in compiling his edition, or even earlier editions of Menggu Ziyun published under a different title. A preface for Měnggǔ Yùnlèi that has survived, it indicates that it used a system of 15 rime classes and 32 initials, similar to the system used in Menggu Ziyun; the book is written in Chinese using a mixture of Chinese characters and'Phags-pa transcription, with section titles and rime class headings given in both scripts. Only the two prefaces and the appended list of taboo characters are written in Chinese characters.

The title of the book in'Phags-pa script is anomalous in that it does not transcribe the corresponding Chinese characters as mong xol is not a transcription of the Chinese characters 蒙古, but is a direct phonetic representation of the Mongolian word ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ mongɣol'Mongol'. The book comprises the following sections: Preface in Chinese written by Liu Geng 劉更 and dated 1308 Preface in Chinese written by Zhu Zongwen 朱宗文 and dated 1308 Table of errors in earlier editions of Menggu Ziyun that are corrected in this edition Diagram illustrating the pronunciation of'Phags-pa letters Table of the thirty-six initial sounds of Chinese in the'Phags-pa script Table of seal script forms of'Phags-pa letters Table of the fifteen Chinese rime classes under which the entries are ordered The main text of the dictionary Appendix listing taboo characters, derived from the Decrees and Regulations of Yuan dynasty The main text comprises 813 entries ordered by rime class and initial sound. Three folios coveri

Army of Northern Virginia

The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. It was the primary command structure of the Department of Northern Virginia, it was most arrayed against the Union Army of the Potomac. The name Army of Northern Virginia referred to its primary area of operation, as did most Confederate States Army names; the Army originated as the Army of the Potomac, organized on June 20, 1861, from all operational forces in northern Virginia. On July 20 and July 21, the Army of the Shenandoah and forces from the District of Harpers Ferry were added. Units from the Army of the Northwest were merged into the Army of the Potomac between March 14 and May 17, 1862; the Army of the Potomac was renamed Army of Northern Virginia on March 14. The Army of the Peninsula was merged into it on April 12, 1862. Robert E. Lee's biographer, Douglas S. Freeman, asserts that the army received its final name from Lee when he issued orders assuming command on June 1, 1862.

However, Freeman does admit that Lee corresponded with Joseph E. Johnston, his predecessor in army command, prior to that date and referred to Johnston's command as the Army of Northern Virginia. Part of the confusion results from the fact that Johnston commanded the Department of Northern Virginia and the name Army of Northern Virginia can be seen as an informal consequence of its parent department's name. Jefferson Davis and Johnston did not adopt the name, but it is clear that the organization of units as of March 14 was the same organization that Lee received on June 1, thus it is referred to today as the Army of Northern Virginia if, correct only in retrospect. In addition to Virginians, it included regiments from all over the Confederacy, some from as far away as Georgia and Arkansas. One of the most well known was the Texas Brigade, made up of the 1st, 4th, 5th Texas, the 3rd Arkansas, which distinguished themselves in numerous battles, such as during their fight for the Devil's Den at the Battle of Gettysburg.

The first commander of the Army of Northern Virginia was General P. G. T. Beauregard from June 20 to July 20, 1861, his forces consisted of six brigades, with various militia and artillery from the former Department of Alexandria. During his command, Gen. Beauregard is noted for creating the battle flag of the army, which came to be the primary battle flag for all corps and forces under the Army of Northern Virginia; the flag was designed due to confusion during battle between the Confederate "Stars and Bars" flag and the flag of the United States. Beauregard continued commanding these troops as the new First Corps under Gen. J. E. Johnston as it was joined by the Army of the Shenandoah on July 20, 1861, when command was relinquished to General J. E. Johnston; the following day this army fought its first major engagement in the First Battle of Manassas. With the merging of the Army of the Shenandoah, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston took command from July 20, 1861, until May 31, 1862. First Corps – commanded by General P.

G. T. Beauregard Second Corps – commanded by Maj. Gen. G. W. Smith Left Wing – commanded by Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill Center Wing – commanded by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet Right Wing – commanded by Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder Reserve – commanded by Maj. Gen. G. W. SmithUnder the command of Johnston, the Army entered into the First Battle of Manassas. On October 22, 1861, the Department of Northern Virginia was created ending the Army of the Potomac; the Department comprised three districts: Aquia District, Potomac District, the Valley District. In April 1862, the Department was expanded to include the Departments of the Peninsula. Gen. Johnston was forced into maneuvering the Army southward to the defenses of Richmond during the opening of the Peninsula Campaign, where it conducted delay and defend tactics until Johnston was wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines. During the months after the First Battle of Bull Run, Johnston organized his Shenandoah Army and Beauregard's Potomac Army into two divisions under a unified command with Gustavus Smith and James Longstreet as division commanders.

Beauregard quarreled with Johnston and was transferred to the Western theater over the winter months. Jackson was sent to the Shenandoah Valley in October 1861 with his own old Stonewall Brigade and with two other brigades from Western Virginia. Several newly arrived brigades were added to Johnston's army in late 1861-early 1862; when the Peninsula Campaign began, Johnston took his army down to the Richmond environs where it was merged with several smaller Confederate commands, including a division led by D. H. Hill as well as Benjamin Huger's Department of Norfolk, John Magruder's Army of the Peninsula, miscellaneous brigades and regiments pulled from various Southern states. Richard Ewell was elevated to division command in the spring of 1862 and sent to join Jackson in the Valley. On May 27, an additional new division was created and led by A. P. Hill consisting of several new brigades from the Carolinas and Virginia, soon augmented with James Archer's brigade from Smith's division. At Seven Pines and Smith served as temporary wing commanders, operational control of their divisions went to Brig.

Gen William H. C. Whiting and Brig. Gen Richard H. Anderson. Maj. Gen. Gustavus Woodson Smith commanded the ANV on May 31, 1862, following the wounding of Gen. J. E. Johnston during the Battle of Seven Pines. With Smith having a nervous breakdown, President Jefferson Davis drafted orders to place Gen. Robert E. Lee in command the following day. On June 1, 1862, its

Sunstar Group

Sunstar is a Japanese global oral care and beauty, motorcycle parts conglomerate with affiliates in 27 countries. Its main businesses are the development and sale of oral care products as well as of chemicals and motorcycle parts. In recent years it has been expanding into the area of Health Food. Sunstar's founder, Kunio Kaneda, established the Kaneda Keitai Shokai Company in Osaka, Japan in 1932 as a seller of rubber glue for bicycles; the introduction of metal tubes for packaging of the rubber glue - and also toothpastes formed the basis for the early success of the business. The company since has developed into the leading oral care business in Japan with a significant international presence; the engineering business has a leading position for several of its products in Japan and other markets. Group sales exceeded one billion United States dollars for the first time in the 1990s and are now at the level of 1.4 billion US dollars per year. After having been listed on the Osaka Securities Exchange since 1961, Sunstar undertook a management and employee buyout of all shares in 2007.

The ownership of Sunstar Japan and the other group companies of the Consumer Goods Business was transferred to Switzerland and the Engineering business to Singapore, in an effort to accelerate globalization. Kunio Kaneda founded Kaneda Keitei Shokai in 1932 and began the manufacture and sale of rubber glue for bicycles. Applying the manufacturing technology used in pouring rubber glue into metal-tube containers, the company expanded by packaging toothpaste into metal tube containers in 1946, when mainstream dentifrices were still in powder form; this was the company's first toothpaste, which formed its core business. This business grew and led to Sunstar's Oral Care and Health & Beauty businesses, which today emphasize the promotion of oral and whole body health; the company's name, "Sunstar", was derived from the idea of tooth brushing in the morning at sunrise and again at night under starlight. Meanwhile, the businesses of rubber glue and parts for bicycles developed into a synthetic, chemical adhesive and sealant business for automobile production and construction applications, as well as for motorcycle disc parts such as sprockets and brakes, namely its vehicle equipment division.

Sunstar continues to promote its further development of businesses in these four fields, after experiencing the following historical milestones: 1933 – founder Kunio Kaneda established the Kaneda Brother's Company in Osaka 1946 – Started production of metal tubes and founded Kaneda Light Metal Tube Industries 1946 – Started developing and manufacturing its first toothpaste 1946 - Engaged in production of bicycle parts 1948 – Started collaboration with Shionogi to sell medical toothpaste 1950 - Four predecessor companies merged to establish Sunstar, Inc. 1952 – Started production of toothbrushes 1953 – Formation of Sunstar Engineering Co. Ltd. 1955 – Formation of Sunstar Group to organize sales dealerships in Japan 1958 - Current main Japanese plant and laboratories completed in Takatsuki, Osaka 1961 - Listed on Osaka Securities Exchange 1977 - Establishment of Sunstar Foundation 1988 - Acquisition of US dental tooth brush manufacturer, J. O. Butler, Inc. 2007 – Started transfer of head office functions to Switzerland and privatized ownership by management and employee share buyout 2009 - Completed and set up headquarters building in Switzerland 2011 – Acquired Interbros GmbH 2011 – Acquired Degradable Solutions AG Oral Care: G・U・M, BUTLER, Ora2 the John O. Butler Company, founded in 1923 and purchased by Sunstar in 1988 Health & Beauty: EQUITANCE, SUNSTAR TONIC, KENKODOJO Adhesives, Chemicals: PENGUINSEAL, Star Penguin Vehicle Safety: BRAKING, SUNSTAR, PENGUINSEAL, ibike Sunstar Singapore Pte. Ltd.

Sunstar Inc. Sunstar Marketing Inc. Sunstar Engineering, Inc. Sunstar Guangzhou, Ltd. Sunstar Co. Ltd. Maple Marketing Ltd. STARLECS, Inc. Sunstar S. A. Sunstar Suisse S. A. Sunstar Europe S. A. Degradable Solutions AG Sunstar Netherlands Oral Company Sunstar France S. A. S. Sunstar Italiana S.r.l. Sunstar Engineering Italy S.r.l. Sunstar Iberia S. L. U. Sunstar Sverige AB Sunstar Deutschland GmbH Sunstar Interbros GmbH Sunstar Engineering Americas Inc. Sunstar Americas, Inc. Sunstar Americas, México Sunstar Pharmaceutical, Inc. Official website